10-K 1 d255156d10k.htm FORM 10-K Form 10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

FOR ANNUAL AND TRANSITION REPORTS

PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 13 OR 15(d) OF THE

SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

(Mark One)

 

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011

OR

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to        

Commission File Number 0-24429

 

 

COGNIZANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORPORATION

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   13-3728359

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

Glenpointe Centre West, 500 Frank W. Burr Blvd.,

Teaneck, New Jersey

  07666
(Address of Principal Offices)   (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (201) 801-0233

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Preferred Share Purchase Rights

(Title of Class)

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    x  Yes    ¨  No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    ¨  Yes    x  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    x  Yes    ¨  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    x  Yes    ¨  No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer   x    Accelerated filer   ¨
Non-accelerated filer   ¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company   ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    ¨  Yes    x  No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting shares of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2011, based on $73.34 per share, the last reported sale price on the NASDAQ Global Select Market of the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC on that date, was $22,176,120,528.

The number of shares of Class A common stock, $0.01 par value, of the registrant outstanding as of February 17, 2012 was 303,376,134 shares.

 

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The following documents are incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K: Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Item    Page  

PART I

     1   
   1.       Business      1   
   1A.    Risk Factors      19   
   1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments      39   
   2.       Properties      40   
   3.       Legal Proceedings      40   
   4.       Mine Safety Disclosures      40   

PART II

     41   
   5.      

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

     41   
   6.       Selected Financial Data      45   
   7.      

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     46   
   7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk      65   
   8.       Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      66   
   9.      

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

     66   
   9A.    Controls and Procedures      66   
   9B.     Other Information      67   

PART III

     68   
   10.     Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance      68   
   11.     Executive Compensation      68   
   12.    

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

     68   
   13.     Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence      68   
   14.     Principal Accountant Fees and Services      68   

PART IV

     69   
   15.     Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules      69   

SIGNATURES

     70   

EXHIBIT INDEX

     71   

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE

     F-1   

 

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PART I

 

Item 1. Business

Overview

We are a leading provider of custom information technology, consulting and business process outsourcing services. Our customers are primarily Global 2000 companies. Our core competencies include Technology Strategy Consulting, Complex Systems Development and Integration, Enterprise Software Package Implementation and Maintenance, Data Warehousing, Business Intelligence and Analytics, Application Testing, Application Maintenance, Infrastructure Management, and Business and Knowledge Process Outsourcing, or BPO and KPO. We tailor our services to specific industries, and utilize an integrated global delivery model. This seamless global sourcing model combines technical and account management teams located on-site at the customer location and at dedicated near-shore and offshore development and delivery centers located primarily in India, China, the United States, Canada, Argentina, Hungary and the Philippines.

Industry Background

Many companies today face intense competitive pressure and rapidly changing market dynamics, driven by such factors as changes in the economy, government regulations, globalization, virtualization and other technology innovations. In response to these challenges, many companies are focused on improving efficiencies, enhancing effectiveness and driving innovation to favorably impact both the bottom-line and the top-line. In order to achieve these goals, companies are focusing on a number of services, such as:

 

   

Business and Information Technology, or IT, alignment;

 

   

IT application and infrastructure optimization;

 

   

Business and Knowledge Process effectiveness and efficiency;

 

   

Complex custom systems development;

 

   

Data Warehousing, Business Intelligence, or BI and Analytics;

 

   

Enterprise Resource Planning, or ERP;

 

   

Customer Relationship Management, or CRM;

 

   

Supply Chain Management;

 

   

Enterprise 2.0 business models and technology solutions;

 

   

Service-Oriented Architectures, Web 2.0 and Cloud Computing; and

 

   

Engineering and Manufacturing solutions.

These solutions facilitate faster, more responsive and lower-cost business operations. However, their development, integration and on-going maintenance present major challenges and require a large number of highly-skilled professionals trained in many diverse technologies and specialized industries. In addition, companies also require additional technical resources to maintain, enhance and re-engineer their core legacy IT systems and to address application maintenance projects. Increasingly, companies are relying on custom IT solutions providers, such as us, to provide these services.

Additionally, in order to respond effectively to a changing and challenging business environment, IT departments of many companies have focused increasingly on improving returns on IT investments, lowering costs and accelerating the delivery of new systems and solutions. To accomplish these objectives, many IT departments have shifted all or a portion of their IT development, integration and maintenance requirements to outside service providers operating with global delivery models.

 

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Global demand for high quality, lower cost IT services from outside providers has created a significant opportunity for IT service providers that can successfully leverage the benefits of, and address the challenges in using, a global talent pool. The effective use of personnel from across the globe can offer a variety of benefits, including lower costs, faster delivery of new IT solutions and innovations in vertical solutions, processes and technologies. Certain countries, particularly India, the Philippines, Singapore and China, have large talent pools of highly qualified technical professionals who can provide high quality IT and business and knowledge process outsourcing services at a lower cost. India is a leader in IT services, and is regarded as having one of the largest and highest quality pools of talent in the world. Historically, IT service providers have used offshore labor pools primarily to supplement the internal staffing needs of customers. However, evolving customer demands have led to the increasing acceptance and use of offshore resources for higher value-added services. These services include application design, development, testing, integration and maintenance, as well as technology consulting and infrastructure management. India’s services and software exports continue to see significant growth. NASSCOM (India’s National Association of Software and Service Companies) reports indicate that India’s IT software and services and business process outsourcing sectors are expected to exceed $87 billion at the end of NASSCOM’s fiscal year 2012. This is an expected growth rate of approximately 15% over the prior fiscal year. According to the latest NASSCOM “Perspective 2020: Transform Business, Transform India” report, global changes and new megatrends within economic, demographic, business, social and environmental areas are set to expand the outsourcing industry by creating new dynamics and opportunities, and are expected to result in export revenues of approximately $175 billion by 2020.

Using a globally distributed workforce to provide value-added services presents a number of challenges to IT services and BPO/KPO providers. The offshore implementation of value-added IT services requires that IT service providers continually and effectively attract, train and retain highly-skilled software development professionals with advanced technical and industry skills necessary to keep pace with continuing changes in information technology, evolving industry standards and changing customer preferences. These skills are necessary to design, develop and deploy high-quality technology solutions in a cost-effective and timely manner. In addition, IT service providers must have the methodologies, processes and communications capabilities to enable offshore workforces to be successfully integrated with on-site personnel. Service providers must also have strong research and development capabilities, technology competency centers and relationship management skills in order to compete effectively.

The Cognizant Approach

Our business is organized and managed primarily around our four vertically-oriented business segments:

 

   

Financial Services;

 

   

Healthcare;

 

   

Manufacturing, Retail and Logistics; and

 

   

Other, which includes Communications, Information, Media and Entertainment, and High Technology.

This vertical focus has been central to our revenue growth and high customer satisfaction. As the IT services industry continues to mature, clients are looking for service providers who understand their businesses, industry initiatives, cultures and have solutions tailored to meet their individual business needs. We continue to hire experts out of industry, establish a broad base of business analysts and consultants, invest in industry training for our staff, and build out industry-specific services and solutions. This approach is central to our high-levels of on-time delivery and customer satisfaction, as we understand the full context of our clients’ challenges and have deep experience in addressing them.

 

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Our key service areas, IT Consulting and Technology Services and Outsourcing Services are delivered to our clients across our four business segments in a standardized, high-quality manner through a global delivery model. These service areas include:

 

   

IT Consulting and Technology Services

 

   

Business and Knowledge Process Consulting;

 

   

IT Strategy Consulting;

 

   

Program Management Consulting;

 

   

Technology Consulting;

 

   

Application Design, Development, Integration and Re-engineering, such as:

 

   

Complex Custom Systems Development;

 

   

Data Warehousing / Business Intelligence, or BI;

 

   

Customer Relationship Management, or CRM, System implementation; and

 

   

Enterprise Resource Planning, or ERP, System implementation; and

 

   

Software Testing Services.

 

   

Outsourcing Services

 

   

Application Maintenance, such as:

 

   

Custom Application Maintenance; and

 

   

CRM and ERP Maintenance;

 

   

IT Infrastructure Outsourcing; and

 

   

Business and Knowledge Process Outsourcing, or BPO and KPO.

Business Segments

We are organized around our four vertically–oriented business segments, and we report the operations of our business as follows:

 

Financial Services

  

Healthcare

  

Manufacturing/Retail/Logistics

  

Other

Banking

Insurance

  

Healthcare

Life Sciences

  

Manufacturing and Logistics

Retail, Travel and Hospitality

Consumer Goods

  

Communications

Information, Media and

Entertainment

High Technology

Financial Services

In 2011, our Financial Services business segment represented approximately 41.1% of our total revenues. Revenues from our Financial Services business segment were $2,518.4 million, $1,944.5 million, and $1,406.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. This business segment provides services to our customers operating in the following industries:

 

   

Banking. We focus on traditional retail and commercial banks, and diversified financial enterprises. We assist these clients in such areas as: Consumer Lending, Cards and Payments, Wholesale Banking, Risk Management, Investment Banking and Brokerage, Asset and Wealth Management, Corporate Services and Retail Banking. We also focus on the needs of broker / dealers, asset management firms, depositories, clearing organizations and exchanges. Key areas where we help these clients in both driving efficiencies and establishing new capabilities include: Front Office, Middle Office, Back Office, Sales and Brokerage, Research, Exchange Operations and Prime Brokerage solutions.

 

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Insurance. We assist with the needs of property and casualty insurers, life insurers, reinsurance firms and insurance brokers. We focus on such areas as: Business Acquisition, Policy Administration, Claims Processing, Management Reporting, Regulatory Compliance and Reinsurance.

Healthcare

In 2011, our Healthcare business segment represented approximately 26.5% of our total revenues. Revenues from our Healthcare business segment were $1,622.2 million, $1,177.1 million, and $860.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. This business segment provides services to our customers operating in the following industries:

 

   

Healthcare. We work with many leading healthcare organizations, including leading healthcare organizations in the United States. Our Healthcare service teams focus on the following key industry solutions: Broker Compensation, Sales and Underwriting Systems, Provider Management, Plan Sponsor Administration, Electronic Enrollment, Membership, Billing, Claims Processing, Medical Management and Pharmacy Benefit Management. We are also partnering with our customers to enable their IT systems to deal with initiatives such as self service portals (member / provider / broker), consumer-driven healthcare, behavioral health, regulatory compliance, Medicare Modernization Act, or MMA, and healthcare data warehousing and analytics.

 

   

Life Sciences. We partner with the leading organizations in the Life Sciences industry to assist them with the opportunities and challenges of their rapidly evolving market. We work with many of the world’s leading pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and medical device companies. We are assisting these companies in dealing with such challenges as: Consolidation, Data Integration, Time to Market, Safety, Globalization and Regulations. Some of our Life Sciences solutions include: Prescriber Behavior Analysis and Insight, Longitudinal Prescription Data Management Systems, Sales Force Compensation Systems, Sales Data and Claims Data Management Systems, Clinical Trial Solutions, 21CFR11 Assessment and Computer Systems Validation, Data Mining and Business Intelligence Solutions, e-Business and Data Portals, and ERP implementation, upgrade, and maintenance services.

Manufacturing/Retail/Logistics

In 2011, our Manufacturing, Retail and Logistics business segment represented approximately 19.6% of our total revenues. Revenues from our Manufacturing/Retail/Logistics business segment were $1,197.5 million, $849.6 million, and $564.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. This business segment services customers in the following industry groups:

 

   

Manufacturing and Logistics. We help organizations improve operational efficiencies, enhance responsiveness and collaborate with trading partners to better serve their end customers. We leverage a comprehensive understanding of the business and technology drivers of the industry. Some of our Manufacturing and Logistics solutions include: Supply Chain Management, Warehouse and Yard Management, Waste Management, Transportation Management, Optimization, Portals and ERP solutions.

 

   

Retail, Travel and Hospitality. We serve a wide spectrum of retailers and distributors, including supermarkets, specialty premium retailers, department stores and large mass-merchandise discounters. We deliver the best of both worlds: in-depth experience with retailing applications and a strong enterprise architecture foundation. We also serve the entire travel and hospitality industry including airlines, hotels and restaurants, as well as online and retail travel, global distribution systems and intermediaries and real estate companies. Several of the services we provide for retail and hospitality customers are as follows:

 

   

Upgrade supply chain systems, ranging from order management to category and space management, warehouse management, logistics management, pricing and promotions, and merchandising management;

 

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Implement new point of sale solutions that embrace new international standards and provide new flexibility for supporting new merchandising initiatives;

 

   

Implement point solutions developed by our Retail Center of Excellence. The Center of Excellence has built solution accelerators and defined implementation methodologies for multi-channel integration, and for Point of Sale systems migration;

 

   

Accelerate the implementation of enterprise and customer relationship management;

 

   

Improve business intelligence effectiveness;

 

   

We leverage our experience in a number of key functional areas such as loyalty programs, technical operations, and inventory distribution, channel management, brand portal development, outlet service desk and store accounting;

 

   

Our technical and functional consultants provide in-depth knowledge of industry applications and standards; and

 

   

We also provide BPO services to restaurants, hotels and airlines.

 

   

Consumer Goods. We work with the world’s premier consumer goods manufacturers, creating innovative solutions and strategies that keep them price-competitive, category-leading and consumer-savvy. Our expertise spans a wide gamut, from demand-driven supply chains, to revenue-creating trade promotion management systems, to analytics systems and mobility solutions that anticipate and serve ever-changing customer needs.

Other

In 2011, our Other business segment represented approximately 12.8% of our total revenues. Revenues from our Other business segment were $783.1 million, $621.2 million, and $446.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, respectively. The Other business segment is an aggregation of operating segments which, individually, are less than 10.0% of consolidated revenues and segment operating profit. The Other business segment includes Communications, Information, Media and Entertainment, and High Technology operating segments. A description of operating segments included in Other is as follows:

 

   

Communications. Our Communications industry practice serves some of the world’s leading communications service providers, equipment vendors and software vendors. We have several industry-specific solutions, including: Operational Support Systems/Business Support Systems, or OSS/BSS, Implementation, Network Management Services, Mobile Applications, Conformance Testing, Product Lifecycle Management, Product Implementation, Portals, Business Activity Monitoring, Mobile Systems Integration, Broadband Evolution Services and Billing Quality Assurance.

 

   

Information, Media and Entertainment. We have an extensive track record of working with some of the world’s largest media and entertainment companies. With the emergence of digital technologies promising to revolutionize the business, we offer consulting and outsourcing services to help media and entertainment companies concentrate on their end product. Some of our solutions include:

 

   

Supply chain management solutions, from pre-press to material procurement, circulation, logistics, and vendor management;

 

   

Business solutions covering advertising management, online media, and e-business;

 

   

Workflow automation covering the product development process for broadcasters;

 

   

Spot ad buying systems covering agency of record, traffic management, post-buy analysis, and financial management;

 

   

Digital Asset Management, or DAM and Digital Rights Management, or DRM; and

 

   

Operational systems including ad sales, studio management, outsourcing billing and payments, along with content management and delivery.

 

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High Technology. We serve some of the world’s leading Independent Software Vendors, or ISVs, and Online Service Providers. We believe that the needs of technology companies are different—more technically complex, challenging and advanced than what is typically found in other industries. Catering to these needs, our High Technology practice assists with the unique needs of these clients in areas such as: Product Development, Product Sustenance, Compatibility Testing, Internationalization, Product Re-engineering, Multiple Channel Extension, Security Testing and Content Management.

Our Solution and Services

We believe that we have developed an effective integrated global delivery business model and this business model is expected to be a critical element of our continued growth. To support this business model, at December 31, 2011, we employed approximately 137,700 professionals and support staff globally. We also have established facilities and technology and communication infrastructures to support our business model.

Across each of our business segments, we provide a broad and expanding range of consulting, information technology and outsourcing services, including:

Consulting and Technology Services

 

   

IT Consulting. Our consulting division, Cognizant Business Consulting, focuses on helping clients derive greater value at the intersection of their business initiatives and IT requirements. Our consulting offerings are based on rigorous and proven methodologies and scientifically driven frameworks. In the areas of business processes, technologies and offshoring, we analyze the existing environment, identify opportunities for optimization and provide a robust roadmap for significant cost savings and productivity improvement. The broad areas of coverage include: offshoring strategy, IT strategy, technology rationalization, business process rationalization, change management and IT solution strategy.

 

   

Program Management Consulting. We provide a broad range of project delivery services, including post-acquisition integration, business and IT integration, business transformation, product/service launch and organization relocation services.

 

   

Application Design, Development, Integration and Re-engineering. We define customer requirements, write specifications and design, develop, test and integrate software across multiple platforms including Internet technologies. We modify and test applications to enable systems to function in new operating environments. In addition, these services include Data Warehousing / Business Intelligence, ERP and CRM implementation services. We follow either one of two alternative approaches to application development and integration:

 

   

full life-cycle application development, in which we assume start-to-finish responsibility for analysis, design, implementation, testing and integration of systems; or

 

   

cooperative development, in which our employees work with a customer’s in-house IT personnel to jointly analyze, design, implement, test and integrate new systems.

In both of these approaches, our on-site team members work closely and collaboratively with our clients. Detailed design, implementation and testing are generally performed at dedicated near-shore and offshore development and delivery centers located primarily in India, China, the United States, Canada, Argentina, Hungary and the Philippines. In addition, we maintain an on-site presence at each customer location in order to address evolving customer needs and resulting changes to the project.

A key part of our application development and integration offering is a suite of services to help organizations build and integrate business applications with the rest of their operations. In this suite of services, we leverage our skills in business application development and enterprise application integration to build sophisticated business applications and to integrate these new applications and

 

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websites with client server and legacy systems. We build and deploy robust, scalable and extensible architectures for use in a wide range of industries. We maintain competency centers specializing in various areas such as: Microsoft solutions; IBM, SAP, Oracle and JAVA applications; and Cloud Computing and Mobile solutions. These competency centers enable us to provide application development and integration services to a broad spectrum of customers.

Our re-engineering service offerings assist customers migrating from systems based on legacy computing environments to newer standards-based distribution architectures, often in response to the more stringent demands of business. Our re-engineering tools automate many of the processes required to implement advanced technology platforms. We believe that this automation substantially reduces the time and cost to perform re-engineering services, savings that benefit both our customers and us. These tools also enable us to perform source code analysis and to re-design target databases and convert certain programming languages. If necessary, our programmers also help customers re-design and convert user interfaces.

 

   

Software Testing. Our Software Testing service offering has experienced significant growth in the past several years. Through this practice, we provide an independent verification and validation service focused exclusively on supporting the software testing needs of our clients. Our testing service has four key offerings: 1) Independent Functional Testing; 2) Test Automation; 3) Test Process Consulting; and 4) Performance Testing. We utilize our own Managed Test Center process model to ensure our clients receive the highest quality code possible after it has been tested by us. We focus our Managed Test Centers on specific domains (e.g., specific industries and software solutions), ensuring we tailor our testing solutions to the particular needs of our clients.

Outsourcing Services

 

   

Application Maintenance. Our Application Maintenance Service offering supports some or all of a customer’s applications ensuring that systems remain operational and responsive to changing user requirements and provide on-going enhancements as required by the customer.

We provide services to help ensure that a customer’s core operational systems are free of defects and responsive to the customer’s changing needs. As part of this process, we are often able to introduce product and process enhancements and improve service levels to customers requesting modifications and on-going support.

Our global delivery business model enables us to provide a range of rapid response and cost-effective support services to our customers. Our on-site team members often provide help-desk services at the customer’s facility. These team members typically are available in the event of an emergency service request and are able to quickly resolve customer problems from remote locations. In the case of more complex maintenance services, including modifications, enhancements and documentation, which typically have longer turnaround times, we take full advantage of our offshore resources to develop solutions more cost-effectively than would be possible relying on higher cost local professionals. The services provided by our offshore team members are delivered to customers using satellite and fiber-optic communications.

As part of our Application Maintenance services, we assist customers in renovating their core systems to meet the requirements imposed by new regulations, new standards or other external events. These services include, or have previously included, Year 2000 compliance, Eurocurrency compliance, decimalization within the securities industry and compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act for the healthcare industry.

We seek to anticipate the operational environment of our customers’ IT systems as we design and develop such systems. We also offer diagnostic services to customers to assist them in identifying shortcomings in their IT systems and optimizing the performance of their systems.

 

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IT Infrastructure Services. We provide IT Infrastructure Management Outsourcing services and we anticipate growing demand for these services in the coming years. We provide service capability in redundant Network Operating Centers, or NOCs, in North America and India through which we are able to provide significant scale, quality and cost savings to our clients in IT Infrastructure Services. We focus on a number of key areas of infrastructure management such as: Networks, Servers, Middleware, Security, Vendors, Storage, Messaging, Databases, and Desktops. We can provide these through an IT Service Desk model, focusing on such areas as IT Operations and IT Help Desk.

 

   

Business and Knowledge Process Outsourcing, or BPO and KPO. We provide BPO and KPO services to our clients across industries of our specialization. At Cognizant, we are primarily focused on value-added processes that are specific to clients in our key industry segments (particularly in Financial Services, Healthcare and Manufacturing / Retail / Logistics and Communications). Our BPO/KPO practice focuses on core back office services covering: Transaction Processing, Accounting Operations, Voice Processes, Data Administration, Data Management and Data Analytics.

In addition to our industry-specific expertise and focus, our strengths, which we believe differentiate us from other IT service providers, include the following:

Established and Scalable Proprietary Processes: We have a comprehensive process framework that addresses the entire software engineering life cycle and support activities which are scalable for projects of different sizes and complexities. This proprietary framework, which we refer to as “Process Space” (part of Cognizant 2.0), is supported by in-house project management, metrics management and workflow tools and is available to all of our programmers globally. Process Space has evolved since its original release in 1996 in breadth, depth and maturity, based on the implementation feedback from projects and findings of internal quality audits and external assessments. Process capabilities are monitored at the sub-process level and performance targets are monitored at the process level, which are aligned with the overall business objectives. Statistical process controls are used extensively to continuously monitor, predict and improve performance. Our Delivery Assurance group facilitates process implementation from the project inception and audits the projects periodically to ensure that the implementation is effective and the risks are being managed.

Our process framework complies with the requirements of ISO 9001, TL 9000 for Telecom projects, and ISO 20000 for Infrastructure projects. Our delivery processes, support processes and their implementation are formally certified by Det Norske Veritas, or DNV, in the above mentioned standards. KPMG appraises our enterprise-wide operations to be at Capability Maturity Model Integration, or CMMI, at a Level 5, which is the highest possible maturity level rating, of the CMMI v1.2, of the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Our BPO service offering is assessed at eSCM Maturity Level 4 which is the highest possible rating for the first attempt of the e-Sourcing Capability Model of IT Services Qualification Center at Carnegie Mellon University. Finally, all of our principal development centers have been certified by the STQC Directorate Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India (the accreditation authority for companies in India) under the internationally recognized ISO 27001 (previously BS 7799-2) Information Security Standards, a comprehensive set of controls comprising best practices in information security and business continuity planning. We have implemented the above process framework enterprise-wide to ensure that we consistently deliver high quality of products and services to our clients from all global operations. We have invested considerably in automation to improve process institutionalization across the organization. For example, we have created and rolled out “Cognizant 2.0” an intelligent delivery ecosystem which orchestrates processes, methodologies, best practices driving effective usage of knowledge as well as providing a collaborative framework for our world-wide associates. Cognizant 2.0 offers a unique blend of collaboration, process management and just-in-time management.

Our process framework has been extensively adapted to cater to different types of projects managed by the organization across different service lines, such as Application Development, Managed Services, Application Testing, BPO and IT Infrastructure Management. In our goal of achieving the highest level of Delivery Excellence, we are also driving an initiative called Best-In-Class framework throughout the organization.

 

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Highly-Skilled Workforce. Our managers and senior technical personnel provide in-depth project management expertise to customers. To maintain this level of expertise, we place significant emphasis on recruiting and training our workforce of highly-skilled professionals. We have approximately 16,200 project managers and senior technical personnel around the world, many of whom have significant work experience in North America, Europe and Asia. We also maintain programs and personnel to hire and train the best available technical professionals in both legacy systems and emerging technologies. We provide extensive combined classroom and on-the-job training to newly hired technical staff, as well as additional annual training programs designed to enhance the business practices, tools, technology and consulting skills of our professional staff. We were assessed by KPMG at Level 5 (the highest possible rating) of the People Capability Maturity Model, or P-CMM, of the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. This widely recognized means of implementing current best practices in fields such as human resources, knowledge management and organizational development help improve our processes for managing and developing our workforce and addressing critical people issues.

Research and Development and Competency Centers. We have project experience and expertise across multiple architectures and technologies, and have made significant investments in our competency centers and in research and development to keep abreast of the latest technology developments. Most of our technical staff are trained in multiple technologies and architectures. As a result, we are able to react to customers’ needs quickly and efficiently redeploy our technical staff to different technologies. Also, to develop and maintain this flexibility, we have made a substantial investment in our competency centers so that the experience gained from particular projects and research and development efforts is leveraged across our entire organization. In addition, through our investment in research and development activities and the continuing education of our technical personnel, we enlarge our knowledge base and develop the necessary skills to keep pace with emerging technologies. We believe that our ability to work in new technologies allows us to foster long-term relationships by having the capacity to continually address the needs of both existing and new customers.

Well-Developed Infrastructure. Our extensive facilities, technology and communications infrastructure facilitate the seamless integration of our global workforces. This is accomplished by permitting team members in different locations to access common project information and to work directly on customer projects. This infrastructure allows for:

 

   

rapid completion of projects;

 

   

highest level of quality;

 

   

off-peak use of customers’ technological resources; and

 

   

real-time access to project information by the on-site account manager or the customer.

International time differences enable our offshore teams to access a customer’s computing facilities located in North America, Europe, the Asia Pacific region and other countries in which we provide services during off-peak hours. This ability to perform services during off-peak hours enables us to complete projects more rapidly and does not require our customers to invest in duplicative hardware and software. In addition, for large projects with short time frames, our offshore facilities allow for parallel processing of various development phases to accelerate delivery time. In addition, we can deliver services more rapidly than some competitors without an offshore labor pool because our lower labor costs enable us to cost-effectively assign more professionals to a project.

Business Strategies

Our objectives are to maximize stockholder value and enhance our position as a leading provider of custom information technology, consulting and business process outsourcing services. We implement the following core strategies to achieve these objectives:

Expand Service Offerings and Solutions. We have several teams dedicated to creating technology-based innovative solutions and developing new, high value services. The teams collaborate with customers to develop

 

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these services. For example, we are currently developing new offerings in Business and IT Consulting and vertically-oriented IT solutions atop innovative technologies such as: Service Oriented Architectures, or SOA, and Web 2.0. We invest in internal research and development and promote knowledge building and sharing across the organization to advance the development of new services and solutions. Furthermore, we continue to enhance our capabilities and service offerings in the areas of:

 

   

Customer Relationship Management, or CRM;

 

   

Enterprise Resource Planning, or ERP;

 

   

Data Warehousing / Business Intelligence, or BI;

 

   

Software Testing;

 

   

Infrastructure Management; and

 

   

Vertically-Oriented Business and Knowledge Process Outsourcing, or BPO and KPO.

We believe that the continued expansion of our service offerings will reduce our reliance on any one technology initiative and may help foster long-term relationships with our customers by allowing us to better serve their needs. Among service offerings, Infrastructure Management and Vertically-Oriented Business and Knowledge Process Outsourcing have been among the key drivers of growth.

As part of our vision to preserve our growth and to stay ahead of our clients’ and the markets’ rapidly changing demands in the near-term, mid-term and long-term, we are investing in emerging opportunities which seek to transform client and user platforms to internet, cloud and mobile based experiences.

Further Develop Long-Term Customer Relationships. We have strong long-term strategic relationships with our customers and business partners. We seek to establish long-term relationships that present recurring revenue opportunities, frequently trying to establish relationships with our customers’ chief information officers, or other IT and business decision makers, by offering a wide array of cost-effective high quality services. Approximately 97% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011 were derived from customers who had been using our services at the end of 2010. We also seek to leverage our experience with a customer’s IT systems into new business opportunities. Knowledge of a customer’s processes and IT systems gained during the performance of application maintenance services, for example, may provide us with a competitive advantage in securing additional maintenance, development and other projects from that customer.

Enhance Processes, Methodologies and Productivity Toolsets. With the globalization of business, we are committed to improving and enhancing our proprietary Process Space software engineering process and other methodologies and toolsets. In light of the rapid evolution of technology, we believe that continued investment in research and development is critical to our continued success. We are constantly designing and developing additional productivity software tools to automate testing processes and improve project estimation and risk assessment techniques. For example, we have created and rolled out “Cognizant 2.0” which uses groupware technology based on Web 2.0 technologies, enabling Cognizant associates to share project experiences and best practice methodologies across the organization with the objective of improving productivity.

Expand Domestic and International Geographic Presence. As we expand our customer base, we plan to open additional sales and marketing offices in North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia, and the Middle East. This expansion is expected to facilitate sales and services to existing and new customers. We have established sales and marketing offices in various metropolitan areas both in the United States and internationally.

Continue to be an Employer of Choice in the Industry. As a rapidly growing professional services firm, a key attribute of our continued success is the ability to continually hire, assimilate, motivate and retain the best talent possible in the industry. We have developed strong relationships with key universities around the world, particularly in India, to provide a continual funnel of talented staff from Tier One schools. In addition, we

 

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continue to expand our presence and brand in our key supply markets, further enhancing our ability to hire experienced professionals from competing IT services firms and industry to support our client needs and growth. We invest heavily in training programs (centered around Cognizant Academy), motivational programs and career development to ensure personal professional growth for each of our associates.

Pursue Selective Strategic Acquisitions, Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances. We believe that opportunities exist in the fragmented market in which we operate to expand our business through selective strategic acquisitions, joint ventures and strategic alliances. We believe that acquisition and joint venture candidates may enable us to expand our geographic presence and our capabilities more rapidly, especially in geographic markets and key industries. For example, in 2011, we completed two acquisitions to strengthen our business process and analytics solution offerings and enhance our retail SAP capabilities. In addition, through our working relationships with independent software vendors we obtain projects using the detailed knowledge we gain in connection with a joint development process. Finally, we expect to continue to form strategic alliances with select IT service firms that offer complementary services to best meet the requirements of our customers.

Sales and Marketing

We market and sell our services directly through our professional staff, senior management and direct sales personnel operating out of our Teaneck, New Jersey headquarters and our business development offices which are strategically located in various metropolitan areas around the world. The sales and marketing group works with our technical team as the sales process moves closer to the customer’s selection of a services provider. The duration of the sales process varies depending on the type of service, ranging from approximately two months to over one year. The account manager or sales executive works with the technical team to:

 

   

define the scope, deliverables, assumptions and execution strategies for a proposed project;

 

   

develop project estimates;

 

   

prepare pricing and margin analyses; and

 

   

finalize sales proposals.

Management reviews and approves proposals, which are then presented to the prospective customer. Our sales and account management personnel remain actively involved in the project through the execution phase. We focus our marketing efforts on businesses with intensive information processing needs. We maintain a prospect/customer database that is continuously updated and used throughout the sales cycle from prospect qualification to close. As a result of this marketing system, we pre-qualify sales opportunities, and direct sales representatives are able to minimize the time spent on prospect qualification. In addition, substantial emphasis is placed on customer retention and expansion of services provided to existing customers. In this regard, our account managers play an important marketing role by leveraging their ongoing relationship with the customer to identify opportunities to expand and diversify the type of services provided to that customer.

Customers

The number of customers served by us has increased significantly in recent years. As of December 31, 2011, we were providing services to approximately 785 customers, as compared to approximately 712 customers as of December 31, 2010, and approximately 589 customers as of December 31, 2009. As of December 31, 2011, we increased the number of strategic clients to 191. We define a strategic client as one offering the potential to generate at least $5 million to $50 million or more in annual revenues at maturity. Accordingly, we provide a significant volume of services to many customers in each of our business segments. Therefore, a loss of a significant customer or a few significant customers in a particular segment could materially reduce revenues for such segment. However, no individual customer exceeded 10.0% of our consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009. In addition, the services we provide to our larger customers are often critical to the operations of such customers and a termination of our services generally would require an extended transition period with gradual declining revenues. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009, 78.5%, 78.0%, and 79.1% of our revenue, respectively, was from North American customers.

 

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For the year ended December 31, 2011, we derived our revenues from the following business segments: 41.1% from Financial Services, 26.5% from Healthcare, 19.6% from Manufacturing/Retail/Logistics and 12.8% from Other.

We provide services either on a time-and-material basis or on a fixed price basis. The volume of work performed for specific customers is likely to vary from year to year, and a significant customer in one year may not use our services in a subsequent year. Presented in the table below is additional information about our customers.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  

Revenues from top five customers as a percentage of total revenues

     16.3     17.9     17.4

Revenues from top ten customers as a percentage of total revenues

     27.7     30.3     29.4

Revenues under fixed-bid contracts as a percentage of total revenues

     31.7     31.5     30.3

Competition

The intensely competitive IT services and outsourcing market includes a large number of participants and is subject to rapid change. This market includes participants from a variety of market segments, including:

 

   

systems integration firms;

 

   

contract programming companies;

 

   

application software companies;

 

   

traditional large consulting firms;

 

   

the professional services groups of computer equipment companies; and

 

   

facilities management and outsourcing companies.

Our direct competitors include, among others, Accenture, Capgemini, Computer Sciences Corporation, HCL Technologies, HP Enterprise (formerly Electronic Data Systems), IBM Global Services, Infosys Technologies, Perot Systems (acquired by Dell Inc.), Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro. In addition, we compete with numerous smaller local companies in the various geographic markets in which we operate.

Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources and greater name recognition. The principal competitive factors affecting the markets for our services include:

 

   

performance and reliability;

 

   

quality of technical support, training and services;

 

   

responsiveness to customer needs;

 

   

reputation and experience;

 

   

financial stability and strong corporate governance; and

 

   

competitive pricing of services.

We rely on the following to compete effectively:

 

   

a well-developed recruiting, training and retention model;

 

   

a successful service delivery model;

 

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a broad referral base;

 

   

continual investment in process improvement and knowledge capture;

 

   

investment in infrastructure and research and development;

 

   

financial stability and strong corporate governance;

 

   

continued focus on responsiveness to customer needs, quality of services, competitive prices; and

 

   

project management capabilities and technical expertise.

Intellectual Property

Our intellectual property rights are important to our business. We presently hold no patents or registered copyrights. Instead, we rely on a combination of intellectual property laws, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property. We require our employees, independent contractors, vendors and customers to enter into written confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of their relationships with us. These agreements generally provide that any confidential or proprietary information disclosed or otherwise made available by us be kept confidential. In addition, we generally require third parties to sign confidentiality agreements before we disclose our confidential or proprietary information to them.

A portion of our business involves the development for customers of highly complex information technology applications and other technology deliverables. This intellectual property includes written specifications and documentation created in connection with specific customer engagements. Our customers usually own the intellectual property rights in the software and other technology deliverables we create for them on a custom development basis.

On July 1,1998, Nielsen Media Research, Inc., the successor in interest to Cognizant Corporation, assigned all of its right, title and interest in and to the marks COGNIZANT and C & Design to Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation. On February 6, 2003, Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation assigned certain of its assets, including all of its intangible assets, to Cognizant Technology Solutions U.S. Corporation. As of December 31, 2011, Cognizant Technology Solutions U.S. Corporation or its predecessors is the record owner of:

 

  (a) two registrations for COGNIZANT, one registration for C & Design, one registration for MANAGED TEST CENTER, one registration for TWO-IN-A-BOX, one registration for MDM EXPRESS, one registration for MDM-IN-A-BOX, one registration for GOVERNANCE-IN-A-BOX, one registration for GOVERNANCE-IN-A-BOX & DESIGN, one registration for STRATEGIC VISION CONSULTING, one registration for SV (Stylized), one registration for ICOMP, one registration for IPLEX, one registration for MARKETRX, one registration for IOPTIMA, one registration for IDETAILING, one registration for IFOLIO, one registration for IFORCE, one registration for SURVEYRX, one registration for TRANSFORMING WHILE PERFORMING and two registrations for TRANSFORM WHILE PERFORM; as well as four pending applications for, PLANFORCE, INTELLISTORE, THE INTELLIGENT STORE and CLOUD360 in the United States;

 

  (b) two registrations for COGNIZANT, two registrations for C & Design, one registration for TWO-IN-A-BOX, one registration for THREE-IN-A-BOX, one application for COGNIZANT, one application for C & Design, one application for INTELLISTORE and one application for THE INTELLIGENT STORE in India;

 

  (c) a registration for COGNIZANT in Spain;

 

  (d) one registration for each COGNIZANT and C & Design, one registration for MDM EXPRESS and one registration for MDM-IN-A-BOX, one registration for GOVERNANCE-IN-A-BOX & DESIGN, one
  registration for THREE-IN-A-BOX, one registration for TWO-IN-A-BOX, one registration for

 

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  INTEGRATED REPORTING IN THE CLOUD, one registration for THE FUTURE OF WORK, one registration for CLOUD360, one registration for MARKETRX, one registration for SURVEYRX, one registration for ICOMP, and one registration for IPLEX in the European Union; and

 

  (e) six registrations and one application for COGNIZANT and three registrations and one applications for C & Design in Malaysia. In addition, as of December 31, 2011, Cognizant Technology Solutions U.S. Corporation, or its predecessors, is the record owner of a total of 294 trademark registrations in 60 countries.

In addition, as of December 31, 2011, Cognizant Technology Solutions U.S. Corporation, or its predecessors, is the record owner of a total of 294 trademark registrations in 60 countries.

Employees

We finished the year 2011 with headcount of approximately 137,700. We employed approximately 111,600 persons in the Asia Pacific region, approximately 21,800 persons in various locations throughout North America and Latin America and over 4,300 persons in various locations throughout Europe, principally in the United Kingdom. We are not party to any significant collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Our future success depends to a significant extent on our ability to attract, train and retain highly-skilled IT development and other professionals. In particular, we need to attract, train and retain project managers, programmers and other senior technical personnel. We believe there is a shortage of, and significant competition for, IT development professionals in the United States, Europe and in India with the advanced technological skills necessary to perform the services we offer. We have an active recruitment program in India, and have developed a recruiting system and database that facilitates the rapid identification of skilled candidates. During the course of the year, we conduct extensive recruiting efforts at premier colleges and technical schools in India. We evaluate candidates based on academic performance, the results of a written aptitude test measuring problem-solving skills and a technical interview. In addition, we have an active lateral recruiting program in North America, Europe and India and have established an on-campus recruiting program in North America. A substantial majority of the personnel on most on-site teams and virtually all the personnel staffed on offshore teams is comprised of Indian nationals.

Our senior project managers are hired from leading consulting firms in the United States, Europe and India. Our senior management and most of our project managers have experience working in the United States and Europe. This enhances our ability to attract and retain other professionals with experience in the United States and Europe. We have also adopted a career and education management program to define our employees’ objectives and career plans. We have implemented an intensive orientation and training program to introduce new employees to the Process Space software engineering process, our other technologies and our services.

 

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Our Executive Officers

The following table identifies our current executive officers:

 

Name

  

Age

  

Capacities in Which Served

  

In Current

Position Since

Lakshmi Narayanan(1)

   58   

Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors

   2007

Francisco D’Souza(2)

   43   

Chief Executive Officer

   2007

Gordon Coburn(3)

   48   

President

   2012

Karen McLoughlin(4)

   47   

Chief Financial Officer

   2012

Ramakrishnan Chandrasekaran(5)

   54   

Group Chief Executive – Technology and Operations

   2012

Rajeev Mehta(6)

   45   

Group Chief Executive – Industries and Markets

   2012

Malcolm Frank(7)

   45   

Executive Vice President, Strategy and Marketing

   2012

Steven Schwartz(8)

   44   

Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary

   2007

 

(1) Lakshmi Narayanan was appointed Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors, effective January 1, 2007. Mr. Narayanan served as our Chief Executive Officer from December 2003 through December 2006 and as our President from March 1998 through December 2006. Mr. Narayanan joined our Indian subsidiary as Chief Technology Officer in 1994 and was elected President of such subsidiary on January 1, 1996. Prior to joining us, from 1975 to 1994, Mr. Narayanan was the regional head of Tata Consultancy Services, a large consulting and software services company located in India. Mr. Narayanan serves on the board of directors and as the Chairman of the Governance Committee of TVS Capital Funds Limited. Mr. Narayanan holds a Bachelor of Science degree, a Master of Science degree and a Management degree from the Indian Institute of Science.
(2) Francisco D’Souza was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer and became a member of the Board of Directors, effective January 1, 2007. Effective February 6, 2012, Mr. D’Souza ceased serving as our President, at which time Mr. Coburn was appointed to such position. Mr. D’Souza served as our Chief Operating Officer from December 2003 through December 2006. Prior to that, from November 1999 to December 2003, he served as our Senior Vice President, North American Operations and Business Development. From March 1998 to November 1999, he served as our Vice President, North American Operations and Business Development and as our Director-North American Operations and Business Development from June 1997 to March 1998. From January 1996 to June 1997, Mr. D’Souza was engaged as our consultant. From February 1995 to December 1995, Mr. D’Souza was employed as Product Manager at Pilot Software. Between 1992 and 1995, Mr. D’Souza held various marketing, business development and technology management positions as a Management Associate at The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation. While working at The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, Mr. D’Souza was part of the team that established the software development and maintenance business conducted by us. Mr. D’Souza serves on the Board of Trustees of Carnegie Mellon University, the Board of Trustees of The New York Hall of Science and the Board of Directors of the U.S.-India Business Council. Mr. D’Souza holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from the University of East Asia and a Master of Business Administration degree from Carnegie Mellon University.
(3)

Gordon Coburn was appointed President of the Company, effective February 6, 2012. From March 1998 until February 6, 2012, Mr. Coburn served as the Company’s Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer and from January 2007 until February 6, 2012, Mr. Coburn also held the position of Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Coburn also served as the Company’s Executive Vice President from December 2003 through December 2006. From November 1999 to December 2003, he served as our Senior Vice President. He previously was our Vice President from 1996 to November 1999. Mr. Coburn served as Senior Director—Group Finance and Operations for Cognizant Corporation from November 1996 to December 1997. From 1990 to October 1996, Mr. Coburn held key financial positions with The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation.

 

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  Mr. Coburn serves on the board of directors of The Corporate Executive Board Company and TechAmerica. He also served on the board of directors of ICT Group, Inc. until its acquisition on February 2, 2010. Mr. Coburn holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Wesleyan University and a Master of Business Administration degree from the Amos Tuck School at Dartmouth College.
(4) Karen McLoughlin was appointed Chief Financial Officer of the Company, effective February 6, 2012. She previously served as the Company’s Senior Vice President of Finance and Enterprise Transformation, a role she held since January 2010. In such role, Ms. McLoughlin was responsible for the Company’s worldwide financial planning and analysis, enterprise risk management and enterprise transformation functions, including the facilitation and execution of various internal reengineering and transformation initiatives designed to enable the Company’s strategic vision. From August 2008 to January 2010, Ms. McLoughlin served as the Company’s Senior Vice President of Finance, responsible for overseeing the Company’s global financial planning and analysis team and enterprise risk management, and from October 2003 until August 2008, Ms. McLoughlin served as the Company’s Vice President of Global Financial Planning and Analysis. Prior to joining Cognizant in October 2003, Ms. McLoughlin held various positions at Spherion Corporation (“Spherion”) from August 1997 to October 2003 and at Ryder System Inc. (“Ryder”) from July 1994 to August 1997. At both Spherion and Ryder, Ms. McLoughlin held key financial management positions and was involved in strategic planning, the integration of several mergers and acquisitions, financial systems implementations and corporate reorganizations. Prior to joining Ryder, she spent six years in the South Florida Practice of Price Waterhouse (now PricewaterhouseCoopers). Ms. McLoughlin has a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Wellesley College and a Master of Business Administration degree from Columbia University.
(5) Ramakrishnan Chandrasekaran was appointed Group Chief Executive – Technology and Operations, effective February 6, 2012. In this role, Mr. Chandrasekaran is responsible for leading our solutions and delivery teams world-wide. From August 2006 to February 2012, he served as our President and Managing Director, Global Delivery, responsible for leading our global delivery organization, spearheading new solutions, and championing process improvements. Mr. Chandrasekaran served as our Executive Vice President and Managing Director from January 2004 through July 2006. Prior to that, from November 1999 to January 2004, he served as our Senior Vice President responsible for Independent Software Vendor, or ISV, relationships, key alliances, capacity growth, process initiatives, business development and offshore delivery. Mr. Chandrasekaran joined us as Assistant Vice President in December 1994, before being promoted to Vice President in January 1997. Mr. Chandrasekaran has more than 20 years of experience working in the IT services industry. Prior to joining us, Mr. Chandrasekaran worked with Tata Consultancy Services. Mr. Chandrasekaran holds a Mechanical Engineering degree and Master of Business Administration degree from the Indian Institute of Management.
(6) Rajeev Mehta was appointed Group Chief Executive – Industries and Markets, effective February 6, 2012. In this role, Mr. Mehta is responsible for leading our industry vertical and geographic market operations on a global basis. From August 2006 to February 2012, he served as our Chief Operating Officer, Global Client Services, responsible for our sales, business development and client relationship management organizations. Mr. Mehta, who joined Cognizant in 1997, most recently served as Senior Vice President and General Manager of our Financial Services Business Unit, a position he held from June 2005 to August 2006. From November 2001 to June 2005, he served as our Vice President and General Manager of our Financial Services Business Unit. From January 1998 to November 2001, Mr. Mehta served as our Director of the U.S. Central Region. Mr. Mehta served as our Senior Manager of Business Development from January 1997 to January 1998. Prior to joining Cognizant in 1997, Mr. Mehta was involved in implementing GE Information Services offshore outsourcing program and also held consulting positions at Deloitte & Touche and Andersen Consulting. Mr. Mehta holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Maryland and a Master of Business Administration degree from Carnegie Mellon University.
(7)

Malcolm Frank was appointed Executive Vice President, Strategy and Marketing, effective February 6, 2012. In this role, Mr. Frank is responsible for shaping our corporate strategy and global brand in order to maintain our track record of rapidly growing market and mind share. Mr. Frank served as our Senior Vice President of Strategy and Marketing from August 2005 to February 2012. In both these roles, Mr. Frank’s responsibilities have included, and continue to include, directing all aspects of our corporate marketing

 

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  function, including strategy and branding, industry and media relations, corporate communications and corporate marketing. In developing strategy, he works closely with our leadership team to formulate and implement strategies with respect to our services portfolio, vertical industry focus, geographic expansion and competitive differentiation. In addition, Mr. Frank and his team focus on strategies on platforms, capabilities and business models necessary to drive our non-linear growth. From August 2005 until June 2009, Mr. Frank was also responsible for leading our field marketing function. Prior to joining Cognizant in August 2005, Mr. Frank was co-founder, President and Chief Executive Officer of CXO Systems, Inc., an independent software vendor providing dashboard solutions for senior managers, from March 2002 to July 2005. From June 1999 to September 2002, Mr. Frank was the founder, President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Nervewire Inc. (“Nervewire”), a leading management consulting and systems integration firm. Prior to founding Nervewire, Mr. Frank was a co-founder, executive officer, and Senior Vice President at Cambridge Technology Partners, where he ran Worldwide Marketing, Business Development, and several business units, from January 1990 to June 1999. Mr. Frank graduated from Yale University with a degree in Economics.
(8) Steven Schwartz was named Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary in July 2007, having global responsibility for managing Cognizant’s legal function. Mr. Schwartz, who joined Cognizant in 2001, most recently served as Vice President and General Counsel, a position he held from March 2003 to July 2007. From April 2002 to March 2003, he served as our Vice President and Chief Corporate Counsel. From October 2001 to December 2002, he served as our Chief Corporate Counsel. Mr. Schwartz also serves as our Chief Legal Officer. Mr. Schwartz serves on the board of directors of Information Technology Industry Council and Citizen Schools. Mr. Schwartz holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from the University of Miami, a Juris Doctor degree from Fordham University School of Law and a Master of Law (in Taxation) degree from the New York University School of Law.

None of our executive officers are related to any other executive officer or to any of our Directors. Our executive officers are elected annually by the Board of Directors and serve until their successors are duly elected and qualified.

Corporate History

We began our IT development and maintenance services business in early 1994, as an in-house technology development center for The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation and its operating units. In 1996, we, along with certain other entities, were spun-off from The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation to form a new company, Cognizant Corporation. On June 24, 1998, we completed an initial public offering of our Class A common stock. On June 30, 1998, a majority interest in us, and certain other entities were spun-off from Cognizant Corporation to form IMS Health. Subsequently, Cognizant Corporation was renamed Nielsen Media Research, Incorporated.

On January 30, 2003, we filed a tender offer in which IMS Health stockholders could exchange IMS Health shares held by them for our Class B common stock held by IMS Health. On February 13, 2003, IMS Health distributed all of our Class B common stock that IMS Health owned in an exchange offer to its stockholders. On February 21, 2003, pursuant to the terms of our Restated Certificate of Incorporation, all of the shares of Class B common stock automatically converted into shares of Class A common stock. Since February 21, 2003, there have been no outstanding shares of Class B common stock. Effective May 26, 2004, pursuant to our Certificate of Incorporation, there are no authorized shares of Class B common stock.

Available Information

We make available the following public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, free of charge through our website at www.cognizant.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the SEC:

 

   

our Annual Reports on Form 10-K and any amendments thereto;

 

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our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and any amendments thereto; and

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments thereto.

In addition, we make available our code of business conduct and ethics entitled “Cognizant’s Core Values and Standards of Business Conduct” free of charge through our website. We intend to disclose any amendments to, or waivers from, our code of business conduct and ethics that are required to be publicly disclosed pursuant to rules of the SEC and the NASDAQ Global Select Market by filing such amendment or waiver with the SEC and posting it on our website.

No information on our Internet website is incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K or any other public filing made by us with the SEC.

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

In addition to the risks and uncertainties detailed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, if any of the following risks occur, our business, results of operations and financial condition or prospects could be materially adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline.

Our global operations are subject to complex risks, some of which might be beyond our control.

We have offices and operations in various countries around the world and provide services to clients globally. In 2011, approximately 78.5% of our revenues were attributable to the North American region, 17.9% were attributable to the European region, and 3.6% were attributable to the rest of the world, primarily the Asia Pacific region. If we are unable to manage the risks of our global operations, including regulatory, economic, political and other uncertainties in India, fluctuations in foreign exchange and inflation rates, international hostilities, terrorism, natural disasters, and multiple legal and regulatory systems, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

A substantial portion of our assets and operations are located in India and we are subject to regulatory, economic, political and other uncertainties in India.

We intend to continue to develop and expand our offshore facilities in India where a majority of our technical professionals are located. While wage costs are lower in India than in the United States and other developed countries for comparably skilled professionals, wages in India have historically increased at a faster rate than in the United States and other countries in which we operate. If this trend continues in the future, it would result in increased costs for our skilled professionals and thereby potentially reduce our operating margins. Also, there is no assurance that, in future periods, competition for skilled professionals will not drive salaries higher in India, thereby resulting in increased costs for our technical professionals and reduced operating margins.

India has also recently experienced civil unrest and terrorism and has been involved in conflicts with neighboring countries. In recent years, there have been military confrontations between India and Pakistan that have occurred in the region of Kashmir and along the India-Pakistan border. The potential for hostilities between the two countries has been high in light of tensions related to recent terrorist incidents in India and the unsettled nature of the regional geopolitical environment, including events in and related to Afghanistan and Iraq. If India becomes engaged in armed hostilities, particularly if these hostilities are protracted or involve the threat of or use of weapons of mass destruction, it is likely that our operations would be materially adversely affected. In addition, companies may decline to contract with us for services in light of international terrorist incidents or armed hostilities, even where India is not involved, because of more generalized concerns about relying on a service provider utilizing international resources that may be viewed as less stable than those provided domestically.

In the past, the Indian economy has experienced many of the problems that commonly confront the economies of developing countries, including high inflation, erratic gross domestic product growth and shortages of foreign exchange. The Indian government has exercised, and continues to exercise, significant influence over many aspects of the Indian economy and Indian government actions concerning the economy could have a material adverse effect on private sector entities like us. In the past, the Indian government has provided significant tax incentives and relaxed certain regulatory restrictions in order to encourage foreign investment in specified sectors of the economy, including the software development services industry. Programs that have benefited us include, among others, tax holidays, liberalized import and export duties and preferential rules on foreign investment and repatriation. Notwithstanding these benefits, as noted above, India’s central and state governments remain significantly involved in the Indian economy as regulators. In recent years, the Indian government has introduced non-income related taxes, including new service taxes, and income-related taxes, including the Minimum Alternative Tax, or MAT. In addition, a change in government leadership in India or

 

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change in policies of the existing government in India that results in the elimination of any of the benefits realized by us from our Indian operations or the imposition of new taxes applicable to such operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, the emergence of a widespread health emergency or pandemic, which may be more difficult to prevent or contain in a country like India as compared to more developed countries, could create economic or financial disruption that could negatively affect our revenue and operations or impair our ability to manage our business in certain parts of the world.

Our international sales and operations are subject to many uncertainties.

Revenues from customers outside North America represented approximately 21.5% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011. We anticipate that revenues from customers outside North America will continue to account for a material portion of our revenues in the foreseeable future and may increase as we expand our international presence, particularly in Europe, the Asia Pacific region and the Latin America region. In addition, the majority of our employees, along with our development and delivery centers, are located in India. As a result, we may be subject to risks inherently associated with international operations, including risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, which may cause volatility in our reported income, and risks associated with the application and imposition of protective legislation and regulations relating to import or export or otherwise resulting from foreign policy or the variability of foreign economic conditions. From time to time, we may engage in hedging transactions to mitigate our risks relating to exchange rate fluctuations. The use of hedging contracts is intended to mitigate or reduce transactional level volatility in the results of our foreign operations, but does not completely eliminate volatility and risk. In addition, use of hedging contracts includes the risk of non-performance by the counterparty. Additional risks associated with international operations include difficulties in enforcing intellectual property and/or contractual rights, the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws, potentially adverse tax consequences, tariffs, quotas and other barriers and potential difficulties in collecting accounts receivable. In addition, we may face competition in other countries from companies that may have more experience with operations in such countries or with international operations. Additionally, such companies may have long-standing or well-established relationships with local officials and/or desired clients, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage. We may also face difficulties integrating new facilities in different countries into our existing operations, as well as integrating employees that we hire in different countries into our existing corporate culture. Our international expansion plans may not be successful and we may not be able to compete effectively in other countries. There can be no assurance that these and other factors will not impede the success of our international expansion plans, limit our ability to compete effectively in other countries or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our operating results may be adversely affected by fluctuations in the Indian rupee and other foreign currency exchange rates and restrictions on the deployment of cash across our global operations.

Although we report our operating results in U.S. dollars, a portion of our revenues and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates can have a number of adverse effects on us. Because our consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, we must translate revenues, expenses and income, as well as assets and liabilities, into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect during or at the end of each reporting period. Therefore, changes in the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies will affect our revenues, income from operations, other income (expense), net and the value of balance sheet items originally denominated in other currencies. There is no guarantee that our financial results will not be adversely affected by currency exchange rate fluctuations or that any efforts by us to engage in currency hedging activities will be effective. In addition, in some countries we could be subject to strict restrictions on the movement of cash and the exchange of foreign currencies, which could limit our ability to use these funds across our global operations. Finally, as we continue to leverage our global delivery model, more of our expenses are incurred in currencies other than those in which we bill for the related services. An increase in the value of certain currencies, such as the Indian rupee, against the U.S. dollar could increase costs for delivery of services at offshore sites by increasing labor and other costs that are denominated in local currency.

 

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Our operating results may be adversely affected by our use of derivative financial instruments.

We have entered into a series of foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as cash flow hedges of certain salary payments in India. These contracts are intended to partially offset the impact of the movement of the exchange rates on future operating costs. In addition, we also entered into foreign exchange forward contracts in order to mitigate foreign currency risk on Indian rupee denominated net monetary assets. The hedging strategies that we have implemented, or may in the future implement, to mitigate foreign currency exchange rate risks may not reduce or completely offset our exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations and may expose our business to unexpected market, operational and counterparty credit risks. Accordingly, we may incur losses from our use of derivative financial instruments that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our global operations expose us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal and regulatory requirements, and violations of these regulations could harm our business.

Because we provide services to clients throughout the world, we are subject to numerous, and sometimes conflicting, legal rules on matters as diverse as import/export controls, content requirements, trade restrictions, tariffs, taxation, sanctions, government affairs, internal and disclosure control obligations, data privacy and labor relations. Violations of these laws or regulations in the conduct of our business could result in fines, criminal sanctions against us or our officers, prohibitions on doing business, damage to our reputation and other unintended consequences such as liability for monetary damages, fines and/or criminal prosecution, unfavorable publicity, restrictions on our ability to process information and allegations by our clients that we have not performed our contractual obligations. Due to the varying degrees of development of the legal systems of the countries in which we operate, local laws might be insufficient to protect our rights. Our failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In many parts of the world, including countries in which we operate, practices in the local business community might not conform to international business standards and could violate anti-corruption laws or regulations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or U.K. Bribery Act, among others. Although we have policies and procedures in place that are designed to promote legal and regulatory compliance, our employees, subcontractors and agents could take actions that violate these policies or procedures or applicable anti-corruption laws or regulations. Violations of these laws or regulations could subject us to criminal or civil enforcement actions, including fines and suspension or disqualification from government contracting or contracting with private entities in certain highly regulated industries, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

International hostilities, terrorist activities, other violence or war, natural disasters, pandemics and infrastructure disruptions, could delay or reduce the number of new service orders we receive and impair our ability to service our customers, thereby adversely affecting our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Hostilities involving the United States and acts of terrorism, violence or war, such as the attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, the attacks of July 7, 2005 in the United Kingdom, the attacks of November 26, 2008 and July 13, 2011 in Mumbai, India, and the continuing conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan, natural disasters, global health risks or pandemics or the threat or perceived potential for these events could materially adversely affect our operations and our ability to provide services to our customers. Such events may cause customers to delay their decisions on spending for information technology, consulting, and business and knowledge process outsourcing services and give rise to sudden significant changes in regional and global economic conditions and cycles. These events also pose significant risks to our people and to physical facilities and operations around the world, whether the facilities are ours or those of our clients, which could affect our financial results. By disrupting communications and travel, giving rise to travel restrictions, and increasing the difficulty of obtaining

 

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and retaining highly-skilled and qualified personnel, these events could make it difficult or impossible for us to deliver services to some or all of our clients. As noted above, the majority of our technical professionals are located in India, and the vast majority of our technical professionals in the United States and Europe are Indian nationals who are able to work in the United States and Europe only because they hold current visas and work permits. Travel restrictions could cause us to incur additional unexpected labor costs and expenses or could restrain our ability to retain the skilled professionals we need for our operations. In addition, any extended disruptions of electricity, other public utilities or network services at our facilities, as well as system failures at, or security breaches in, our facilities or systems, could also adversely affect our ability to serve our clients.

Although we continue to believe that we have a strong competitive position in the United States, we continue to increase our efforts to geographically diversify our clients and revenue. Despite our efforts to diversify, hostilities involving the United States, the United Kingdom, India and other countries in which we provide services to our clients, and other acts of terrorism, violence or war, natural disasters, global health risks or pandemics may reduce the demand for our services and negatively affect our revenues and profitability. While we plan and prepare to defend against each of these occurrences, we might be unable to protect our people, facilities and systems against all such occurrences. If these disruptions prevent us from effectively serving our clients, our operating results could be adversely affected.

Anti-outsourcing legislation, if adopted, and negative perceptions associated with offshore outsourcing could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to service our customers.

The issue of companies outsourcing services to organizations operating in other countries is a topic of political discussion in many countries, including the United States, which is our largest market. For example, measures aimed at limiting or restricting outsourcing by United States companies are periodically considered in the U.S. Congress and in numerous state legislatures to address concerns over the perceived association between offshore outsourcing and the loss of jobs domestically. On August 13, 2010, President Barack Obama signed legislation which imposed additional fees of $2,000 for certain H-1B petitions and $2,250 for certain L-1A and L-1B petitions beginning in August 2010 through September 20, 2014. These fees have now been extended through September 20, 2015. Given the ongoing debate over outsourcing, the introduction and consideration of other restrictive legislation is possible. If enacted, such measures may: broaden existing restrictions on outsourcing by federal and state government agencies and on government contracts with firms that outsource services directly or indirectly, or impact private industry with measures that include, but are not limited to, tax disincentives, fees or penalties, intellectual property transfer restrictions, and new standards that have the effect of restricting the use of certain business and/or work visas. In the event that any of these measures become law, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected and our ability to provide services to our customers could be impaired.

In addition, from time to time, there has been publicity about negative experiences associated with offshore outsourcing, such as domestic job loss, and theft and misappropriation of sensitive client data, particularly involving service providers in India. Current or prospective clients may elect to perform certain services themselves or may be discouraged from utilizing global service delivery providers due to negative perceptions that may be associated with using global service delivery models or firms. Any slowdown or reversal of existing industry trends toward global service delivery would seriously harm our ability to compete effectively with competitors that provide the majority of their services from within the country in which our clients operate.

Existing and future legislative and administrative/regulatory policies restricting the performance of business process services from an offshore location in jurisdictions in Europe, the Asia Pacific, or any other region in which we have clients could also have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, legislation enacted in the United Kingdom, based on the 1977 EC Acquired Rights Directive, has been adopted in some form by many European Union, or EU, countries, and provides that if a company outsources all or part of its business to a service provider or changes its current service provider, the

 

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affected employees of the company or of the previous service provider are entitled to become employees of the new service provider, generally on the same terms and conditions as their original employment. In addition, dismissals of employees who were employed by the company or the previous service provider immediately prior to that transfer are automatically considered unfair dismissals that entitle such employees to compensation. As a result, to avoid unfair dismissal claims, we may have to offer, and become liable for, voluntary redundancy payments to the employees of our clients who outsource business to us in the United Kingdom and other EU countries that have adopted similar laws. These types of policies may materially affect our ability to obtain new business from companies in the United Kingdom and EU and to provide outsourced services to companies in the United Kingdom and EU in a cost-effective manner.

Our growth may be hindered by immigration restrictions.

Our future success continues to depend on our ability to attract and retain employees with technical and project management skills from developing countries, especially India. The ability of foreign nationals to work in the United States and Europe depends on their ability and our ability to obtain the necessary visas and work permits.

The H-1B visa classification enables United States employers to hire certain qualified foreign workers in positions that require an education at least equal to a four-year bachelor degree in the United States in specialty occupations such as IT systems engineering and computer systems analysis. The H-1B visa usually permits an individual to work and live in the United States for a period of up to six years. Under certain limited circumstances, H-1B visa extensions after the six-year period may be available. There is a limit on the number of new H-1B petitions that the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, or CIS, may approve in any federal fiscal year, and in years in which this limit is reached, we may be unable to obtain H-1B visas necessary to bring foreign employees to the United States. Currently, the limit is 65,000 for holders of United States or United States-equivalent bachelor degrees (the general cap), and an additional 20,000 for holders of advanced degrees from United States post-secondary educational institutions. We began filing H-1B petitions with CIS against the fiscal year (FY) 2012 caps beginning April 1, 2011 for work in H-1B status beginning on October 1, 2011. We also have begun planning for H-1B filings for FY 2013. As part of our advanced planning process, we believe that we have a sufficient number of employees who are permit-ready to meet our anticipated business growth in the current year. In addition, there are strict labor regulations associated with the H-1B visa classification. Larger users of the H-1B visa program face higher legal and regulatory standards, and are often subject to investigations by the Wage and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor (DOL) and unannounced random site inspections by CIS’s parent agency, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). A finding by DOL, DHS, and/or another governmental agency of willful or substantial failure to comply with existing regulations on the H-1B classification may result in back-pay liability, substantial fines, and/or a ban on future use of the H-1B program and other immigration benefits.

We also regularly transfer foreign professionals to the United States to work on projects at client sites using the L-1 visa classification. Companies abroad are allowed to transfer certain managers and executives through the L-1A visa, and employees with specialized company knowledge through the L-1B visa to related United States companies, such as a parent, subsidiary, affiliate, joint venture, or branch office. We have an approved “Blanket L” petition, under which the corporate relationships of our transferring and receiving entities have been pre-approved by CIS, thus enabling individual L-1 visa applications to be presented directly to a visa-issuing United States consular post abroad rather than undergoing a pre-approval process through CIS in the United States. In recent years, both the United States consular posts in India that review initial L-1 applications and CIS, which adjudicates individual petitions for initial grants and extensions of L-1 visa status, have become increasingly restrictive with respect to this category, particularly the L-1B “specialized knowledge” standard. As a result, the rate of refusals of initial individual L-1 petitions and extensions for Indian nationals has increased. In addition, even where L-1 visas are ultimately granted and issued, security measures undertaken by United States consular posts around the world have delayed or prevented visa issuances. Our inability to bring qualified technical personnel into the United States to staff on-site customer locations would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Pursuant to the L-1 Visa Reform Act, we must meet a number of restrictions and requirements to obtain L-1 visas for our personnel. For example, all L-1 applicants, including those brought to the United States under a Blanket L Program, must have worked abroad with the related company for one full year in the prior three years. In addition, L-1B “specialized knowledge” visa holders may not be primarily stationed at the work site of another employer if the L-1B visa holder will be principally controlled and supervised by an employer other than the petitioning employer. Finally, L-1B status may not be granted where placement of the L-1B visa holder at a third party site is part of an arrangement to provide labor for the third party, rather than placement at the site in connection with the provision of a product or service involving specialized knowledge specific to the petitioning employer.

We do not place L-1B workers at third party sites where they are under the primary supervision of a different employer, nor do we place L-1B workers at third party sites in an arrangement to provide labor for the third party without providing a service involving our workers’ specialized knowledge. Since implementation of the L-1 Visa Reform Act, we consistently have established this fact to CIS’s satisfaction. However, if CIS and/or the United States Department of State, through its visa-issuing consular posts abroad, decide to interpret these provisions in a very restrictive fashion, this could impair our ability to effectively staff our projects in the United States with personnel from abroad. New guidance governing these and related statutory provisions from CIS is expected in FY 2012, and if such guidance is restrictive in nature, our ability to staff our projects in the United States with personnel from abroad will be impaired.

We also process immigrant visas for lawful permanent residence (green cards) in the United States for employees to fill positions for which there are an insufficient number of able, willing, and qualified United States workers available to fill the positions. Compliance with existing United States immigration and labor laws, or changes in those laws making it more difficult to hire foreign nationals or limiting our ability to successfully obtain permanent residence for our foreign employees in the United States, could require us to incur additional unexpected labor costs and expenses or could restrain our ability to retain the skilled professionals we need for our operations in the United States. Any of these restrictions or limitations on our hiring practices could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition to immigration restrictions in the United States, there are certain restrictions on transferring employees to work in the United Kingdom, where we have experienced significant growth. The United Kingdom currently requires that all employees who are not nationals of European Union countries (plus nationals of Bulgaria and Romania), or EEA nationals, obtain work permission before obtaining a visa/entry clearance to travel to the United Kingdom. European nations such as Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic do not have a work permit requirement but employees need to register to work within 30 days of arrival. The United Kingdom has a points-based system under which certain certificates of sponsorship are issued by licensed employer sponsors, provided the employees they seek to employ in the United Kingdom can accumulate a certain number of points based on certain attributes. Where the employee has not worked for a Cognizant group company outside the United Kingdom for at least 6 months, we must carry out a resident labor market test to confirm that the intended role cannot be filled by an EEA national. We are currently an A-rated sponsor and were allocated certificates of sponsorship which we believe are sufficient to meet our current and expected demand for transfers to the United Kingdom. On November 23, 2010, the United Kingdom announced new restrictions to control annual net migration, but allowed for temporary intra-company transfers of employees from outside the European Economic Area for up to five years as long as the employees meet certain compensation requirements.

Immigration and work permit laws and regulations in the United States, the United Kingdom, the EU, Switzerland and other countries are subject to legislative and administrative changes as well as changes in the application of standards and enforcement. Immigration and work permit laws and regulations can be significantly affected by political forces and levels of economic activity. Our international expansion strategy and our business, results of operations, and financial condition may be materially adversely affected if changes in immigration and work permit laws and regulations or the administration or enforcement of such laws or regulations impair our ability to staff projects with professionals who are not citizens of the country where the work is to be performed.

 

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Our revenues are highly dependent on clients primarily located in the United States and Europe, as well as on clients concentrated in certain industries, including the financial services industry. Continuing or worsening economic conditions or factors that negatively affect the economic health of the United States, Europe or these industries may adversely affect our business.

Approximately 78.5% of our revenues during the year ended December 31, 2011 were derived from customers located in North America. In the same period, approximately 17.9% of our revenues were derived from customers located in Europe. If the United States or European economy continues to weaken or slow and conditions in the financial markets continue to deteriorate, pricing for our services may be depressed and our customers may reduce or postpone their technology spending significantly, which may in turn lower the demand for our services and negatively affect our revenues and profitability. Additionally, any prolonged recession in the United States and Europe could have an adverse impact on our revenues because our revenues are primarily derived from the United States and Europe. In addition, during the year ended December 31, 2011, we earned approximately 41.1% of our revenues from the financial services industry, which includes insurance. Deterioration in the financial services industry or significant consolidation in that industry, or a decrease in growth or consolidation in other industry segments on which we focus, may reduce the demand for our services and negatively affect our revenues and profitability. In addition, if we are unable to successfully anticipate changing economic and political conditions affecting the industries and markets in which we operate, we may be unable to effectively plan for or respond to those changes, and our business could be negatively affected.

We face intense competition from other service providers.

We operate in intensely competitive industries that experience rapid technological developments, changes in industry standards, and changes in customer requirements. The intensely competitive information technology, consulting and business process outsourcing professional services markets include a large number of participants and are subject to rapid change. These markets include participants from a variety of market segments, including:

 

   

systems integration firms;

 

   

contract programming companies;

 

   

application software companies;

 

   

internet solutions providers;

 

   

large or traditional consulting companies;

 

   

professional services groups of computer equipment companies; and

 

   

infrastructure management and outsourcing companies.

These markets also include numerous smaller local competitors in the various geographic markets in which we operate which may be able to provide services and solutions at lower costs or on terms more attractive to clients than we can. Our direct competitors include, among others, Accenture, Capgemini, Computer Sciences Corporation, HCL Technologies, HP Enterprise (formerly Electronic Data Systems), IBM Global Services, Infosys Technologies, Perot Systems (acquired by Dell Inc.), Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources and greater name recognition and, therefore, may be better able to compete for new work and skilled professionals. There is a risk that increased competition could put downward pressure on the prices we can charge for our services and on our operating margins. Similarly, if our competitors develop and implement methodologies that yield greater efficiency and productivity, they may be able to offer services similar to ours at lower prices without adversely affecting their profit margins. Even if our offerings address industry and client needs, our competitors may be more successful at selling their services. If we are unable to provide our clients with superior services and solutions at competitive prices or successfully market those services to current and prospective clients, our results of operations may suffer. Further, a client may choose to use its own internal resources rather than engage an

 

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outside firm to perform the types of services we provide. We cannot be certain that we will be able to sustain our current levels of profitability or growth in the face of competitive pressures, including competition for skilled technology professionals and pricing pressure from competitors employing an on-site/offshore business model.

In addition, we may face competition from companies that increase in size or scope as the result of strategic mergers or acquisitions. These transactions may include consolidation activity among hardware manufacturers, software companies and vendors, and service providers. The result of any such vertical integration may be greater integration of products and services that were once offered separately by independent vendors. Our access to such products and services may be reduced as a result of such an industry trend, which could adversely affect our competitive position. These types of events could have a variety of negative effects on our competitive position and our financial results, such as reducing our revenue, increasing our costs, lowering our gross margin percentage, and requiring us to recognize impairments on our assets.

We may not be able to sustain our current level of profitability.

For the year ended December 31, 2011, we reported an operating margin of 18.6%. Our operating margin may decline if we experience declines in demand and pricing for our services, an increase in our operating costs, including imposition of new non-income related taxes, or due to adverse fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, historically, wages in India have increased at a faster rate than in the United States. Additionally, the number and type of equity-based compensation awards and the assumptions used in valuing equity-based compensation awards may change resulting in increased stock-based compensation expense and lower margins. Although we have historically been able to partially offset wage increases and foreign currency fluctuations through further leveraging the scale of our operating structure, obtaining price increases, and issuing a lower number of stock-based compensation awards in proportion to our overall headcount, we cannot be sure that we will be able to continue to do so in the future.

Our profitability could suffer if we are not able to control our costs or improve our efficiency.

Our ability to control our costs and improve our efficiency affects our profitability. If we are unable to control our costs or improve our efficiency, our profitability could be negatively affected.

Our business will suffer if we fail to develop new services and enhance our existing services in order to keep pace with the rapidly evolving technological environment.

The information technology, consulting and business process outsourcing professional services markets are characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, changing customer preferences and new product and service introductions. Our future success will depend on our ability to develop solutions that keep pace with changes in the markets in which we provide services. We cannot be sure that we will be successful in developing new services addressing evolving technologies in a timely or cost-effective manner or, if these services are developed, that we will be successful in the marketplace. In addition, we cannot be sure that products, services or technologies developed by others will not render our services non-competitive or obsolete. Our failure to address the demands of the rapidly evolving technological environment could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our ability to remain competitive will also depend on our ability to design and implement, in a timely and cost-effective manner, solutions for customers that both leverage their legacy systems and appropriately utilize newer technologies such as cloud-based services, Web 2.0 models, software-as-a-service, and service oriented architectures. Our failure to design and implement solutions in a timely and cost-effective manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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We may face difficulties in providing end-to-end business solutions or delivering complex and large projects for our clients that could cause clients to discontinue their work with us, which in turn could harm our business.

We have been expanding the nature and scope of our engagements and have added new service offerings, such as IT consulting, business and knowledge process outsourcing, systems integration and outsourcing of entire portions of IT infrastructure. The success of these service offerings is dependent, in part, upon continued demand for such services by our existing, new and prospective clients and our ability to meet this demand in a cost-competitive and effective manner. In addition, our ability to effectively offer a wider breadth of end-to-end business solutions depends on our ability to attract existing or new clients to these service offerings. To obtain engagements for such end-to-end solutions, we also are more likely to compete with large, well-established international consulting firms, resulting in increased competition and marketing costs. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that our new service offerings will effectively meet client needs or that we will be able to attract existing and new clients to these service offerings.

The increased breadth of our service offerings may result in larger and more complex projects with our clients. This will require us to establish closer relationships with our clients and a thorough understanding of their operations. Our ability to establish such relationships will depend on a number of factors, including the proficiency of our professionals and our management personnel. Our failure to understand our client requirements or our failure to deliver services that meet the requirements specified by our clients could result in termination of client contracts, and we could be liable to our clients for significant penalties or damages.

Larger projects may involve multiple engagements or stages, and there is a risk that a client may choose not to retain us for additional stages or may cancel or delay additional planned engagements. These terminations, cancellations or delays may result from factors that have little or nothing to do with the quality of our services, such as the business or financial condition of our clients or the economy generally. Such cancellations or delays make it difficult to plan for project resource requirements, and inaccuracies in such resource planning and allocation may have a negative impact on our profitability.

If our clients are not satisfied with our services, our business could be adversely affected.

Our business model depends in large part on our ability to attract additional work from our base of existing clients. Our business model also depends on our account teams’ ability to develop relationships with our clients that enable us to understand our clients’ needs and deliver solutions and services that are tailored to those needs. If a client is not satisfied with the quality of work performed by us, or with the type of services or solutions delivered, then we could incur additional costs to address the situation, the profitability of that work might be impaired, and the client’s dissatisfaction with our services could damage our ability to obtain additional work from that client. In particular, clients that are not satisfied might seek to terminate existing contracts prior to their scheduled expiration date and could direct future business to our competitors. In addition, negative publicity related to our client services or relationships, regardless of its accuracy, may further damage our business by affecting our ability to compete for new contracts with current and prospective clients.

We rely on a few customers for a large portion of our revenues.

Our top five customers generated approximately 16.3% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011. The volume of work performed for specific customers is likely to vary from year to year, and a major customer in one year may not use our services in a subsequent year. The loss of one of our large customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

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We generally do not have long-term contracts with our customers and our results of operations could be adversely affected if our clients terminate their contracts with us on short notice.

Consistent with industry practice, we generally do not enter into long-term contracts with our customers. A majority of our contracts can be terminated by our clients with short notice and without significant early termination cost. Terminations may result from factors that are beyond our control and unrelated to our work product or the progress of the project, including the business or financial conditions of the client, changes in ownership or management at our clients, changes in client strategies or the economy or markets generally. When contracts are terminated, we lose the anticipated revenues and might not be able to eliminate our associated costs in a timely manner. Consequently, our profit margins in subsequent periods could be lower than expected. If we are unable to replace the lost revenue with other work on terms we find acceptable or effectively eliminate costs, we may not be able to maintain our level of profitability.

Our results of operations may be affected by the rate of growth in the use of technology in business and the type and level of technology spending by our clients.

Our business depends, in part, upon continued growth in the use of technology in business by our clients and prospective clients as well as their customers and suppliers. In challenging economic environments, our clients may reduce or defer their spending on new technologies in order to focus on other priorities. At the same time, many companies have already invested substantial resources in their current means of conducting commerce and exchanging information, and they may be reluctant or slow to adopt new approaches that could disrupt existing personnel, processes and infrastructures. If the growth of technology usage in business, or our clients’ spending on technology in business, declines, or if we cannot convince our clients or potential clients to embrace new technological solutions, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

If we are unable to collect our receivables from, or bill our unbilled services to, our clients, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Our business depends on our ability to successfully obtain payment from our clients of the amounts they owe us for work performed. We evaluate the financial condition of our clients and usually bill and collect on relatively short cycles. We maintain allowances against receivables and unbilled services. Actual losses on client balances could differ from those that we currently anticipate and, as a result, we might need to adjust our allowances. There is no guarantee that we will accurately assess the creditworthiness of our clients. Macroeconomic conditions, such as the continued credit crisis and related turmoil in the global financial system, could also result in financial difficulties, including limited access to the credit markets, insolvency or bankruptcy, for our clients, and, as a result, could cause clients to delay payments to us, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase our receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to us. Timely collection of client balances also depends on our ability to complete our contractual commitments and bill and collect our contracted revenues. If we are unable to meet our contractual requirements, we might experience delays in collection of and/or be unable to collect our client balances, and if this occurs, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected. In addition, if we experience an increase in the time to bill and collect for our services, our cash flows could be adversely affected.

We are investing substantial cash in new facilities and physical infrastructure, and our profitability could be reduced if our business does not grow proportionately.

We have made and continue to make significant contractual commitments related to capital expenditures on construction or expansion of our development and delivery centers. We may encounter cost overruns or project delays in connection with new facilities. These expansions will likely increase our fixed costs and if we are unable to grow our business and revenues proportionately, our profitability may be reduced.

 

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Competition for highly-skilled technical personnel is intense and the success of our business depends on our ability to attract and retain highly-skilled professionals.

Our future success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to attract, train and retain highly-skilled professionals so as to keep our supply of skills and resources in balance with client demand. In particular, we must attract, train and retain appropriate numbers of talented people, including project managers, IT engineers and other senior technical personnel, with diverse skills in order to serve client needs and grow our business. We are particularly dependent on retaining our senior executives and other experienced managers with the skill sets required by our business, and if we are unable to do so, our ability to develop new business and effectively lead our current projects could be jeopardized. Similarly, the profitability of our business model depends on our ability to effectively utilize personnel with the right mix of skills and experience to support our projects. The processes and costs associated with recruiting, training and retaining employees place significant demands on our resources.

We believe there is a shortage of, and significant competition for, professionals with the advanced technological skills necessary to perform the services we offer. We have subcontracted to a limited extent in the past, and may do so in the future, with other service providers in order to meet our obligations to our customers. Our ability to maintain and renew existing engagements and obtain new business will depend, in large part, on our ability to attract, train and retain technical personnel with the skills that keep pace with continuing changes in information technology, evolving industry standards and changing customer preferences. Further, we must train and manage our growing work force, requiring an increase in the level of responsibility for both existing and new management personnel. We cannot guarantee that the management skills and systems currently in place will be adequate or that we will be able to train and assimilate new employees successfully. Our profits and ability to compete for and manage client engagements could be adversely affected if we cannot manage employee hiring and attrition to achieve a stable and efficient workforce structure.

Our ability to operate and compete effectively could be impaired if we lose key personnel or if we cannot attract additional qualified personnel.

Our future performance depends to a significant degree upon the continued service of the key members of our management team, as well as marketing, sales and technical personnel, and our ability to attract and retain new management and other personnel. We do not maintain key man life insurance on any of our executive officers or significant employees. Competition for personnel is intense, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to retain our key employees or that we will be successful in attracting and retaining new personnel in the future. The loss of any one or more of our key personnel or the failure to attract and retain key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Restrictions in non-competition agreements with our executive officers may not be enforceable.

Currently we have entered into non-competition agreements with the majority of our executive officers. We cannot be certain, however, that the restrictions in these agreements prohibiting such executive officers from engaging in competitive activities are enforceable. Further, substantially all of our professional non-executive staff are not covered by agreements that would prohibit them from working for our competitors. If any of our key professional personnel leaves our employment and joins one of our competitors, our business could be adversely affected.

Our earnings may be adversely affected if we change our intent not to repatriate earnings in India or if such earnings become subject to U.S. tax on a current basis.

Effective January 1, 2002, and in accordance with authoritative literature, we no longer accrue incremental U.S. taxes on our Indian earnings recognized after 2001 as these earnings (as well as other foreign earnings for all periods) are considered to be indefinitely reinvested outside of the United States. While we have no plans to do so, events may occur that could effectively force us to change our intent not to repatriate such earnings. If we

 

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change our intent and repatriate such earnings, we will have to accrue taxes associated with such earnings at a substantially higher rate than our effective income tax rate in 2011. These increased taxes could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our operating results may be negatively impacted by the loss of certain tax benefits provided by India to companies in our industry as well as by proposed tax legislation in India.

Cognizant India is primarily export-oriented and is eligible for certain income tax holiday benefits granted by the Indian government for export activities. These benefits for export activities conducted within Software Technology Parks, or STPs, expired on March 31, 2011, and the income from such activities is now subject to corporate income tax at the current rate of 32.4%, resulting in a significant increase in our effective tax rate for 2011.

In addition to STPs, we have constructed our newer development centers in areas designated as Special Economic Zones, or SEZs. Development centers operating in SEZs are entitled to certain income tax incentives for periods up to 15 years. Changes in Indian tax laws that would reduce or deny SEZ tax benefits could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, effective April 1, 2011, all Indian profits, including those generated within SEZs, are subject to the MAT, at the current rate of approximately 20.0%. Any MAT paid is creditable against future corporate income tax, subject to limitations. Currently, we anticipate utilizing our existing MAT balances against future corporate income tax. Our ability to fully do so will depend on possible changes to the Indian tax laws as well as the future financial results of Cognizant India. Our inability to fully utilize our deferred income tax assets related to the MAT could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our operating results and financial condition may be negatively impacted by certain tax related matters.

We are subject to income taxes in both the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. The provision for income taxes and cash tax liability in the future could be adversely affected by numerous factors including, but not limited to, income before taxes being lower than anticipated in countries with lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated in countries with higher statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, and changes in tax laws, regulations, accounting principles or interpretations thereof, which could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition in future periods. In addition, our income tax returns are subject to examination in the jurisdictions in which we operate. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. An unfavorable outcome of one or more of these examinations may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If our pricing structures are based on inaccurate expectations and assumptions regarding the cost and complexity of performing our work, then our contracts could be unprofitable.

We negotiate pricing terms with our clients utilizing a range of pricing structures and conditions. We predominantly contract to provide services either on a time-and-materials basis or on a fixed-price basis. Our pricing is highly dependent on our internal forecasts and predictions about our projects and the marketplace, which might be based on limited data and could turn out to be inaccurate. If we do not accurately estimate the costs and timing for completing projects, our contracts could prove unprofitable for us or yield lower profit margins than anticipated. We face a number of risks when pricing our contracts, as many of our projects entail the coordination of operations and workforces in multiple locations and utilizing workforces with different skill sets and competencies across geographically diverse service locations. Our pricing, cost and profit margin estimates for the work that we perform frequently include anticipated long-term cost savings from transformational and other initiatives that we expect to achieve and sustain over the life of the contract. There is a risk that we will underprice our projects, fail to accurately estimate the costs of performing the work or fail to

 

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accurately assess the risks associated with potential contracts. In particular, any increased or unexpected costs, delays or failures to achieve anticipated cost savings, or unexpected risks we encounter in connection with the performance of this work, including those caused by factors outside our control, could make these contracts less profitable or unprofitable, which could have an adverse effect on our profit margin.

In addition, a significant portion of our projects are on a fixed-price basis, subjecting us to the foregoing risks to an even greater extent. Fixed-price contracts accounted for approximately 31.7% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011. We expect that an increasing number of our future projects will be contracted on a fixed-price basis. In addition to the other risks described in the paragraph above, we bear the risk of cost over-runs and operating cost inflation in connection with projects covered by fixed-price contracts. Our failure to estimate accurately the resources and time required for a fixed-price project, or our failure to complete our contractual obligations within the time frame committed, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our profitability could suffer if we are not able to maintain favorable pricing rates.

Our profit margin, and therefore our profitability, is dependent on the rates we are able to recover for our services. If we are not able to maintain favorable pricing for our services, our profit margin and our profitability could suffer. The rates we are able to recover for our services are affected by a number of factors, including:

 

   

our clients’ perceptions of our ability to add value through our services;

 

   

competition;

 

   

introduction of new services or products by us or our competitors;

 

   

our competitors’ pricing policies;

 

   

our ability to accurately estimate, attain and sustain contract revenues, margins and cash flows over increasingly longer contract periods;

 

   

bid practices of clients and their use of third-party advisors;

 

   

the use by our competitors and our clients of offshore resources to provide lower-cost service delivery capabilities;

 

   

our ability to charge premium prices when justified by market demand or the type of service; and

 

   

general economic and political conditions.

Our profitability could suffer if we are not able to maintain favorable utilization rates.

The cost of providing our services, including the utilization rate of our professionals, affects our profitability. If we are not able to maintain an appropriate utilization rate for our professionals, our profit margin and our profitability may suffer. Our utilization rates are affected by a number of factors, including:

 

   

our ability to efficiently transition employees from completed projects to new assignments;

 

   

our ability to hire and assimilate new employees;

 

   

our ability to accurately forecast demand for our services and thereby maintain an appropriate headcount in each of our geographies and workforces;

 

   

our ability to effectively manage attrition; and

 

   

our need to devote time and resources to training, professional development and other non-chargeable activities.

 

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If we do not continue to improve our operational, financial and other internal controls and systems to manage our rapid growth and size or if we are unable to enter, operate and compete effectively in new geographic markets, our business may suffer and the value of our stockholders’ investment in our Company may be harmed.

Our anticipated growth will continue to place significant demands on our management and other resources. Our growth will require us to continue to develop and improve our operational, financial and other internal controls, both in the United States, Europe, India and elsewhere. In particular, our continued growth will increase the challenges involved in:

 

   

recruiting, training and retaining technical, finance, marketing and management personnel with the knowledge, skills and experience that our business model requires;

 

   

maintaining high levels of client satisfaction;

 

   

developing and improving our internal administrative infrastructure, particularly our financial, operational, communications and other internal systems;

 

   

preserving our culture, values and entrepreneurial environment; and

 

   

effectively managing our personnel and operations and effectively communicating to our personnel worldwide our core values, strategies and goals.

In addition, the increasing size and scope of our operations increase the possibility that a member of our personnel will engage in unlawful or fraudulent activity, breach our contractual obligations, or otherwise expose us to unacceptable business risks, despite our efforts to train our people and maintain internal controls to prevent such instances. If we do not continue to develop and implement the right processes and tools to manage our enterprise, our ability to compete successfully and achieve our business objectives could be impaired.

As part of our growth strategy, we plan to continue expanding our operations in Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America. We may not be able to compete effectively in these markets and the cost of entering these markets may be substantially greater than we expect. If we fail to compete effectively in the new markets we enter, or if the cost of entering those markets is substantially greater than we expect, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. In addition, if we cannot compete effectively, we may be required to reconsider our strategy to invest in our international expansion plans and change our intent on the repatriation of our earnings.

Our operating results may experience significant quarterly fluctuations.

Historically, we have experienced significant quarterly fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations and expect these fluctuations to continue. Among the factors causing these variations have been:

 

   

the nature, number, timing, scope and contractual terms of the projects in which we are engaged;

 

   

delays incurred in the performance of those projects;

 

   

the accuracy of estimates of resources and time required to complete ongoing projects; and

 

   

general economic conditions.

In addition, our future revenues, operating margins and profitability may fluctuate as a result of:

 

   

changes in pricing in response to customer demand and competitive pressures;

 

   

changes to the financial condition of our clients;

 

   

the mix of on-site and offshore staffing;

 

   

the ratio of fixed-price contracts versus time-and-materials contracts;

 

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employee wage levels and utilization rates;

 

   

changes in foreign exchange rates, including the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar;

 

   

the timing of collection of accounts receivable;

 

   

enactment of new taxes;

 

   

changes in domestic and international income tax rates and regulations; and

 

   

changes to levels and types of stock-based compensation awards and assumptions used to determine the fair value of such awards.

A high percentage of our operating expenses, particularly personnel and rent, are relatively fixed in advance of any particular period. As a result, unanticipated variations in the number and timing of our projects or in employee wage levels and utilization rates may cause significant variations in our operating results in any particular period, and could result in losses. Any significant shortfall of revenues in relation to our expectations, any material reduction in utilization rates for our professional staff or variance in the on-site/offshore staffing mix, an unanticipated termination of a major project, a customer’s decision not to pursue a new project or proceed to succeeding stages of a current project or the completion of several major customer projects during a quarter could require us to pay underutilized employees and could therefore have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

As a result of these factors, it is possible that in some future periods, our revenues and operating results may be significantly below the expectations of public market analysts and investors. In such an event, the price of our common stock would likely be materially and adversely affected.

We could be held liable for damages or our reputation could be damaged by disclosure of confidential information or personal data, security breaches or system failures.

We are dependent on information technology networks and systems to process, transmit and securely store electronic information and to communicate among our locations around the world and with our clients. Security breaches of this infrastructure could lead to shutdowns or disruptions of our systems and potential unauthorized disclosure of confidential information or data, including personal data. In addition, many of our engagements involve projects that are critical to the operations of our customers’ businesses and provide benefits that are difficult to quantify. The theft and/or unauthorized use or publication of our, or our clients’, confidential information or other proprietary business information as a result of such an incident could adversely affect our competitive position and reduce marketplace acceptance of our services. Any failure in the networks or computer systems used by us or our customers could result in a claim for substantial damages against us and significant reputational harm, regardless of our responsibility for the failure. Although we attempt to limit by contract our liability for damages arising from negligent acts, errors, mistakes or omissions in rendering our services, we cannot assure you that any contractual limitations on liability will be enforceable in all instances or will otherwise protect us from liability for damages.

In addition, we often have access to or are required to manage, utilize, collect and store sensitive or confidential client or employee data, including nonpublic personal data. As a result, we are subject to numerous U.S. and foreign jurisdiction laws and regulations designed to protect this information, such as the European Union Directive on Data Protection and various U.S. federal and state laws governing the protection of health or other individually identifiable information. If any person, including any of our employees, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches controls or procedures with which we are responsible for complying with respect to such data or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates that data, or if unauthorized access to or disclosure of data in our possession or control occurs, we could be subject to significant liability to our clients or our clients’ customers for breaching contractual confidentiality and security provisions or privacy laws, as well as liability and penalties in connection with any violation of applicable privacy laws and/or criminal prosecution.

 

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Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client or employee data, whether through breach of computer systems, systems failure, employee negligence, fraud or misappropriation, or otherwise, could damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients. Similarly, unauthorized access to or through our information systems and networks or those we develop or manage for our clients, whether by our employees or third parties, could result in negative publicity, legal liability and damage to our reputation.

Although we have general liability insurance coverage, including coverage for errors or omissions, there can be no assurance that coverage will continue to be available on reasonable terms or will be sufficient in amount to cover one or more large claims, or that the insurer will not disclaim coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage or changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our business could be negatively affected if we incur legal liability, including with respect to our contractual obligations, in connection with providing our solutions and services.

If we fail to meet our contractual obligations or otherwise breach obligations to our clients, we could be subject to legal liability. We may enter into non-standard agreements because we perceive an important economic opportunity by doing so or because our personnel did not adequately adhere to our guidelines. In addition, the contracting practices of our competitors may cause contract terms and conditions that are unfavorable to us to become standard in the marketplace. If we cannot or do not perform our obligations, we could face legal liability and our contracts might not always protect us adequately through limitations on the scope and/or amount of our potential liability. If we cannot, or do not, meet our contractual obligations to provide solutions and services, and if our exposure is not adequately limited through the enforceable terms of our agreements, we might face significant legal liability and our business could be adversely affected.

In the normal course of business and in conjunction with certain client engagements, we have entered into contractual arrangements through which we may be obligated to indemnify clients or other parties with whom we conduct business with respect to certain matters. These arrangements can include provisions whereby we agree to hold the indemnified party and certain of their affiliated entities harmless with respect to third-party claims related to such matters as our breach of certain representations or covenants, or out of our intellectual property infringement, our gross negligence or willful misconduct or certain other claims made against certain parties. Payments by us under any of these arrangements are generally conditioned on the client making a claim and providing us with full control over the defense and settlement of such claim. It is not possible to determine the maximum potential amount under these indemnification agreements due to the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular agreement. Historically, we have not made payments under these indemnification agreements so they have not had any impact on our operating results, financial position, or cash flows. However, if events arise requiring us to make payment for indemnification claims under our indemnification obligations in contracts we have entered, such payments could have a material impact on our operating results, financial position, and cash flows.

We could incur liability or our reputation could be damaged if our provision of services and solutions to our clients contributes to our clients’ internal control deficiencies.

Our clients may perform audits or require us to perform audits and provide audit reports with respect to the controls and procedures that we use in the performance of services for such clients, especially when we process data belonging to them. Our ability to acquire new clients and retain existing clients may be adversely affected and our reputation could be harmed if we receive a qualified opinion, or if we cannot obtain an unqualified opinion, with respect to our controls and procedures in connection with any such audit in a timely manner. Additionally, we could incur liability if our controls and procedures, or the controls and procedures we manage for a client, were to result in internal controls failures or impair our client’s ability to comply with its own internal control requirements.

 

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We may not be able to enforce or protect our intellectual property rights, which may harm our ability to compete and harm our business.

Our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary methodologies and other valuable intellectual property. We presently hold no patents or registered copyrights. We rely upon a combination of copyright and trade secret laws, non-disclosure and other contractual arrangements and various security measures to protect our intellectual property rights. Existing laws of some countries in which we provide services or solutions, such as China, might offer only limited protection of our intellectual property rights. India is a member of the Berne Convention, and has agreed to recognize protections on copyrights conferred under the laws of foreign countries, including the laws of the United States. We believe that laws, rules, regulations and treaties in effect in the United States, India and other countries in which we operate are adequate to protect us from misappropriation or unauthorized use of our intellectual property. However, there can be no assurance that these laws will not change in ways that may prevent or restrict the transfer of software components, libraries and toolsets and other technology or data we use in the performance of our services among the countries in which we operate and provide services. There can be no assurance that the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property rights will be adequate to deter misappropriation of any of our intellectual property, or that we will be able to detect unauthorized use and take appropriate steps to enforce our rights. Enforcing our rights might also require considerable time, money and oversight. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property may result in development of technology, products or services that compete with our products and services and unauthorized parties may infringe upon or misappropriate our products, services or proprietary information. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, our business may be adversely affected.

Depending on the circumstances, we might need to grant a specific client greater rights in intellectual property developed or used in connection with a contract than we generally do. In certain situations, we might forego all rights to the use of intellectual property we create and intend to reuse across multiple client engagements, which would limit our ability to reuse that intellectual property for other clients. Any limitation on our ability to provide a service or solution could cause us to lose revenue-generating opportunities and require us to incur additional expenses to develop new or modified solutions for future projects.

Our ability to enforce our software license agreements, service agreements, and other intellectual property rights is subject to general litigation risks, as well as uncertainty as to the enforceability of our intellectual property rights in various countries. To the extent that we seek to enforce our rights, we could be subject to claims that an intellectual property right is invalid, otherwise not enforceable, or is licensed to the party against whom we are pursuing a claim. In addition, our assertion of intellectual property rights often results in the other party seeking to assert alleged intellectual property rights or assert other claims against us, which could harm our business. If we are not successful in defending these claims in litigation, we may not be able to sell or license a particular service or solution due to an injunction, or we may have to pay damages that could, in turn, harm our results of operations. In addition, governments may adopt regulations, or courts may render decisions, requiring compulsory licensing of intellectual property to others, or governments may require that products meet specified standards that serve to favor local companies. Our inability to enforce our intellectual property rights under these circumstances may harm our competitive position and our business.

Our services or solutions could infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others and we may be subject to claims of infringement of third-party intellectual property rights.

We cannot be sure that our services and solutions, or the solutions of others that we offer to our clients, do not infringe on the intellectual property rights of others. Third parties may assert against us or our customers claims alleging infringement of patent, copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property rights to technologies or services that are important to our business. Infringement claims could harm our reputation, cost us money and prevent us from offering some services or solutions. In our contracts, we generally agree to indemnify our clients for any expenses or liabilities resulting from our infringement of the intellectual property rights of third parties. In some instances, the amount of our liability under these indemnities could be substantial. Any claims that our products,

 

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services or processes infringe the intellectual property rights of others, regardless of the merit or resolution of such claims, may cause us to incur significant costs in defending and resolving such claims, and may divert the efforts and attention of our management and technical personnel from our business. In addition, as result of such intellectual property infringement claims, we could be required or otherwise decide that it is appropriate to:

 

   

pay third-party infringement claims;

 

   

discontinue using, licensing, or selling particular products subject to infringement claims;

 

   

discontinue using the technology or processes subject to infringement claims;

 

   

develop other technology not subject to infringement claims, which could be costly or may not be possible; and/or

 

   

license technology from the third party claiming infringement, which license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.

The occurrence of any of the foregoing could result in unexpected expenses or require us to recognize an impairment of our assets, which would reduce the value of our assets and increase expenses. In addition, if we alter or discontinue our offering of affected items or services, our revenue could be harmed. If a claim of infringement were successful against us or our clients, an injunction might be ordered against our client or our own services or operations, causing further damages.

We expect that the risk of infringement claims against us will increase if our competitors are able to obtain patents for software products and methods, technological solutions, and processes. We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims from certain individuals and companies who have acquired patent portfolios for the primary purpose of asserting such claims against other companies. The risk of infringement claims against us may also increase as we continue to develop and license our intellectual property to our clients and other third parties. Any infringement claim or litigation against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We might lose our ability to utilize the intellectual property of others, which could harm our business.

We could lose our ability, or be unable to secure the right, to utilize the intellectual property of others. Third-party suppliers of software, hardware or other intellectual assets could be unwilling to permit us to use their intellectual property and this could impede or disrupt use of their products or services by us and our clients. If our ability to provide services and solutions to our clients is impaired as a result of any such denial, our operating results could be adversely affected.

We may not be able to successfully acquire target companies or integrate acquired companies or technologies into our company, and we may become subject to certain liabilities assumed or incurred in connection with our acquisitions that could harm our operating results.

If we are unable to complete the number and kind of acquisitions for which we plan, or if we are inefficient or unsuccessful at integrating any acquired businesses into our operations, we may not be able to achieve our planned rates of growth or improve our market share, profitability or competitive position in specific markets or services. We expect to continue pursuing strategic acquisition and joint venture opportunities designed to enhance our capabilities, expand our capacity and geographic presence and/or enter new technology areas. We cannot predict or guarantee that we will successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates or consummate any acquisition or joint venture. We may need to divert and/or dedicate management and other resources to complete the transactions. Once we have consummated an acquisition transaction or entered into a joint venture transaction, we may not be able to integrate the acquired business or joint venture (and personnel) into our operations, recognize anticipated efficiencies and/or benefits, realize our strategic objectives or achieve the desired financial and operating results, in each case, both generally and as a result of our unique organizational

 

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structure. Acquisitions and joint ventures involve a number of special risks, including diversion of management’s attention, failure to retain key personnel and the potential assumption or incurrence of liabilities and/or obligations.

Although we conduct due diligence in connection with each of our acquisitions, there may be liabilities that we fail to discover, that we inadequately assess in our due diligence efforts or that are not properly disclosed to us. In particular, to the extent that any acquired business (or any properties thereof) (i) failed to comply with or otherwise violated applicable laws or regulations, (ii) failed to fulfill contractual obligations to customers or (iii) incurred material liabilities or obligations to customers that are not identified during the diligence process, we, as the successor owner, may be financially responsible for these violations, failures and liabilities and may suffer financial and/or reputational harm or otherwise be adversely affected. In addition, as part of an acquisition, we may assume responsibilities and obligations of the acquired business pursuant to the terms and conditions of services agreements entered by the acquired entity that are not consistent with the terms and conditions that we typically accept and require. Although we attempt to structure acquisitions in such a manner as to minimize our exposure to, among other things, the factors and conditions contemplated by the foregoing two sentences (including through indemnification protection), we cannot predict or guarantee that our efforts will be effective or will protect us from liability. The discovery of any material liabilities associated with our acquisitions for which we are unable to recover indemnification amounts could harm our operating results.

System failure or disruptions in communications could disrupt our business and result in lost customers and curtailed operations which would reduce our revenue and profitability.

To deliver our services to our customers, we must maintain a high speed network of satellite, fiber optic and land lines and active voice and data communications twenty-four hours a day between our main operating offices in Chennai, our other development and delivery centers and the offices of our customers worldwide. Although we maintain redundancy facilities and satellite communications links, any systems failure or a significant lapse in our ability to transmit voice and data through satellite and telephone communications could result in lost customers and curtailed operations which would reduce our revenue and profitability.

Consolidation in the industries that we serve could adversely affect our business.

Companies in the industries that we serve may seek to achieve economies of scale and other synergies by combining with or acquiring other companies. If two or more of our current clients merge or consolidate and combine their operations, it may decrease the amount of work that we perform for these clients. If one of our current clients merges or consolidates with a company that relies on another provider for its consulting, systems integration and technology, or outsourcing services, we may lose work from that client or lose the opportunity to gain additional work. The increased market power of larger companies could also increase pricing and competitive pressures on us. Any of these possible results of industry consolidation could adversely affect our business.

Our ability to attract and retain business may depend on our reputation in the marketplace.

Our services are marketed to clients and prospective clients based on a number of factors. Since many of our specific client engagements involve unique services and solutions, our corporate reputation is a significant factor in our clients’ evaluation of whether to engage our services. We believe the Cognizant brand name and our reputation are important corporate assets that help distinguish our services from those of our competitors and also contribute to our efforts to recruit and retain talented employees. However, our corporate reputation is potentially susceptible to damage by actions or statements made by current or former clients, competitors, vendors, adversaries in legal proceedings, government regulators, as well as members of the investment community and the media. There is a risk that negative information about our company, even if based on false rumor or misunderstanding, could adversely affect our business. In particular, damage to our reputation could be difficult and time-consuming to repair, could make potential or existing clients reluctant to select us for new engagements, resulting in a loss of business, and could adversely affect our recruitment and retention efforts.

 

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Damage to our reputation could also reduce the value and effectiveness of the Cognizant brand name and could reduce investor confidence in us, adversely affecting our share price.

Provisions in our charter, by-laws and stockholders’ rights plan and provisions under Delaware law may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals.

Provisions in our charter and by-laws, each as amended, our stockholders’ rights plan and Delaware General Corporate Law, or DGCL, may have the effect of deterring unsolicited takeover proposals or delaying or preventing changes in our control or management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over then-current market prices. In addition, these documents and provisions may limit the ability of stockholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in their best interests. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to fix the rights and preferences, and issue shares of preferred stock. Our charter provides for a classified board of directors, which will prevent a change of control of our board of directors at a single meeting of stockholders. The prohibition of our stockholders’ ability to act by written consent and to call a special meeting will delay stockholder actions until annual meetings or until a special meeting is called by our chairman or chief executive officer or our board of directors. The supermajority-voting requirement for specified amendments to our charter and by-laws allows a minority of our stockholders to block those amendments. The DGCL also contains provisions preventing stockholders from engaging in business combinations with us, subject to certain exceptions. These provisions could also discourage bids for our common stock at a premium as well as create a depressive effect on the market price of the shares of our common stock.

New and changing corporate governance and public disclosure requirements add uncertainty to our compliance policies and increases our costs of compliance.

Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to accounting, corporate governance and public disclosure, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, other SEC regulations, and the NASDAQ Global Select Market rules, are creating uncertainty for companies like ours. These laws, regulations and standards may lack specificity and are subject to varying interpretations. Their application in practice may evolve over time, as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs of compliance as a result of ongoing revisions to such corporate governance standards.

In particular, our efforts to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the related regulations regarding our required assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting and our external auditors’ audit of that assessment requires the commitment of significant financial and managerial resources. We consistently assess the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting, remediate any control deficiencies that may be identified, and validate through testing that our controls are functioning as documented. While we do not anticipate any material weaknesses, the inability of management and our independent auditor to provide us with an unqualified report as to the adequacy and effectiveness, respectively, of our internal controls over financial reporting for future year ends could result in adverse consequences to us, including, but not limited to, a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could cause the market price of our stock to decline.

We are committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure, and our efforts to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards in this regard have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. In addition, the laws, regulations and standards regarding corporate governance may make it more difficult for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Further, our board members, chief executive officer and chief financial officer could face an increased risk of personal liability in connection with their performance of duties. As a result, we may face difficulties attracting and retaining qualified board members and executive officers, which could harm our business. If we fail to comply with new or changed laws, regulations or standards of corporate governance, our business and reputation may be harmed.

 

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Our share price could be adversely affected if we are unable to maintain effective internal controls.

The accuracy of our financial reporting is dependent on the effectiveness of our internal controls. We are required to provide a report from management to our stockholders on our internal control over financial reporting that includes an assessment of the effectiveness of these controls. Internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, the possibility that controls could be circumvented or become inadequate because of changed conditions, and fraud. Because of these inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting might not prevent or detect all misstatements or fraud. If we cannot maintain and execute adequate internal control over financial reporting or implement required new or improved controls to ensure the reliability of the financial reporting and preparation of our financial statements for external use, we could suffer harm to our reputation, fail to meet our public reporting requirements on a timely basis, or be unable to properly report on our business and the results of our operations, and the market price of our securities could be materially adversely affected.

We are exposed to credit risk and fluctuations in the market values of our investment portfolio.

Recent turmoil in the financial markets has adversely affected economic activity in the United States and other regions of the world in which we do business. We believe that based on our current cash, cash equivalents and investment balances and expected operating cash flows, the current lack of liquidity in the credit markets will not have a material impact on our liquidity, cash flow or financial flexibility. Continued deterioration of the credit and capital markets could result in volatility of our investment earnings and impairments to our investment portfolio, which could negatively impact our financial condition and reported income. The continued decline in economic activity could adversely affect the ability of counterparties to certain financial instruments such as marketable securities and derivatives to meet their obligations to us.

Our stock price continues to be volatile.

Our stock has at times experienced substantial price volatility as a result of variations between our actual and anticipated financial results, announcements by us and our competitors, projections or speculation about our business or that of our competitors by the media or investment analysts or uncertainty about current global economic conditions. The stock market, as a whole, also has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market price of many technology companies in ways that may have been unrelated to these companies’ operating performance. Furthermore, we believe our stock price should reflect future growth and profitability expectations and, if we fail to meet these expectations, our stock price may significantly decline.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

 

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Item 2. Properties

To support our planned growth, we are continually expanding our development and delivery center capacity through the construction of new facilities, supplemented by additional leasing of non-owned facilities. Below is a summary of development and delivery facilities in India, China and the Philippines and our executive office in Teaneck, New Jersey as of December 31, 2011.

 

Location

   Number of
Locations
     Square Footage
Leased
     Square Footage
Owned
     Total Square
Footage
 

Development and Delivery Facilities:

           

India:

           

Chennai

     11         1,800,185         5,041,307         6,841,492   

Pune

     6         1,469,964         343,703         1,813,667   

Hyderabad

     7         1,654,782         —           1,654,782   

Kolkata

     6         681,203         827,727         1,508,930   

Bangalore

     5         994,667         225,000         1,219,667   

Coimbatore

     3         173,641         725,611         899,252   

Mumbai

     3         279,940         —           279,940   

Cochin

     2         204,326         —           204,326   

Gurgaon

     4         107,726         —           107,726   

Mangalore

     1         42,210         —           42,210   

Shanghai, China

     3         100,500         —           100,500   

Manila, the Philippines

     2         114,371         —           114,371   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     53         7,623,515         7,163,348         14,786,863   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Executive Office:

           

Teaneck

     1         96,107         —           96,107   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

We operate out of our Teaneck, New Jersey headquarters and our regional and international offices. We have business development offices located in metropolitan areas including in North and Latin America: Atlanta (GA), Boston (MA), Bridgewater (NJ), Buenos Aires, Chicago (IL), Dallas (TX), Los Angeles (CA), Minneapolis (MN), Phoenix (AZ), San Francisco (CA), Sao Paulo, Seattle (WA), and Toronto; in Europe: Amsterdam, Brussels, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Geneva, Helsinki, London, Madrid, Paris, Stockholm, and Zurich; in the Middle East: Dubai; and in the Asia Pacific region: Bangkok, Chennai, Cyberjaya, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Melbourne, Shanghai, Sydney, Singapore, and Tokyo.

In addition, we operate development and delivery facilities, in North and Latin America: Bentonville (AR), Boston (MA), Bridgewater (NJ), Buenos Aires, Chicago (IL), Detroit (MI), Guadalajara, Phoenix (AZ), Sao Paulo, Tampa (FL) and Toronto; in Europe: Amsterdam, Budapest and London; and in India and the Asia Pacific area: Bangalore, Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore, Gurgaon, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mangalore, Manila, Mumbai, Pune, and Shanghai. We also have several training facilities strategically located near or within our main offices and development and delivery centers. We believe that our current facilities are adequate to support our existing operations. We also believe that we will be able to obtain suitable additional facilities on commercially reasonable terms on an “as needed” basis.

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are involved in various claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of our management, the outcome of such claims and legal actions, if decided adversely, is not expected to have a material adverse effect on our quarterly or annual operating results, cash flows or consolidated financial position.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

None.

 

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PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our Class A common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (NASDAQ) under the symbol “CTSH”.

The following table shows the per share range of high and low sale prices for shares of our Class A common stock, as listed for quotation on the NASDAQ, and the quarterly cash dividends paid per share for the quarterly periods indicated.

 

Quarter Ended

   High      Low      Cash Dividend
Per Share
 

March 31, 2010

   $ 52.68       $ 42.08       $ 0.00   

June 30, 2010

   $ 54.81       $ 45.85       $ 0.00   

September 30, 2010

   $ 65.75       $ 48.98       $ 0.00   

December 31, 2010

   $ 74.79       $ 61.26       $ 0.00   

March 31, 2011

   $ 81.85       $ 70.53       $ 0.00   

June 30, 2011

   $ 83.48       $ 64.40       $ 0.00   

September 30, 2011

   $ 77.71       $ 53.54       $ 0.00   

December 31, 2011

   $ 77.44       $ 59.95       $ 0.00   

As of December 31, 2011, the approximate number of holders of record of our Class A common stock was 202 and the approximate number of beneficial holders of our Class A common stock was 41,200.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our Class A common stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the growth of our business and, therefore, do not currently anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

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Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table provides information as of December 31, 2011 with respect to the shares of our Class A common stock that may be issued under our existing equity compensation plans. We previously had four equity compensation plans, each of which was approved by our stockholders: (1) Amended and Restated 1999 Incentive Compensation Plan, which we refer to as the 1999 Incentive Plan; (2) Amended and Restated Non-Employee Directors’ Stock Option Plan, which we refer to as the Director Plan; (3) the Amended and Restated Key Employees’ Stock Option Plan; and (4) Amended and Restated 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, which we refer to as the 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. The 1999 Incentive Plan, the Director Plan and the Key Employees’ Stock Option Plan were succeeded by the Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation 2009 Incentive Compensation Plan, which we refer to as the 2009 Incentive Plan, which was approved by our stockholders. Awards granted under the previous plans are still valid, however no additional awards may be granted from these previous plans. For additional information on our equity compensation plans, please see Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements.

 

Plan Category

   Number of Securities
to be Issued Upon Vesting
of Awards or
Exercise of
Outstanding Stock Options
    Weighted Average
Exercise Price of
Awards or
Outstanding
Stock Options
     Number of Securities
Available for Future
Issuance Under Equity
Compensation Plans
 

Equity compensation plans that have been approved by security holders—stock options(1)

     10,498,661 (2)    $ 23.06         19,797,812 (3) 

Equity compensation plans that have been approved by security holders—performance stock units(4)

     1,828,928        N/A         —     

Equity compensation plans that have been approved by security holders—restricted stock units(5)

     2,160,591        N/A         —     

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders

     —             —     
  

 

 

      

 

 

 

Total

     14,488,180           19,797,812   
  

 

 

      

 

 

 

 

(1) Consists of the 1999 Incentive Plan, the Director Plan, the Key Employees’ Stock Option Plan, the 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan and the 2009 Incentive Plan.
(2) Excludes purchase rights outstanding under the 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan. Under such plan, employees may purchase whole shares of stock at price per share equal to 90% of the lower of the fair market value per share on the first day of the purchase period or the fair market value per share on the last day of the purchase period.
(3) Includes 16,902,502 shares of Class A common stock available for future issuance under the 2009 Incentive Plan and 2,895,310 shares of Class A common stock available for future issuance under the 2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
(4) Consists of 10,000 shares and 1,818,928 shares that are issuable to holders of performance stock units granted pursuant to the 1999 Incentive Plan and the 2009 Incentive Plan, respectively, upon the achievement of certain performance and vesting criteria.
(5) Consists of 2,160,591shares that are issuable to holders of restricted stock units granted pursuant to the 2009 Incentive Plan.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

In December 2010, our Board of Directors authorized up to $150.0 million in funds for repurchases of Cognizant’s outstanding shares of Class A common stock. The $150.0 million authorization excluded fees and

 

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expenses and was set to expire in December 2011. In May 2011, our Board of Directors approved an increase to our stock repurchase program of $150 million bringing the total authorization under the repurchase program to $300 million, excluding fees and expenses. In addition, the expiration date was extended to June 30, 2012. In August 2011, our Board of Directors approved an additional increase to our stock repurchase program of $300 million bringing the total authorization under the repurchase program to $600 million, excluding fees and expenses. The program authorizes management to repurchase shares in the open market or in private transactions from time to time, depending on market conditions. During the three months ended December 31, 2011, we repurchased approximately $2.4 million of our Class A common stock under our stock repurchase program. Stock repurchases were funded from working capital.

 

Month

   Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
     Average
Price Paid
per Share
     Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of  Publicly
Announced
Plans or
Programs
     Approximate
Dollar Value of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased under the
Plans or Programs
(in thousands)
 

October 1, 2011 – October 31, 2011

     39,800      $ 60.00        39,800      $ 219,510  

November 1, 2011 – November 30, 2011

     —         $ —           —         $ 219,510  

December 1, 2011 – December 31, 2011

     —         $ —           —         $ 219,510  
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

Total

     39,800      $ 60.00        39,800     
  

 

 

       

 

 

    

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

On September 26, 2011, we issued an aggregate of 162,601 shares (of which 40,650 shares are being held in escrow for a period of one year) of our Class A common stock, $0.01 par value, to Zaffera, LLC (“Zaffera”), in consideration of our acquisition of substantially all of the assets of Zaffera. In connection with this issuance, we relied upon the exemption from the registration requirements pursuant to the provisions of Section 4(2) of the Securities Act.

 

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Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our Class A common stock with the cumulative total return on the NASDAQ-100 Index, S&P 500 Index and a Peer Group Index (capitalization weighted) for the period beginning January 1, 2007 and ending on the last day of our last completed fiscal year. The stock performance shown on the graph below is not indicative of future price performance.

COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN(1)(2)

Among Cognizant, the NASDAQ-100 Index, the S&P 500 Index

And a Peer Group Index(3) (Capitalization Weighted)

 

LOGO

 

Company / Index

   Base
Period
12/31/06
     12/31/07      12/31/08      12/31/09      12/31/10      12/31/11  

COGNIZANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORP

     100         87.97         46.81         117.50         189.97         166.69   

S&P 500 INDEX

     100         105.49         66.46         84.05         96.71         98.76   

NASDAQ-100

     100         118.67         68.97         105.89         126.24         129.65   

PEER GROUP

     100         93.49         59.32         110.23         132.99         105.44   

 

(1) Graph assumes $100 invested on January 1, 2007 in our Class A common stock, the NASDAQ-100 Index, the S&P 500 Index, and the Peer Group Index (capitalization weighted).
(2) Cumulative total return assumes reinvestment of dividends.
(3) We have constructed a Peer Group Index of other information technology consulting firms consisting of Accenture Ltd., Computer Sciences Corporation, Computer Task Group, Inc., Exlservice Holdings Inc, Genpact Ltd Inc., iGate Corp., Infosys Technologies Ltd., Sapient Corp., Satyam Computer Services Ltd., Syntel, Inc., Wipro Ltd. and WNS Holdings LTD.

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The following table sets forth our selected consolidated historical financial data as of the dates and for the periods indicated. Our selected consolidated financial data set forth below as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 has been derived from the audited financial statements included elsewhere herein. Our selected consolidated financial data set forth below as of December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 and for each of the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included elsewhere herein. Our selected consolidated financial information for 2011, 2010 and 2009 should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009      2008     2007  
     (in thousands, except per share data)  

Consolidated Operations Data:

           

Revenues

   $ 6,121,156      $ 4,592,389      $ 3,278,663       $ 2,816,304      $ 2,135,577   

Cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization expense shown separately below)

     3,538,622        2,654,569        1,849,443         1,572,816        1,206,035   

Selling, general and administrative expenses

     1,328,665        972,093        721,359         652,021        494,102   

Depreciation and amortization expense

     117,401        103,875        89,371         74,797        53,918   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income from operations

     1,136,468        861,852        618,490         516,670        381,522   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income (expense), net:

           

Interest income

     39,249        25,793        15,895         22,188        29,560   

Other, net

     (6,568     (9,065     2,566         (23,648     3,274   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income (expense), net

     32,681        16,728        18,461         (1,460     32,834   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before provision for income taxes

     1,169,149        878,580        636,951         515,210        414,356   

Provision for income taxes

     285,531        145,040        101,988         84,365        64,223   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income

   $ 883,618      $ 733,540      $ 534,963       $ 430,845      $ 350,133   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Basic earnings per share

   $ 2.91      $ 2.44      $ 1.82       $ 1.49      $ 1.22   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted earnings per share

   $ 2.85      $ 2.37      $ 1.78       $ 1.44      $ 1.15   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash dividends declared per common share

   $ —        $ —        $ —         $ —        $ —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding—Basic

     303,277        300,781        293,304         290,121        288,155   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding—Diluted

     310,351        309,137        301,115         298,940        303,593   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Consolidated Financial Position Data:

           

Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments

   $ 2,432,264      $ 2,226,388      $ 1,399,332       $ 762,579      $ 670,425   

Long-term investments

     —          —          151,131         161,693        —     

Long-term obligations:

           

Deferred income tax liabilities, net

     3,339        4,946        —           7,294        15,145   

Other noncurrent liabilities

     342,003        62,971        38,455         14,111        14,267   

Working capital

     2,875,801        2,587,508        1,660,960         1,080,542        901,495   

Total assets

     5,507,933        4,583,074        3,338,240         2,374,560        1,838,306   

Stockholders’ equity

     3,952,886        3,584,431        2,653,177         1,965,578        1,468,210   

 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Executive Summary

In 2011, our revenues increased to $6,121.2 million compared to $4,592.4 million in 2010. Net income increased to $883.6 million or $2.85 per diluted share, including stock-based compensation expense, net of tax, equal to $0.22 per diluted share during 2011. This is compared to net income of $733.5 million, or $2.37 per diluted share, including stock-based compensation expense and applicable stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense, net of tax, of $0.14 per diluted share during 2010. The key drivers of our revenue growth in 2011 were as follows:

 

   

strong performance across all business segments with revenue growth ranging from 26.1% for our Other segment to 40.9% for Manufacturing, Retail and Logistics as compared to 2010;

 

   

continued penetration of the European market where we experienced revenue growth of 28.3% as compared to 2010;

 

   

increased customer spending on discretionary development projects;

 

   

expansion of our service offerings, which enabled us to cross-sell new services to our customers and meet the rapidly growing demand for complex large-scale outsourcing solutions;

 

   

increased penetration at existing customers, including strategic customers; and

 

   

continued expansion of the market for global delivery of IT services and business process outsourcing.

We saw a continued demand from our customers for a broad range of IT solutions, including application maintenance, complex systems development engagements, testing, enterprise resource planning, or ERP, infrastructure management, business process outsourcing, or BPO, and business intelligence. We finished the year with approximately 785 active clients compared to approximately 712 as of December 31, 2010 and increased the number of strategic clients by 25 during the year bringing the total number of our strategic clients to 191. We define a strategic client as one offering the potential to generate at least $5 million to $50 million or more in annual revenues at maturity. Our top five and top ten customers accounted for 16.3% and 27.7%, respectively, of our total revenues in 2011 as compared to 17.9% and 30.3%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2010. As we continue to add new customers and increase our penetration at existing customers, we expect the percentage of revenues from our top five and top ten customers to decline over time.

Our revenue from European customers increased by 28.3% to approximately $1,097.5 million in 2011 compared to approximately $855.6 million in 2010. Revenue from Europe, excluding the UK, increased by approximately $102.3 million from approximately $296.3 million in 2010 to approximately $398.6 million in 2011 and revenue from the UK increased by approximately $139.6 million from approximately $559.3 million in 2010 to approximately $698.9 million in 2011. In 2012, as a result of the ongoing uncertainty in the European economy, we expect Europe to grow at a slower rate than the rest of the company. We believe that Europe will continue to be an area of significant investment for us as we see this region as well as the Middle East and the Asia Pacific regions, particularly Japan, India, Australia and Singapore, as growth opportunities for the long term.

Our revenue growth is also attributed to increasing market acceptance of, and strong demand for, offshore IT software and services and business process outsourcing. NASSCOM (India’s National Association of Software and Service Companies) reports indicate that India’s IT software and services and business process outsourcing sectors are expected to exceed $87 billion at the end of NASSCOM’s fiscal year 2012. This is an expected growth rate of approximately 15% over the prior fiscal year. According to the latest NASSCOM “Perspective 2020: Transform Business, Transform India” report, global changes and new megatrends within economic, demographic, business, social and environmental areas are set to expand the outsourcing industry by creating new dynamics and opportunities and are expected to result in export revenues of $175 billion by 2020.

 

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In 2011, our operating margin decreased slightly to 18.6% compared to 18.8% in 2010. Excluding stock-based compensation expense of approximately $90.2 million, operating margin in 2011 was 20.0%. This was in line with our historic targeted operating margin range, excluding stock-based compensation costs and applicable stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense, of 19% to 20% of total revenues. Operating margin was affected by an increase in compensation and benefit costs, including stock-based compensation costs, and investments to grow our business, including expanded sales and marketing activities partially offset by the depreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar. Historically, we have invested our profitability above the 19% to 20% operating margin level, which excludes stock-based compensation and any related stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense, back into our business, which we believe is a significant contributing factor to our strong revenue growth. This investment is primarily focused in the areas of: hiring client partners and relationship personnel with specific industry experience or domain expertise; training our technical staff in a broader range of service offerings; strengthening our business analytic capabilities; strengthening and expanding our portfolio of services; continuing to expand our geographic presence for both sales and delivery; and recognizing and rewarding exceptional performance by our employees. In addition, this investment includes maintaining a level of resources, trained in a broad range of service offerings, to be well positioned to respond to our customer requests to take on additional projects. For the year ending December 31, 2012, we expect to continue to invest amounts in excess of our targeted operating margin levels back into the business.

We finished the year with total headcount of approximately 137,700, which is an increase of approximately 33,700 over the prior year. The increase in the number of our technical personnel and the related infrastructure costs, to meet the demand for our services, is the primary driver of the increase in our operating expenses in 2011. Annual turnover, including both voluntary and involuntary, was approximately 13.2% for 2011. The majority of our turnover occurs in India. As a result, annualized attrition rates on-site at clients are below our global attrition rate. In addition, attrition is weighted towards the more junior members of our staff. We have experienced increases in compensation and benefit costs, including incentive-based compensation costs, in India which may continue in the future; however, historically, this has not had a material impact on our results of operations as we have been able to absorb such cost increases through price increases or cost management strategies such as managing discretionary costs, mix of professional staff and utilization levels, and achieving other operating efficiencies.

Our current India real estate development program includes planned construction of an additional 10.5 million square feet of new space between 2011 and the end of 2015. The expanded program includes the expenditure of over $700.0 million during this period on land acquisition, facilities construction and furnishings to build new company-owned state-of-the-art IT development and delivery centers in regions primarily designated as Special Economic Zones, or SEZs, located in India. During 2012, including the Indian real estate development program, we expect to spend approximately $370 million globally for capital expenditures.

At December 31, 2011, we had cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $2,432.3 million and working capital of $2,875.8 million. Accordingly, we do not anticipate any near-term liquidity issues. During 2011 and 2010, we repurchased approximately $338.8 million and $41.9 million, respectively, of our Class A common stock under our existing stock repurchase program. Stock repurchases under this program were funded from working capital.

While several measures have indicated that the economy is stabilizing, we believe the global economic environment remains fragile. During 2012, barring any unforeseen events, we expect the following factors to affect our business and our operating results:

 

   

Continued focus by customers on directing IT spending towards cost containment projects, such as application maintenance, infrastructure management and BPO;

 

   

Demand from our customers to help them achieve their dual mandate of simultaneously achieving cost savings while investing in innovation;

 

   

Secular changes driven by evolving technologies and regulatory changes;

 

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Volatility in foreign currency rates; and

 

   

Continued uncertainty in the world economy, particularly in Europe.

In response to this fragile macroeconomic environment, we plan to:

 

   

Continue to invest in our talent base and new service offerings;

 

   

Partner with our existing customers to provide innovative solutions resulting in our garnering an increased portion of our customers’ overall IT spend;

 

   

Continue our focus on growing our business in Europe, the Middle East and the Asia Pacific region, where we believe there are opportunities to gain market share;

 

   

Continue to increase our strategic customer base across all of our business segments;

 

   

Opportunistically look for acquisitions that may improve our overall service delivery capabilities, expand our geographic presence and/or enable us to enter new areas of technology;

 

   

Continue operating focus and discipline to appropriately manage our cost structure; and

 

   

Continue to locate most of our new development center facilities in tax incentivized areas.

Critical Accounting Estimates and Risks

Management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our accompanying consolidated financial statements that have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported for assets and liabilities, including the recoverability of tangible and intangible assets, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reported period. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our estimates. The most significant estimates relate to the recognition of revenue and profits based on the percentage of completion method of accounting for certain fixed-bid contracts, the allowance for doubtful accounts, income taxes, valuation of investments, goodwill and other long-lived assets, assumptions used in valuing stock-based compensation awards and derivative financial investments, contingencies and litigation. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual amounts may differ from the estimates used in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 1 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

We believe the following critical accounting policies require a higher level of management judgments and estimates than others in preparing the consolidated financial statements:

Revenue Recognition. Revenues related to our highly complex information technology application development contracts, which are predominantly fixed-price contracts, are recognized as the services are performed using the percentage of completion method of accounting. Under this method, total contract revenue during the term of an agreement is recognized on the basis of the percentage that each contract’s total labor cost to date bears to the total expected labor cost (cost to cost method). This method is followed where reasonably dependable estimates of revenues and costs can be made. Management reviews total expected labor costs on an ongoing basis. Revisions to our estimates may result in increases or decreases to revenues and income and are reflected in the consolidated financial statements in the periods in which they are first identified. If our estimates indicate that a contract loss will be incurred, a loss provision is recorded in the period in which the loss first becomes probable and reasonably estimable. Contract losses are determined to be the amount by which the estimated costs of the contract exceed the estimated total revenues that will be generated by the contract and are included in cost of revenues in our consolidated statement of operations. Contract losses for the periods presented were immaterial.

 

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Stock-Based Compensation. Utilizing the fair value recognition provisions prescribed by the authoritative guidance, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the value of the award and is recognized as expense over the vesting period. Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment, including estimating the expected term over which the stock awards will be outstanding before they are exercised, the expected volatility of our stock and the number of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited. In addition, for performance stock units, we are required to estimate the most probable outcome of the performance conditions in order to determine the amount of stock compensation costs to be recorded over the vesting period. If actual results differ significantly from our estimates, stock-based compensation expense and our results of operations could be materially impacted.

Income Taxes. Determining the consolidated provision for income tax expense, deferred income tax assets (and related valuation allowance, if any) and liabilities requires significant judgment. We are required to calculate and provide for income taxes in each of the jurisdictions where we operate and changes in the geographic mix of income before taxes or estimated level of annual pre-tax income can affect the overall effective income tax rate. The consolidated provision for income taxes may also change period to period based on non-recurring events, such as the settlement of income tax audits and changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting principles.

Our provision for income taxes also includes the impact of provisions established for uncertain income tax positions, as well as the related net interest, which can involve complex issues and may require an extended period to resolve. Although we believe we have adequately reserved for our uncertain tax positions, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will not differ from our recorded amounts. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit or the refinement of an estimate. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters differs from the amounts recorded, such differences will impact the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made.

Significant judgment is also required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred income tax assets. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all available evidence for each jurisdiction including past operating results, estimates of future taxable income and the feasibility of tax planning strategies. In the event we change our determination as to the amount of deferred income tax assets that can be realized, we will adjust the valuation allowance with a corresponding impact recorded to income tax expense in the period in which such determination was made.

Our Indian subsidiaries, collectively referred to as Cognizant India, are primarily export-oriented and are eligible for certain income tax holiday benefits granted by the Indian government for export activities. These benefits for export activities conducted within STPs expired on March 31, 2011. The income of our STPs is now subject to corporate income tax at the current rate of 32.4%. The expiration of the income tax holiday for STPs is the primary driver of the significant increase in our effective tax rate for 2011. We have constructed and expect to continue to locate most of our newer development facilities in SEZs, which are entitled to certain income tax incentives for export activities for periods up to 15 years. Effective April 1, 2011, all Indian profits, including those generated within SEZs, are subject to the MAT, at the current rate of approximately 20.0%. Any MAT paid is creditable against future corporate income taxes, subject to limitations. Currently, we anticipate utilizing our existing MAT balances against future corporate income tax. However, our ability to fully do so will depend on possible changes to the Indian tax laws as well as the future financial results of Cognizant India.

Derivative Financial Instruments. Derivative financial instruments are accounted for in accordance with the authoritative guidance which requires that each derivative instrument be recorded on the balance sheet as either an asset or liability measured at its fair value as of the reporting date. Our derivative financial instruments consist of foreign exchange forward contracts. We estimate the fair value of each foreign exchange forward contract by using a present value of expected cash flows model. This model utilizes various assumptions, including, but not limited to timing and amounts of cash flows, discount rates, and credit risk factors. The use of different assumptions could have a positive or negative effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Investments. Our investment portfolio is primarily comprised of time deposits and U.S. dollar denominated corporate bonds, municipal bonds, debt issuances by the U.S. government, U.S. government agencies, foreign governments and supranational entities and asset-backed securities. The asset-backed securities include securities backed by auto loans, credit card receivables, and other receivables and are rated AAA/Aaa. The years of issuance of our asset-backed securities fall in the 2002 to 2011 range.

We utilize various inputs to determine the fair value of our investment portfolio. To the extent they exist, unadjusted quoted market prices for identical assets in active markets (Level 1) or quoted prices on similar assets (Level 2) are utilized to determine the fair value of each investment in the portfolio. In the absence of quoted prices or liquid markets, valuation techniques would be used to determine fair value of any investments that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (Level 3). Valuation techniques are based on various assumptions, including, but not limited to timing and amounts of cash flows, discount rates, rate of return, and adjustments for nonperformance and liquidity. A significant degree of judgment is involved in valuing investments using Level 3 inputs. The use of different assumptions could have a positive or negative effect on our results of operations and financial condition. See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information related to our security valuation methodologies.

We periodically evaluate if unrealized losses, as determined based on the security valuation methodologies discussed above, on individual securities classified as available for sale in the investment portfolio are considered to be other-than-temporary. The analysis of other-than-temporary impairment requires the use of various assumptions, including, but not limited to, the length of time an investment’s book value is greater than fair value, the severity of the investment’s decline, any credit deterioration of the investment, whether management intends to sell the security and whether it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security prior to recovery of its amortized cost basis. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is generally recorded to income and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. The allowance for doubtful accounts is determined by evaluating the relative credit-worthiness of each customer, historical collections experience and other information, including the aging of the receivables. If the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required.

Goodwill. We evaluate goodwill for impairment at least annually, or as circumstances warrant. When determining the fair value of our reporting units, we utilize various assumptions, including projections of future cash flows. Any adverse changes in key assumptions about our businesses and their prospects or an adverse change in market conditions may cause a change in the estimation of fair value and could result in an impairment charge. Based upon our most recent evaluation of goodwill, there are no significant risks of impairment. As of December 31, 2011, our goodwill balance was $288.8 million.

Long-Lived Assets and Intangibles. We review long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. In general, we will recognize an impairment loss when the sum of undiscounted expected future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of such asset. The measurement for such an impairment loss is then based on the fair value of the asset. If such assets were determined to be impaired, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks. The majority of our development and delivery centers, including a majority of our employees, are located in India. As a result, we may be subject to certain risks associated with international operations, including risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and risks associated with the application and imposition of protective legislation and regulations relating to import and export or otherwise resulting from foreign policy or the variability of foreign economic or political conditions. Additional risks associated with international operations include difficulties in enforcing intellectual property rights, limitations on immigration

 

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programs, the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws, potential geo-political and other risks associated with terrorist activities and local and cross border conflicts, and potentially adverse tax consequences, tariffs, quotas and other barriers. We are also subject to risks associated with our overall compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The inability of our management to ensure the adequacy and effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for future year ends could result in adverse consequences to us, including, but not limited to, a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could cause the market price of our stock to decline. See Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain financial data expressed for the three years ended December 31, 2011:

(Dollars in thousands)

 

    2011     % of
Revenues
    2010     % of
Revenues
    2009     % of
Revenues
    Increase (Decrease)  
              2011     2010  

Revenues

  $ 6,121,156        100.0      $ 4,592,389        100.0      $ 3,278,663        100.0      $ 1,528,767      $ 1,313,726   

Cost of revenues(1)

    3,538,622        57.8        2,654,569        57.8        1,849,443        56.4        884,053        805,126   

Selling, general and administrative(2)

    1,328,665        21.7        972,093        21.2        721,359        22.0        356,572        250,734   

Depreciation and amortization

    117,401        1.9        103,875        2.3        89,371        2.7        13,526        14,504   
 

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income from operations

    1,136,468        18.6        861,852        18.8        618,490        18.9        274,616        243,362   

Other income (expense), net

    32,681          16,728          18,461          15,953        (1,733

Provision for income taxes

    285,531          145,040          101,988          140,491        43,052   
 

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income

  $ 883,618        14.4      $ 733,540        16.0      $ 534,963        16.3      $ 150,078      $ 198,577   
 

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Includes stock-based compensation expense of $15,257, $13,147, and $14,889 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, and stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense of $187 for the year ended December 31, 2009, and is exclusive of depreciation and amortization expense.
(2) Includes stock-based compensation expense of $74,975, $43,837, and $29,927 for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, and stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense of $758 for the year ended December 31, 2009, and is exclusive of depreciation and amortization expense.

The following table includes non-GAAP income from operations, excluding stock-based compensation and applicable stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense, a measure defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission as a non-GAAP financial measure. This non-GAAP financial measure is not based on any comprehensive set of accounting rules or principles and should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, and may be different from non-GAAP measures used by other companies. In addition, this non-GAAP measure, the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP and reconciliations of our GAAP financial statements to such non-GAAP measure should be carefully evaluated.

We seek to manage the company to a targeted operating margin, excluding stock-based compensation expense and applicable stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense, of 19% to 20% of revenues. Accordingly, we believe that non-GAAP income from operations, excluding stock-based compensation expense and applicable stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax, which was repealed during the third quarter of 2009, retroactive to April 1,

 

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2009, is a meaningful measure for investors to evaluate our financial performance. For our internal management reporting and budgeting purposes, we use financial statements that do not include stock-based compensation expense and applicable stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense for financial and operational decision making, to evaluate period-to-period comparisons and for making comparisons of our operating results to that of our competitors. Moreover, because of varying available valuation methodologies and the variety of award types that companies can use to account for stock-based compensation expense, we believe that providing a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes stock-based compensation expense and applicable stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense allows investors to make additional comparisons between our operating results and those of other companies. Accordingly, we believe that the presentation of non-GAAP income from operations when read in conjunction with our reported GAAP income from operations can provide useful supplemental information to our management and to investors regarding financial and business trends relating to our financial condition and results of operations.

A limitation of using non-GAAP income from operations versus income from operations reported in accordance with GAAP is that non-GAAP income from operations excludes stock-based compensation expense, which is recurring. Stock-based compensation expense will continue to be for the foreseeable future a significant recurring expense in our business. In addition, other companies may calculate non-GAAP financial measures differently than us, thereby limiting the usefulness of this non-GAAP financial measure as a comparative tool. We compensate for these limitations by providing specific information regarding the GAAP amounts excluded from non-GAAP income from operations and evaluating such non-GAAP financial measures with financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP.

A reconciliation of income from operations as reported and non-GAAP income from operations, excluding stock-based compensation expense and stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense, is as follows for the years ended December 31:

(Dollars in thousands)

 

     2011      % of
Revenues
     2010      % of
Revenues
     2009      % of
Revenues
 

Income from operations, as reported

   $ 1,136,468         18.6       $ 861,852         18.8       $ 618,490         18.9   

Add: stock-based compensation expense

     90,232         1.4         56,984         1.2         44,816         1.4   

Add: stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense

     —           —           —           —           945         —     
  

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

    

Non-GAAP income from operations, excluding stock-based compensation expense and stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense

   $ 1,226,700         20.0       $ 918,836         20.0       $ 664,251         20.3   
  

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

    

The fringe benefit tax regulation in India obligated us to pay, upon exercise or distribution of shares under a stock-based compensation award, a non-income related tax on the appreciation of the award from date of grant to date of vest. There was no cash cost to us as we recovered the cost of the Indian fringe benefit tax from the employee’s proceeds from the award. Under U.S. GAAP, the stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense is required to be recorded as an operating expense and the related recovery of such tax from our employee is required to be recorded to stockholders’ equity as proceeds from a stock-based compensation award. During the third quarter of 2009, the Indian government repealed the fringe benefit tax retroactive to April 1, 2009.

Year Ended December 31, 2011 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2010

Revenue. Revenue increased by 33.3%, or approximately $1,528.8 million, from approximately $4,592.4 million during 2010 to approximately $6,121.2 million in 2011. This increase was primarily attributed

 

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to greater acceptance of the global delivery model among an increasing number of industries, continued interest in using the global delivery model as a means to reduce overall IT costs and increased customer spending on discretionary development projects. Revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2010 increased by approximately $1,371.3 million and revenue from new customers added during 2011 was approximately $157.5 million or approximately 10.3% of the year over year revenue increase and 2.6% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011. In addition, revenue from our North American and European customers increased in 2011 by $1,220.2 million and $241.9 million, respectively, as compared to 2010. We had approximately 785 active clients as of December 31, 2011 as compared to approximately 712 active clients as of December 31, 2010. In addition, we experienced strong demand across all of our business segments for an increasingly broad range of services. Our Financial Services and Healthcare business segments accounted for approximately $574.0 million and $445.0 million, respectively, of the $1,528.8 million increase in revenue. Additionally, our IT consulting and technology services and IT outsourcing revenues increased by approximately 40.7% and 26.4%, respectively, compared to 2010 and represented approximately 50.9% and 49.1%, respectively, of total revenues in 2011. No customer accounted for sales in excess of 10% of revenues during 2011 or 2010.

Cost of Revenues (Exclusive of Depreciation and Amortization Expense). Our cost of revenues consists primarily of salaries, incentive-based compensation, stock-based compensation expense, payroll taxes, employees benefits, immigration and project-related travel for technical personnel, subcontracting and sales commissions related to revenues. Our cost of revenues increased by approximately 33.3% or $884.0 million from $2,654.6 million during 2010 to $3,538.6 million in 2011. The increase was due primarily to an increase in compensation and benefits costs of approximately $821.8 million, resulting from the increase in the number of our technical personnel necessary to support our revenue growth.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries, incentive-based compensation, stock-based compensation expense, payroll taxes, employee benefits, travel, promotion, communications, management, finance, administrative and occupancy costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses, including depreciation and amortization, increased by approximately 34.4% or $370.1 million, from $1,076.0 million during 2010, to $1,446.1 million during 2011, and increased as a percentage of revenue from 23.4% in 2010 to 23.6% in 2011. The increase as a percentage of revenue was due primarily to increases in compensation and benefit costs and investments to grow our business, including expanded sales and marketing activities.

Income from Operations. Income from operations increased approximately 31.9%, or $274.6 million, from approximately $861.9 million during 2010 to approximately $1,136.5 million during 2011, representing operating margins of 18.6% of revenues in 2011 and 18.8% of revenues in 2010. The decrease in operating margin was attributed to an increase in compensation and benefit costs and investments to grow our business, including expanded sales and marketing activities. Excluding the impact of applicable designated cash flow hedges, the depreciation of the Indian rupee against the U.S. dollar positively impacted our operating margin by approximately 54 basis points or 0.54 percentage points. Each additional 1.0% change in the exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar will have the effect of moving our operating margin by approximately 27 basis points or 0.27 percentage points. Excluding stock-based compensation expense of $90.2 million and $57.0 million for 2011 and 2010, respectively, operating margins for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 were 20.0% and 20.0%, respectively.

We entered into foreign exchange forward contracts to hedge certain Indian rupee denominated payments in India. These hedges are intended to mitigate the volatility of the changes in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Indian rupee. During 2011, settlement of certain cash flow hedges favorably impacted our operating margin by approximately 31 basis points or 0.31 percentage points.

 

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Other Income (Expense), Net. Total other income (expense), net consists primarily of foreign currency exchange gains and (losses) and interest income. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, Total other income (expense), net:

(Dollars in thousands)

 

     2011     2010     Increase/
(Decrease)
 

Foreign currency exchange (losses) gains

   $ (32,400   $ 11,220      $ (43,620

Gains (losses) on foreign exchange forward contracts not designated as hedging instruments

     23,621        (21,088     44,709   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net foreign currency exchange (losses)

     (8,779     (9,868     1,089   

Interest income

     39,249        25,793        13,456   

Other, net

     2,211        803        1,408   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income (expense), net

   $ 32,681      $ 16,728      $ 15,953   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The foreign currency exchange losses of approximately $32.4 million were primarily attributed to the remeasurement of the Indian rupee net monetary assets on Cognizant India’s books to the U.S. dollar functional currency. The $23.6 million of gains on foreign exchange forward contracts were primarily related to the change in fair value of foreign exchange forward contracts entered into to offset foreign currency exposure to Indian rupee denominated net monetary assets and the realized losses related to the settlement of certain foreign exchange forward contracts in 2011. At December 31, 2011, the notional value of our undesignated hedges was $234.2 million. The $13.5 million increase in interest income was primarily attributed to higher invested balances.

Provision for Income Taxes. The provision for income taxes increased from approximately $145.0 million in 2010 to approximately $285.5 million in 2011. The effective income tax rate increased from 16.5% in 2010 to 24.4% in 2011. The increase in our effective income tax rate was primarily attributed to the expiration of India’s STP tax holiday program in 2011.

Net Income. Net income increased from approximately $733.5 million in 2010 to approximately $883.6 million in 2011, representing 16.0% and 14.4% of revenues, respectively. The decrease in net income as a percentage of revenues in 2011 is primarily attributed to a higher effective income tax rate in 2011.

Year Ended December 31, 2010 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2009

Revenue. Revenue increased by 40.1%, or approximately $1,313.7 million, from approximately $3,278.7 million during 2009 to approximately $4,592.4 million in 2010. This increase was primarily attributed to greater acceptance of the global delivery model among an increasing number of industries, continued interest in using the global delivery model as a means to reduce overall IT costs, increased customer spending on post-acquisition integration engagements and discretionary development projects, and greater penetration in the European market. Revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2009 increased by approximately $1,193.3 million and revenue from new customers added during 2010 was approximately $120.4 million or approximately 9.2% of the year over year revenue increase and 2.6% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2010. In addition, revenue from our North American and European customers increased in 2010 by $988.5 million and $248.8 million, respectively, as compared to 2009. We had approximately 712 active clients as of December 31, 2010 as compared to approximately 589 active clients as of December 31, 2009. In addition, during 2010 we experienced strong demand across all of our business segments for an increasingly broad range of services. Our Financial Services and Healthcare business segments accounted for approximately

 

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$537.8 million and $316.7 million, respectively, of the $1,313.7 million increase in revenue. Additionally, our IT consulting and technology services and IT outsourcing revenues increased by approximately 52.1% and 30.4%, respectively, compared to 2009 and represented approximately 48.3% and 51.7%, respectively, of total revenues in 2010. No customer accounted for sales in excess of 10% of revenues during 2010 or 2009.

Cost of Revenues (Exclusive of Depreciation and Amortization Expense). Our cost of revenues consists primarily of salaries, incentive-based compensation, stock-based compensation expense, payroll taxes, benefits, immigration and project-related travel for technical personnel, subcontracting and sales commissions related to revenues. Our cost of revenues increased by approximately 43.5% or $805.2 million from $1,849.4 million during 2009 to $2,654.6 million in 2010. The increase was due primarily to an increase in compensation and benefits costs of approximately $671.2 million, resulting from the increase in the number of our technical personnel and incentive-based compensation, as well as the appreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar.

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries, incentive-based compensation, stock-based compensation expense, payroll taxes, employee benefits, travel, promotion, communications, management, finance, administrative and occupancy costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses, including depreciation and amortization, increased by approximately 32.7% or $265.2 million, from $810.7 million during 2009, to $1,075.9 million during 2010, and decreased as a percentage of revenue from 24.7% in 2009 to 23.4% in 2010. The decrease as a percentage of revenue was due primarily to economies of scale driven by increased revenues that resulted from our expanded sales and marketing activities in the current and prior years that allowed us to leverage our cost structure over a larger organization, partially offset by an increase in compensation and benefit costs, including incentive-based compensation and the impact of the appreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar.

Income from Operations. Income from operations increased approximately 39.3%, or $243.4 million, from approximately $618.5 million during 2009 to approximately $861.9 million during 2010, representing operating margins of 18.8% of revenues in 2010 and 18.9% of revenues in 2009. The operating margin was impacted by an increase in compensation and benefit costs, including incentive-based compensation costs, and investments to grow our business, partially offset by expanded sales and marketing activities in the current and prior years that allowed us to leverage our cost structure over a larger organization. Excluding the impact of applicable designated cash flow hedges, the appreciation of the Indian rupee against the U.S. dollar negatively impacted our operating margin by approximately 157 basis points or 1.57 percentage points. Each additional 1.0% change in the exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar will have the effect of moving our operating margin by approximately 27 basis points or 0.27 percentage points. Excluding stock-based compensation expense of $57.0 million and $44.8 million for 2010 and 2009 and stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax expense of $0.9 million in 2009, operating margins for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009 were 20.0% and 20.3%, respectively.

We entered into foreign exchange forward contracts to hedge certain Indian rupee denominated payments in India. These hedges are intended to mitigate the volatility of the changes in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Indian rupee. During 2010, settlement of certain cash flow hedges favorably impacted our operating margin by approximately 91 basis points or 0.91 percentage points.

 

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Other Income (Expense), Net. Total other income (expense), net consists primarily of foreign currency exchange gains and (losses) and interest income. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, Total other income (expense), net:

(Dollars in thousands)

 

     2010     2009     Increase/
(Decrease)
 

Foreign currency exchange gains

   $ 11,220      $ 22,493      $ (11,273

(Losses) on foreign exchange forward contracts not designated as hedging instruments

     (21,088     (20,821     (267
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net foreign currency exchange (losses) gains

     (9,868     1,672        (11,540

Interest income

     25,793        15,895        9,898   

Other, net

     803        894        (91
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income (expense), net

   $ 16,728      $ 18,461      $ (1,733
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The foreign currency exchange gains of approximately $11.2 million were primarily attributed to intercompany balances between our European subsidiaries and Cognizant India for services performed by Cognizant India on behalf of our European customers and the remeasurement of the Indian rupee net monetary assets on Cognizant India’s books to the U.S. dollar functional currency. The $21.1 million of losses on foreign exchange forward contracts were related to the change in fair value of foreign exchange forward contracts entered into to offset foreign currency exposure to Indian rupee denominated net monetary assets and the realized losses related to the settlement of certain foreign exchange forward contracts in 2010. At December 31, 2010, the notional value of these undesignated hedges was $234.0 million. The $9.9 million increase in interest income was primarily attributed to higher invested balances.

Provision for Income Taxes. The provision for income taxes increased from approximately $102.0 million in 2009 to approximately $145.0 million in 2010. The effective income tax rate increased from 16.0% in 2009 to 16.5% in 2010. The increase in our effective income tax rate was primarily attributed to discrete tax items in 2010, a higher U.S. state effective income tax rate in 2010, as well as an increase in our taxable income in India resulting from an increase in non-export profits that are taxable at the India statutory rate.

Net Income. Net income increased from approximately $535.0 million in 2009 to approximately $733.5 million in 2010, representing 16.3% and 16.0% of revenues, respectively. The decrease in net income as a percentage of revenues in 2010 is primarily attributed to an increase in net foreign currency exchange losses and a higher effective income tax rate.

Results by Business Segment

Our reportable segments are: Financial Services, which includes customers providing banking / transaction processing, capital markets and insurance services; Healthcare, which includes healthcare providers and payers as well as life sciences customers; Manufacturing/Retail/Logistics, which includes manufacturers, retailers, travel and other hospitality customers, as well as customers providing logistics services; and Other, which is an aggregation of industry operating segments which, individually, are less than 10.0% of consolidated revenues and segment operating profit. The Other segment includes information, media and entertainment services, communications, and high technology operating segments. Our sales managers, account executives, account managers and project teams are aligned in accordance with the specific industries they serve.

Our chief operating decision maker evaluates Cognizant’s performance and allocates resources based on segment revenues and operating profit. Segment operating profit is defined as income from operations before unallocated costs. Generally, operating expenses for each operating segment have similar characteristics and are

 

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subject to the same factors, pressures and challenges. However, the economic environment and its effects on industries served by our operating groups may affect revenue and operating expenses to differing degrees. Expenses included in segment operating profit consist principally of direct selling and delivery costs as well as a per seat charge for use of the development and delivery centers. Certain selling, general and administrative expenses, excess or shortfall of incentive compensation for delivery personnel as compared to target, a portion of depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expense and the related stock-based Indian fringe benefit tax, and the impact of the settlements of our cash flow hedges are not allocated to individual segments in internal management reports used by the chief operating decision maker. Accordingly, such expenses are excluded from segment operating profit.

As of December 31, 2011, we had approximately 785 active customers. Accordingly, we provide a significant volume of services to many customers in each of our business segments. Therefore, a loss of a significant customer or a few significant customers in a particular segment could materially reduce revenues for such segment. However, no individual customer exceeded 10.0% of our consolidated revenues for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, or 2009. In addition, the services we provide to our larger customers are often critical to the operations of such customers and a termination of our services would require an extended transition period with gradual declining revenues.

Revenues from external customers and segment operating profit, before unallocated expenses, for the Financial Services, Healthcare, Manufacturing/Retail/Logistics, and Other segments for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, and 2009 are as follows:

 

                          2011      2010  
     2011      2010      2009      Increase      %      Increase      %  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Revenues:

                    

Financial Services

   $ 2,518,422       $ 1,944,450       $ 1,406,629       $ 573,972         29.5       $ 537,821         38.2   

Healthcare

     1,622,157         1,177,113         860,427         445,044         37.8         316,686         36.8   

Manufacturing/Retail/ Logistics

     1,197,472         849,643         564,917         347,829         40.9         284,726         50.4   

Other

     783,105         621,183         446,690         161,922         26.1         174,493         39.1   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

       

 

 

    

Total revenues

   $ 6,121,156       $ 4,592,389       $ 3,278,663       $ 1,528,767         33.3       $ 1,313,726         40.1   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

       

 

 

    

Segment Operating Profit:

                    

Financial Services

   $ 872,267       $ 668,595       $ 503,689       $ 203,672         30.5       $ 164,906         32.7   

Healthcare

     625,052         436,879         331,007         188,173         43.1         105,872         32.0   

Manufacturing/Retail/ Logistics

     440,416         283,676         184,636         156,740         55.3         99,040         53.6   

Other

     254,145         208,306         147,246         45,839         22.0         61,060         41.5   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

       

 

 

    

Total segment operating profit

   $ 2,191,880       $ 1,597,456       $ 1,166,578       $ 594,424         37.2       $ 430,878         36.9   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

       

 

 

    

Year Ended December 31, 2011 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2010

Financial Services Segment

Revenue. Revenue increased by 29.5%, or approximately $573.9 million, from approximately $1,944.5 million during 2010 to approximately $2,518.4 million in 2011. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by continued expansion of existing customer relationships as well as revenue contributed by new customers. The increase in revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2010 and customers added during 2011 was approximately $531.3 million and approximately $42.6 million, respectively. Within the segment, revenue from our banking and insurance customers increased approximately $395.7 million and $178.2

 

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million, respectively, over the prior year. Overall, the full year 2011 increase in the segment can also be attributed to leveraging sales and marketing investments in this business segment as well as greater acceptance of our global services delivery model and increased customer spending on discretionary development projects.

Segment Operating Profit. Segment operating profit increased by 30.5%, or approximately $203.7 million, from approximately $668.6 million during 2010 to approximately $872.3 million during 2011. The increase in segment operating profit was attributable primarily to increased revenues during the year.

Healthcare Segment

Revenue. Revenue increased by 37.8%, or approximately $445.0 million, from approximately $1,177.1 million during 2010 to approximately $1,622.2 million in 2011. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by continued expansion of existing customer relationships as well as revenue contributed by new customers. The increase in revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2010 and customers added during 2011 was approximately $394.7 million and approximately $50.3 million, respectively. Within the segment, growth was strong among both our healthcare and life sciences customers, where revenue during 2011 increased by approximately $279.8 million and $165.2 million, respectively. The increase can also be attributed to leveraging sales and marketing investments in this business segment as well as greater acceptance of our global services delivery model and increased customer spending on discretionary development projects.

Segment Operating Profit. Segment operating profit increased 43.1%, or approximately $188.2 million, from approximately $436.9 million during 2010 to approximately $625.1 million during 2011. The increase in segment operating profit was attributable primarily to increased revenues, achieving operating efficiencies, including continued leverage of prior sales and marketing investments, and the impact of the depreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar, partially offset by an increase in compensation and benefit costs resulting from additional headcount to support our revenue growth.

Manufacturing/Retail/Logistics Segment

Revenue. Revenue increased by 40.9%, or approximately $347.8 million, from approximately $849.6 million during 2010 to approximately $1,197.5 million in 2011. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by continued expansion of existing customer relationships as well as revenue contributed by new customers. The increase in revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2010 and customers added during 2011 was approximately $307.2 million and approximately $40.6 million, respectively. Within the segment, growth was strong among both our retail and hospitality and manufacturing and logistics customers, where revenue during 2011 increased by approximately $221.7 million and $126.1 million, respectively. The increase can also be attributed to leveraging sales and marketing investments in this business segment as well as greater acceptance of our global services delivery model and increased customer spending on discretionary development projects.

Segment Operating Profit. Segment operating profit increased 55.3%, or approximately $156.7 million, from approximately $283.7 million during 2010 to approximately $440.4 million during 2011. The increase in segment operating profit was attributable primarily to increased revenues during the year, achieving operating efficiencies, including continued leverage of prior sales and marketing investments, and the impact of the depreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar, partially offset by an increase in compensation and benefit costs resulting from additional headcount to support our revenue growth.

Other Segment

Revenue. Revenue increased by 26.1%, or approximately $161.9 million, from approximately $621.2 million in 2010 to approximately $783.1 million in 2011. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by continued expansion of existing customer relationships as well as revenue contributed by new customers. The

 

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increase in revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2010 and customers added during 2011 was approximately $137.9 million and approximately $24.0 million, respectively. Within the Other segment, growth was particularly strong among our telecommunication customers, where revenue during 2011 increased approximately $75.7 million. The increase can also be attributed to leveraging sales and marketing investments in this business segment as well as greater acceptance of our global services delivery model and increased customer spending on discretionary development projects.

Segment Operating Profit. Segment operating profit increased 22.0%, or approximately $45.8 million, from approximately $208.3 million in 2010 to approximately $254.1 million in 2011. The increase in segment operating profit was attributable primarily to increased revenues during the year and the impact of the depreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar, partially offset by an increase in compensation and benefit costs resulting from additional headcount to support our revenue growth, continued investment in sales and marketing and an increase in compensation and benefit costs.

Year Ended December 31, 2010 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2009

Financial Services Segment

Revenue. Revenue increased by 38.2%, or approximately $537.8 million, from approximately $1,406.6 million during 2009 to approximately $1,944.5 million in 2010. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by continued expansion of existing customer relationships as well as revenue contributed by new customers. The increase in revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2009 and customers added during 2010 was approximately $508.1 million and approximately $29.7 million, respectively. Within the segment, revenue from our banking and insurance customers increased approximately $410.3 million and $127.5 million, respectively, over the prior year. Overall, the full year 2010 increase in the segment can also be attributed to leveraging sales and marketing investments in this business segment as well as greater acceptance of our global services delivery model and increased customer spending on post-acquisition integration engagements and discretionary development projects.

Segment Operating Profit. Segment operating profit increased by 32.7%, or approximately $164.9 million, from approximately $503.7 million during 2009 to approximately $668.6 million during 2010. The increase in segment operating profit was attributable primarily to increased revenues, partially offset by additional headcount to support our revenue growth, continued investment in sales and marketing, an increase in compensation and benefit costs and the impact of the appreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar.

Healthcare Segment

Revenue. Revenue increased by 36.8%, or approximately $316.7 million, from approximately $860.4 million during 2009 to approximately $1,177.1 million in 2010. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by continued expansion of existing customer relationships as well as revenue contributed by new customers. The increase in revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2009 and customers added during 2010 was approximately $293.9 million and approximately $22.8 million, respectively. Within the segment, growth was strong among both our healthcare and life sciences customers, where revenue during 2010 increased by approximately $205.4 million and $111.3 million, respectively. The increase can also be attributed to leveraging sales and marketing investments in this business segment as well as greater acceptance of our global services delivery model and increase in discretionary development projects.

Segment Operating Profit. Segment operating profit increased 32.0%, or approximately $105.9 million, from approximately $331.0 million during 2009 to approximately $436.9 million during 2010. The increase in segment operating profit was attributable primarily to increased revenues, partially offset by additional headcount to support our revenue growth, continued investment in sales and marketing, an increase in compensation and benefit costs and the impact of the appreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar.

 

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Manufacturing/Retail/Logistics Segment

Revenue. Revenue increased by 50.4%, or approximately $284.7 million, from approximately $564.9 million during 2009 to approximately $849.6 million in 2010. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by continued expansion of existing customer relationships as well as revenue contributed by new customers. The increase in revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2009 and customers added during 2010 was approximately $241.7 million and approximately $43.0 million, respectively. Within the segment, growth was strong among both our retail and hospitality and manufacturing and logistics customers, where revenue during 2010 increased by approximately $159.6 million and $125.1 million, respectively. The increase can also be attributed to leveraging sales and marketing investments in this business segment as well as greater acceptance of our global services delivery model and increase in discretionary development projects.

Segment Operating Profit. Segment operating profit increased 53.6%, or approximately $99.1 million, from approximately $184.6 million during 2009 to approximately $283.7 million during 2010. The increase in segment operating profit was attributable primarily to increased revenues during the year and achieving operating efficiencies, including continued leverage of prior sales and marketing investments, partially offset by additional headcount to support our revenue growth, an increase in compensation and benefit costs and the impact of the appreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar.

Other Segment

Revenue. Revenue increased by 39.1%, or approximately $174.5 million, from approximately $446.7 million in 2009 to approximately $621.2 million in 2010. The increase in revenue was primarily driven by continued expansion of existing customer relationships as well as revenue contributed by new customers. The increase in revenue from customers existing as of December 31, 2009 and customers added during 2010 was approximately $149.6 million and approximately $24.9 million, respectively. Within the Other segment, growth was particularly strong among both our information, media and entertainment services customers and our telecommunication customers, where revenue during 2010 increased approximately $74.1 million and $56.6 million, respectively. The increase can also be attributed to leveraging sales and marketing investments in this business segment as well as greater acceptance of our global services delivery model and increase in discretionary development projects.

Segment Operating Profit. Segment operating profit increased 41.5%, or approximately $61.1 million, from approximately $147.2 million in 2009 to approximately $208.3 million in 2010. The increase in segment operating profit was attributable primarily to increased revenues during the year and achieving operating efficiencies, including continual leverage of prior sales and marketing investments, partially offset by additional headcount to support our revenue growth, an increase in compensation and benefit costs and the impact of the appreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

At December 31, 2011, we had cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $2,432.3 million. We have used, and plan to use, such cash for expansion of existing operations, including our offshore development and delivery centers; continued development of new service lines; possible acquisitions of related businesses; formation of joint ventures; stock repurchases; and general corporate purposes, including working capital. As of December 31, 2011, we had no third party debt and had working capital of approximately $2,875.8 million as compared to working capital of approximately $2,587.5 million as of December 31, 2010. Accordingly, we do not anticipate any near-term liquidity issues.

Net cash provided by operating activities was approximately $875.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, $764.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 and $672.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in both years is primarily attributed to the increase in our net income. Trade

 

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accounts receivable increased from approximately $626.3 million at December 31, 2009 to approximately $901.3 million at December 31, 2010 and to approximately $1,179.0 million at December 31, 2011. Unbilled accounts receivable increased from approximately $83.0 million at December 31, 2009 to approximately $113.0 at December 31, 2010 and to approximately $139.6 million at December 31, 2011. The increase in trade accounts receivable and unbilled receivables during 2011 was due primarily to increased revenues. We monitor turnover, aging and the collection of accounts receivable through the use of management reports that are prepared on a customer basis and evaluated by our finance staff. At December 31, 2009, our days sales outstanding, including unbilled receivables, was approximately 72 days as compared to 71 days as of December 31, 2010 and 73 days as of December 31, 2011.

Our investing activities used net cash of approximately $850.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, $446.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 and $394.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in net cash used in investing activities during 2011 is related to an increase in net purchases of investments, an increase in capital expenditures during the year and increased payments for acquisitions. The increase in net cash used in investing activities during 2010 as compared to 2009 related to an increase in capital expenditures during the year partially offset by decreased payments for acquisitions and a decrease in net purchases of investments.

Our financing activities used net cash of approximately $255.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2011, and provided net cash of approximately $120.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2010 and $76.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in net cash used in financing activities in 2011 is primarily related to additional repurchases of our common stock under our stock repurchase program. The increase in net cash provided by the financing activities in 2010 as compared to 2009 was related to additional proceeds and excess tax benefits from issuances under our stock-based compensation plans partially offset by additional repurchases of our common stock under our stock repurchase program.

As of December 31, 2011, a majority of our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments was held by our foreign subsidiaries. We utilize a variety of tax planning and financing strategies in an effort to ensure that our worldwide cash is available in the locations in which it is needed. Most of the amounts held outside of the United States could be repatriated to the United States but, under current law, would be subject to United States federal income taxes, less applicable foreign tax credits. However, other than amounts representing pre-2002 undistributed Indian earnings for which we have already accrued U.S. taxes, our intent is to permanently reinvest these funds outside the U.S. and our current plans do not demonstrate a need to repatriate these amounts to fund our U.S. operations.

Our ability to expand and grow our business in accordance with current plans, to make acquisitions and form joint ventures and to meet our long-term capital requirements beyond a twelve month period will depend on many factors, including the rate, if any, at which our cash flow increases, our ability and willingness to accomplish acquisitions and joint ventures with capital stock, our continued intent not to repatriate foreign earnings, and the availability of public and private debt and equity financing. We cannot be certain that additional financing, if required, will be available on terms favorable to us, if at all. We expect our operating cash flow and cash and cash equivalents to be sufficient to meet our operating requirements for the next twelve months. There were no off-balance sheet transactions, arrangements or other relationships with unconsolidated entities or other persons in 2011, 2010, and 2009 that would have affected our liquidity or the availability of, or requirements for, capital resources.

 

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Commitments and Contingencies

As of December 31, 2011, we had outstanding fixed capital commitments of approximately $240.1 million related to our India development center expansion program, which included expenditures for land acquisition, facilities construction and furnishings to build new state-of-the-art development and delivery centers in regions primarily designated as SEZs located in India. As of December 31, 2011, we had the following obligations and commitments to make future payments under contractual obligations and commercial commitments:

 

     Payments due by period  
     Total      Less than
1 year
     1-3 years      3-5 years      More than
5 years
 
     (in thousands)  

Operating leases

   $ 510,092       $ 104,985       $ 185,294       $ 138,565       $ 81,248   

Fixed capital commitments(1)

     240,134         240,134         —           —           —     

Other purchase commitments(2)

     23,714         23,714         —           —           —     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 773,940       $ 368,833       $ 185,294       $ 138,565       $ 81,248   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Relates to our India development and delivery center expansion program.
(2) Other purchase commitments include, among other things, information technology, software support and maintenance obligations, as well as other obligations in the ordinary course of business that we cannot cancel or where we would be required to pay a termination fee in the event of cancellation.

As of December 31, 2011, we had $56.5 million of unrecognized tax benefits. This represents the tax benefits associated with certain tax positions on our domestic and international tax returns that have not been recognized on our financial statements due to uncertainty regarding their resolution. The resolution or settlement of these tax positions with the relevant taxing authorities is at various stages and therefore we are unable to make a reliable estimate of the eventual cash flows by period that may be required to settle these matters.

We are involved in various claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of management, the outcome of such claims and legal actions, if decided adversely, is not expected to have a material adverse effect on our quarterly or annual operating results, cash flows, or consolidated financial position. Additionally, many of our engagements involve projects that are critical to the operations of our customers’ business and provide benefits that are difficult to quantify. Any failure in a customer’s systems or our failure to meet our contractual obligations to our clients, including any breach involving a customer’s confidential information or sensitive data, or our obligations under applicable laws or regulations could result in a claim for substantial damages against us, regardless of our responsibility for such failure. Although we attempt to contractually limit our liability for damages arising from negligent acts, errors, mistakes, or omissions in rendering our services, there can be no assurance that the limitations of liability set forth in our contracts will be enforceable in all instances or will otherwise protect us from liability for damages. Although we have general liability insurance coverage, including coverage for errors or omissions, there can be no assurance that such coverage will continue to be available on reasonable terms or will be available in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims, or that the insurer will not disclaim coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage or changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our quarterly and annual operating results, financial position and cash flows.

Foreign Currency Risk

Overall, we believe that we have limited revenue risk resulting from movement in foreign currency exchange rates as approximately 78.5% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2011 were generated from customers located in North America. However, a portion of our costs in India, representing approximately

 

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33.2% of our global operating costs for the year ended December 31, 2011, are denominated in the Indian rupee and are subject to foreign exchange rate fluctuations. These foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations have an impact on our results of operations. In addition, a portion of our balance sheet is exposed to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, which may result in non-operating foreign currency exchange gains or losses upon remeasurement. In 2011 and 2010, we reported foreign currency exchange (losses) and gains, exclusive of hedging gains or losses, of approximately ($32.4) million and $11.2 million, respectively, which were primarily attributed to the remeasurement of Indian rupee net monetary assets on Cognizant India’s books to the U.S. dollar functional currency. On an ongoing basis, we manage a portion of this risk by limiting our net monetary asset exposure to certain currencies in our foreign subsidiaries, primarily the Indian rupee.

We entered into a series of foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as cash flow hedges of certain Indian rupee denominated payments in India. Cognizant India converts U.S. dollar receipts from intercompany billings to Indian rupees to fund local expenses. These hedges to buy Indian rupees and sell U.S. dollars are intended to partially offset the impact of movement of exchange rates on future operating costs. During 2011 and 2010, we recorded income of $18.8 million and $41.6 million, respectively, on contracts that settled during each year. As of December 31, 2011, we have outstanding contracts with a notional value of $1,193.5 million and a weighted average forward rate of 49.1 rupees to the U.S. dollar scheduled to mature in 2012, outstanding contracts with a notional value of $1,080.0 million and a weighted average forward rate of 50.4 rupees to the U.S. dollar scheduled to mature in 2013, outstanding contracts with a notional value of $810.0 million and a weighted average forward rate of 52.7 rupees to the U.S. dollar scheduled to mature in 2014, and outstanding contracts with a notional value of $420.0 million and a weighted average forward rate of 54.3 rupees to the U.S. dollar scheduled to mature in 2015.

Our foreign subsidiaries are exposed to foreign exchange rate risk for transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the respective subsidiary. We also use foreign exchange forward contracts to hedge balance sheet exposure to certain monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the subsidiary. These contracts are not designated as hedges and are intended to offset the foreign currency exchange gains or losses upon remeasurement of these net monetary assets. We entered into a series of foreign exchange forward contracts scheduled to mature in 2012 which are primarily used to hedge our Indian rupee denominated net monetary assets. At December 31, 2011, the notional value of the outstanding contracts was $234.2 million and the related fair value was an asset of $30.7 million. During 2011, inclusive of gains of $23.6 million on these undesignated balance sheet hedges, we reported net foreign currency exchange (losses) of approximately ($8.8) million.

Effects of Inflation

Our most significant costs are the salaries and related benefits for our programming staff and other professionals. Competition in India, the United States and Europe for professionals with advanced technical skills necessary to perform our services offered has caused wages to increase at a rate greater than the general rate of inflation. As with other service providers in our industry, we must adequately anticipate wage increases, particularly on our fixed-price contracts. Historically, we have experienced increases in compensation and benefit costs, including incentive-based compensation, in India; however, this has not had a material impact on our results of operations as we have been able to absorb such cost increases through price increases or cost management strategies such as managing discretionary costs, mix of professional staff and utilization levels and achieving other operating efficiencies. There can be no assurance that we will be able to offset such cost increases in the future.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In December 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued new guidance clarifying certain disclosure requirements related to business combinations that are material on an individual or aggregate basis. Specifically, the guidance states that, if comparative financial statements are presented, the entity should

 

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disclose revenue and earnings of the combined entity as though the business combination(s) that occurred during the current year occurred as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period only. Additionally, the new standard expands the supplemental pro forma disclosures required by the authoritative guidance to include a description of the nature and amount of material, nonrecurring pro forma adjustments directly attributable to the business combination in the reported pro forma revenue and earnings. We adopted the new guidance effective January 1, 2011. Our adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on our financial condition or consolidated results of operations. However, it may result in additional disclosures in the event that we enter into a business combination that is material either on an individual or aggregate basis.

In June 2011, the FASB issued new guidance, which requires that comprehensive income be presented either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate consecutive statements, thus eliminating the option of presenting the components of comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. In addition, the new guidance requires that the reclassification adjustments for items that are reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income to net income be presented on the face of the financial statements. In December 2011, the FASB deferred the new requirements related to the presentation of reclassification adjustments. The requirement to present comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate consecutive statements has not been deferred and will be effective on a retrospective basis for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2012. The adoption of this standard affects financial statement presentation only and will have no effect on our financial condition or consolidated results of operations.

In September 2011, the FASB issued new guidance related to goodwill impairment testing. This standard allows, but does not require, an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, an entity determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. However, if an entity concludes otherwise, then it is required to perform the first step of the two-step impairment test by calculating the fair value of the reporting unit and comparing the fair value with the carrying amount of the reporting unit. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then the entity is required to perform the second step of the goodwill impairment test to measure the amount of the impairment loss, if any. The new standard gives an entity the option to bypass the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any period and proceed directly to performing the first step of the two-step goodwill impairment test. An entity may resume performing the qualitative assessment in any subsequent period. This new standard will be effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2012 and will not have a material effect on our financial condition or consolidated results of operations.

In December 2011, the FASB issued guidance requiring enhanced disclosures related to the nature of an entity’s rights to offset and any related arrangements associated with its financial instruments and derivative instruments. The new guidance requires the disclosure of the gross amounts subject to rights of set-off, amounts offset in accordance with the accounting standards followed and the related net exposure. The new guidance will be effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013. The adoption of this standard affects financial statement disclosures only and will have no effect on our financial condition or consolidated results of operations.

Forward Looking Statements

The statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements (within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) that involve risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements may be identified by, among other things, the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “could,” “would,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue,” “should” or “anticipates” or the negative thereof or other

 

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variations thereon or comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy that involve risks and uncertainties. From time to time, we or our representatives have made or may make forward-looking statements, orally or in writing.

Such forward-looking statements may be included in various filings made by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or press releases or oral statements made by or with the approval of one of our authorized executive officers. These forward-looking statements, such as statements regarding anticipated future revenues or operating margins, contract percentage completions, earnings, capital expenditures and other statements regarding matters that are not historical facts, involve predictions. Our actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from the results expressed in, or implied by, these forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws. There are a number of important factors that could cause our results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements. These factors include those set forth in Part I, in the section entitled Item 1A. “Risk Factors”.

 

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk in the ordinary course of doing business as we transact or hold a portion of our funds in foreign currencies, particularly the Indian rupee. Accordingly, we periodically evaluate the need for hedging strategies, including the use of derivative financial instruments, to mitigate the effect of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and expect to continue to use such instruments in the future to reduce foreign currency exposure to appreciation or depreciation in the value of certain foreign currencies. All hedging transactions are authorized and executed pursuant to regularly reviewed policies and procedures.

We have entered into a series of foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as cash flow hedges of certain Indian rupee denominated payments in India. Cognizant India converts U.S. dollar receipts from intercompany billings to Indian rupees to fund local expenses. These U.S. dollar / Indian rupee hedges are intended to partially offset the impact of movement of exchange rates on future operating costs. As of December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, the notional value of these contracts was $3,503.5 million and $2,160.0 million, respectively. The outstanding contracts as of December 31, 2011 are scheduled to mature each month during 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. At December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, the net unrealized (loss) gain on our outstanding foreign exchange forward contracts was ($385.6) million and $32.3 million, respectively. The change in the net unrealized gain (loss) position from December 31, 2010 to December 31, 2011 was attributed to the depreciation of the Indian rupee versus the U.S. dollar in the latter part of 2011. Based upon a sensitivity analysis of our foreign exchange forward contracts at December 31, 2011, which estimates the fair value of the contracts based upon market exchange rate fluctuations, a 10.0% change in the foreign currency exchange rate against the U.S. dollar with all other variables held constant would have resulted in a change in the fair value of approximately $291.1 million.

Our foreign subsidiaries are exposed to foreign exchange rate risk for transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the respective subsidiary. We also use foreign exchange forward contracts to hedge balance sheet exposure to certain monetary assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the subsidiary. These contracts are not designated as hedges and are intended to offset the foreign currency exchange gains or losses upon remeasurement of these net monetary assets. We entered into a series of foreign exchange forward contracts scheduled to mature in 2012 which are primarily used to hedge our Indian rupee denominated net monetary assets. At December 31, 2011, the notional value of the outstanding contracts was $234.2 million and the related fair value was an asset of $30.7 million. Based upon a sensitivity analysis of our foreign exchange forward contracts at December 31, 2011, which estimates the fair value of the contracts based upon market exchange rate fluctuations, a 10.0% change in the foreign currency exchange rate against the U.S. dollar with all other variables held constant would have resulted in a change in the fair value of approximately $18.6 million.

 

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There were no off-balance sheet transactions, arrangements or other relationships with unconsolidated entities or other persons in 2011, 2010 and 2009 that would have affected our liquidity or the availability of or requirements for capital resources.

We do not believe we are exposed to material direct risks associated with changes in interest rates other than with our cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments. As of December 31, 2011, we had approximately $2,432.3 million of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments most of which are impacted almost immediately by changes in short-term interest rates.

We typically invest in highly rated securities and our policy generally limits the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. Our investment policy requires investments to be investment grade with the objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss. We may sell our investments prior to their stated maturities for strategic purposes, in anticipation of credit deterioration, or for duration management. As of December 31, 2011, our short-term investments totaled $1,121.4 million. Our investment portfolio is primarily comprised of time deposits and U.S. dollar denominated corporate bonds, municipal bonds, debt issuances by the U.S. government and U.S. government agencies, debt issuances by foreign governments and supranational entities and asset-backed securities.

 

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

The financial statements required to be filed pursuant to this Item 8 are appended to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A list of the financial statements filed herewith is found in Part IV, “Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedule”.

 

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

Not applicable.

 

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

Our management under the supervision and with the participation of our chief executive officer and our chief financial officer, evaluated the design and operating effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act) as of December 31, 2011. Based on this evaluation, our chief executive officer and our chief financial officer concluded that, as of December 31, 2011, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in our reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is (i) recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and (ii) accumulated and communicated to our chief executive officer and our chief financial officer as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

No changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) occurred during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2011 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Management’s Responsibility for Financial Statements

Our management is responsible for the integrity and objectivity of all information presented in this annual report. The consolidated financial statements were prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally

 

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accepted in the United States of America and include amounts based on management’s best estimates and judgments. Management believes the consolidated financial statements fairly reflect the form and substance of transactions and that the financial statements fairly represent the Company’s financial position and results of operations.

The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, which is composed solely of independent directors, meets regularly with the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm and representatives of management to review accounting, financial reporting, internal control and audit matters, as well as the nature and extent of the audit effort. The Audit Committee is responsible for the engagement of the independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm has free access to the Audit Committee.

Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) or 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act and is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, our chief executive and chief financial officers and effected by our Board of Directors, management and other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and includes those policies and procedures that:

 

   

Pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets;

 

   

Provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and

 

   

Provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Our management assessed the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011. In making this assessment, the Company’s management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control-Integrated Framework.

Based on its evaluation, our management has concluded that, as of December 31, 2011, our internal control over financial reporting was effective. The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is included on page F-2.

Inherent Limitations of Internal Controls

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all misstatements. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

 

Item 9B. Other Information

None.

 

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PART III

 

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

The information relating to our directors and nominees for election as directors under the heading “Election of Directors” in our definitive proxy statement for the 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated herein by reference to such proxy statement. The information relating to our executive officers in response to this item is contained in part under the caption “Our Executive Officers” in Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the remainder is incorporated herein by reference to our definitive proxy statement for the 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders under the headings “Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance,” “Corporate Governance-Code of Ethics” and “Committees of the Board-Audit Committee.”

We have adopted a written code of business conduct and ethics, entitled “Cognizant’s Core Values and Standards of Business Conduct,” that applies to all of our employees, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer and controller, or persons performing similar functions. We make available our code of business conduct and ethics free of charge through our website which is located at www.cognizant.com. We intend to disclose any amendments to, or waivers from, our code of business conduct and ethics that are required to be publicly disclosed pursuant to rules of the SEC and the NASDAQ Global Select Market by filing such amendment or waiver with the SEC and by posting it on our website.

 

Item 11. Executive Compensation

The discussion under the heading “Executive Compensation,” “Compensation Committee Report,” “Executive Compensation Tables” and “Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation” in our definitive proxy statement for the 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated herein by reference to such proxy statement.

 

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

The discussion under the heading “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” in our definitive proxy statement for the 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated herein by reference to such proxy statement.

 

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

The discussion under the heading “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence” in our definitive proxy statement for the 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated herein by reference to such proxy statement.

 

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

The discussion under the heading “Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm Fees and Other Matters” in our definitive proxy statement for the 2012 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated herein by reference to such proxy statement.

 

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PART IV

 

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

(a)   

    (1) Consolidated Financial Statements.

          Reference is made to the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements on Page F-1.

  

    (2) Consolidated Financial Statement Schedule.

          Reference is made to the Index to Financial Statement Schedule on Page F-1.

  

    (3) Exhibits.

          Reference is made to the Index to Exhibits on Page 71.

Schedules other than as listed above are omitted as not required or inapplicable or because the required information is provided in the consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized this 27th day of February, 2012.

 

COGNIZANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORPORATION
By:       /s/    FRANCISCO D’SOUZA
  Francisco D’Souza,
  Chief Executive Officer
  (Principal Executive Officer)

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

/s/    FRANCISCO D’SOUZA

Francisco D’Souza

 

Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  February 27, 2012

/s/    GORDON COBURN

Gordon Coburn

  President   February 27, 2012

/s/    KAREN MCLOUGHLIN

Karen McLoughlin

 

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  February 27, 2012

/s/    JOHN E. KLEIN

John E. Klein

  Chairman of the Board and Director   February 27, 2012

/s/    LAKSHMI NARAYANAN

Lakshmi Narayanan

  Vice Chairman of the Board and Director   February 27, 2012

/s/    THOMAS M. WENDEL

Thomas M. Wendel

  Director   February 27, 2012

/s/    ROBERT W. HOWE

Robert W. Howe

  Director   February 27, 2012

/s/    ROBERT E. WEISSMAN

Robert E. Weissman

  Director   February 27, 2012

/s/    JOHN N. FOX, JR.

John N. Fox, Jr.

  Director   February 27, 2012

/s/    MAUREEN  BREAKIRON-EVANS

Maureen Breakiron-Evans

  Director   February 27, 2012

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit No.

  

Description of Exhibit

    3.1    Restated Certificate of Incorporation. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated February 13, 2003.)
    3.2    Amended and Restated By-laws of the Company, as amended on April 18, 2008. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated April 18, 2008.)
    3.3    Amendment to Restated Certificate of Incorporation dated May 26, 2004. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2004.)
    3.4    Amendment to Restated Certificate of Incorporation dated June 13, 2006. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated June 13, 2006.)
    3.5    Amendment to Restated Certificate of Incorporation dated June 2, 2011. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated June 2, 2011.)
    3.6    Amendment to Amended and Restated By-laws of the Company, as amended, dated June 2, 2011. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated June 2, 2011.)
    4.1    Rights Agreement, dated March 5, 2003, between the Company and American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as Rights Agent, which includes the Certificate of Designations for the Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock as Exhibit A, the Form of Right Certificate as Exhibit B and the Summary of Rights to Purchase Preferred Shares as Exhibit C (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated March 5, 2003.)
    4.2    Specimen Certificate for shares of Class A common stock. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Amendment Number 4 to the Company’s Form S-4 dated
January 30, 2003.)
  10.1*    Form of Indemnification Agreement for Directors and Officers. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File Number 333-49783) which became effective on June 18, 1998.)
  10.2*    Amended and Restated Cognizant Technology Solutions Key Employees’ Stock Option Plan. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File Number 333-49783) which became effective on June 18, 1998.)
  10.3*    Amended and Restated Cognizant Technology Solutions Non-Employee Directors’ Stock Option Plan. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File Number 333-49783) which became effective on June 18, 1998.)
  10.4*    Form of Severance and Non-Competition Agreement between the Company and each of its Executive Officers. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.9 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File Number 333-49783) which became effective on June 18, 1998.)
  10.5*    Amended and Restated 1999 Incentive Compensation Plan (As Amended and Restated Through April 26, 2007). (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated June 7, 2007.)
  10.6*    2004 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (as amended and restated effective as of April 1, 2010). (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K dated June 1, 2010.)
  10.7*    Form of Stock Option Certificate. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2004.)

 

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Exhibit No.

  

Description of Exhibit

  10.8*    The Cognizant Technology Solutions Executive Pension Plan. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2005.)
  10.9     Distribution Agreement between IMS Health Incorporated and the Company dated January 7, 2003. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.13 to the Company’s Amendment Number 4 to the Company Form S-4 dated January 30, 2003.)
  10.10*    Form of Stock Option Agreement between the Company and Lakshmi Narayanan pursuant to which stock options were granted on February 5, 2003. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.11 to the Company’s Form 10-K dated March 12, 2004.)
  10.11*    Form of Stock Option Agreement between the Company and Francisco D’Souza pursuant to which stock options were granted on February 5, 2003. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.13 to the Company’s Form 10-K dated March 12, 2004.)
  10.12*    Severance and Noncompetition Agreement between the Company and Ramakrishnan Chandrasekaran dated December 13, 2004. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated December 17, 2004.)
  10.13*    Amended and Restated 1999 Incentive Compensation Plan Amendment No. 1, which became effective on March 2, 2007. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2007.)
  10.14*    Amended and Restated Key Employees’ Stock Option Plan Amendment No. 1, which became effective on March 2, 2007. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2007.)
  10.15*    Amended and Restated Non-Employee Directors’ Stock Option Plan Amendment No. 1, which became effective on March 2, 2007. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2007.)
  10.16*    Severance and Noncompetition Agreement with Rajeev Mehta dated July 23, 2007. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated July 18, 2007.)
  10.17*    Form of Performance Unit Award for grants to certain executive officers. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated December 6, 2007.)
  10.18*    Form of Stock Unit Award Agreement pursuant to the Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation Amended and Restated 1999 Incentive Compensation Plan. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K dated September 4, 2008.)
  10.19*    Form of Amendment to Severance and Noncompetition Agreements with the Named Executive Officers. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Form 8-K dated December 3, 2008.)
  10.20*    The Cognizant Technology Solutions Executive Pension Plan, as amended and restated. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Company’s Form 8-K dated December 3, 2008.)
  10.21*    Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation 2009 Incentive Compensation Plan. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 3, 2010.)
  10.22*    Form of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation Stock Option Agreement. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 6, 2010.

 

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Exhibit No.

  

Description of Exhibit

  10.23*    Form of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation Notice of Grant of Stock Option. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 6, 2010.)
  10.24*    Form of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement Time-Based Vesting. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 6, 2010.)
  10.25*    Form of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation Notice of Award of Restricted Stock Units Time-Based Vesting. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 6, 2010.)
  10.26*    Form of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation Restricted Stock Unit Award Agreement Performance-Based Vesting. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.5 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 6, 2010.)
  10.27*    Form of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation Notice of Award of Restricted Stock Units Performance-Based Vesting. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.6 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 6, 2010.)
  10.28*    Form of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation Notice of Award of Restricted Stock Units Non-Employee Director Deferred Issuance. (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.8 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 6, 2010.)
  21.1 †    List of subsidiaries of the Company.
  23.1 †    Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.
  31.1 †    Certification Pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) of the Exchange Act, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Chief Executive Officer).
  31.2 †    Certification Pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) and 15d-14(a) of the Exchange Act, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Chief Financial Officer).
  32.1 ††    Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350 (Chief Executive Officer).
  32.2 ††    Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350 (Chief Financial Officer).
101.INS    XBRL Instance Document
101.SCH    XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
101.CAL    XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.DEF    XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
101.LAB    XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
101.PRE    XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document

 

* A management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement required to be filed as an exhibit pursuant to Item 15(a)(3) of Form 10-K.
Filed herewith. All other exhibits previously filed.
†† Furnished herewith.

 

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COGNIZANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORPORATION

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE

 

     Page  

Consolidated Financial Statements:

  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     F-2   

Consolidated Statements of Financial Position as of December 31, 2011 and 2010

     F-3   

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009

     F-4   

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the years ended December  31, 2011, 2010 and 2009

     F-5   

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009

     F-6   

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-7   

Financial Statement Schedule:

  

Schedule of Valuation and Qualifying Accounts

     F-32   

 

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Table of Contents

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation:

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the accompanying index appearing under Item 15(a)(1) present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation (the “Company”) and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2011 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2011, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS LLP

New York, New York

February 27, 2012

 

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COGNIZANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION

(in thousands, except par values)

 

     At December 31,  
     2011     2010  
Assets     

Current assets:

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 1,310,906      $ 1,540,969   

Short-term investments

     1,121,358        685,419   

Trade accounts receivable, net of allowances of $24,658 and $20,991, respectively

     1,179,043        901,308   

Unbilled accounts receivable

     139,627        112,960   

Deferred income tax assets, net

     109,042        96,164   

Other current assets

     225,530        181,414   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current assets

     4,085,506        3,518,234   

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $455,506 and $352,472, respectively

     758,034        570,448   

Goodwill

     288,772        223,963   

Intangible assets, net

     97,616        85,136   

Deferred income tax assets, net

     164,192        109,808   

Other noncurrent assets

     113,813        75,485   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total assets

   $ 5,507,933      $ 4,583,074   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity     

Current liabilities:

    

Accounts payable

   $ 72,205      $ 75,373   

Deferred revenue

     105,713        84,590   

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

     1,031,787        770,763   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total current liabilities

     1,209,705        930,726   

Deferred income tax liabilities, net

     3,339        4,946   

Other noncurrent liabilities

     342,003        62,971   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     1,555,047        998,643   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Commitments and contingencies (See Note 13)

    

Stockholders’ equity:

    

Preferred stock, $.10 par value, 15,000 shares authorized, none issued

     —          —     

Class A common stock, $.01 par value, 1,000,000 shares authorized at December 31, 2011 and 500,000 shares authorized at December 31, 2010; 303,106 and 303,941 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively

     3,031        3,039   

Additional paid-in capital

     692,723        846,886   

Retained earnings

     3,582,526        2,698,908   

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

     (325,394     35,598   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity

     3,952,886        3,584,431   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

   $ 5,507,933      $ 4,583,074   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

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COGNIZANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  

Revenues

   $ 6,121,156      $ 4,592,389      $ 3,278,663   

Operating expenses:

      

Cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization expense shown separately below)

     3,538,622        2,654,569        1,849,443   

Selling, general and administrative expenses

     1,328,665        972,093        721,359   

Depreciation and amortization expense

     117,401        103,875        89,371   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income from operations

     1,136,468        861,852        618,490   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income (expense), net:

      

Interest income

     39,249        25,793        15,895   

Other, net

     (6,568     (9,065     2,566   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income (expense), net

     32,681        16,728        18,461   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before provision for income taxes

     1,169,149        878,580        636,951   

Provision for income taxes

     285,531        145,040        101,988   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income

   $ 883,618      $ 733,540      $ 534,963   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Basic earnings per share

   $ 2.91      $ 2.44      $ 1.82   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted earnings per share

   $ 2.85      $ 2.37      $ 1.78   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding—Basic

     303,277        300,781        293,304   

Dilutive effect of shares issuable under stock-based compensation plans

     7,074        8,356        7,811   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding—Diluted

     310,351        309,137        301,115   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the financial statements.

 

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COGNIZANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

(in thousands)

 

    

Class A Common Stock

    Additional
Paid-in
Capital
    Retained
Earnings
     Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income(Loss)
    Total  
         Shares         Amount           

Balance, December 31, 2008

     291,670      $ 2,917      $ 541,735      $ 1,430,405       $ (9,479   $ 1,965,578   

Net income

     —          —          —          534,963         —          534,963   

Foreign currency translation adjustments

     —          —          —          —           11,922        11,922   

Change in unrealized gain on cash flow hedges, net of taxes of $550

     —          —          —          —           17,834        17,834   
             

 

 

 

Comprehensive income

              $ 564,719   
             

 

 

 

Common stock issued, stock-based compensation plans

     6,326        63        61,588        —           —          61,651   

Tax benefit, stock-based compensation plans

     —          —          32,672        —           —          32,672   

Stock-based compensation expense

     —          —          44,816        —           —          44,816   

Repurchases of common stock

     (765     (8     (16,251     —           —          (16,259
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance, December 31, 2009

     297,231        2,972        664,560        1,965,368         20,277        2,653,177   

Net income

     —          —          —          733,540         —          733,540   

Foreign currency translation adjustments

     —          —          —          —           2,411        2,411   

Change in unrealized gain on cash flow hedges, net of taxes of $1,044

     —          —          —          —           12,313        12,313   

Change in unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities, net of taxes of $408

     —          —          —          —           597        597   
             

 

 

 

Comprehensive income

              $ 748,861   
             

 

 

 

Common stock issued, stock-based compensation plans

     7,529        75        107,009        —           —          107,084   

Tax benefit, stock-based compensation plans

     —          —          73,839        —           —          73,839   

Stock-based compensation expense

     —          —          56,984        —           —          56,984   

Repurchases of common stock

     (892     (9     (58,991     —           —          (59,000

Acquisition (See Note 2)

     73        1        3,485        —           —          3,486   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance, December 31, 2010

     303,941        3,039        846,886        2,698,908         35,598        3,584,431   

Net income

     —          —          —          883,618         —          883,618   

Foreign currency translation adjustments

     —          —          —          —           (7,839     (7,839

Change in unrealized (loss) gain on cash flow hedges, net of taxes of ($64,217)

     —          —          —          —           (353,762     (353,762

Change in unrealized gain on available-for-sale securities, net of taxes of $372

     —          —          —          —           609        609   
             

 

 

 

Comprehensive income

              $ 522,626   
             

 

 

 

Common stock issued, stock-based compensation plans

     4,513        45        79,506        —           —          79,551   

Tax benefit, stock-based compensation plans

     —          —          39,778        —           —          39,778   

Stock-based compensation expense

     —          —          90,232        —           —          90,232   

Repurchases of common stock

     (5,511     (55     (374,092     —           —          (374,147

Acquisition (See Note 2)

     163        2        10,413        —           —          10,415   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

Balance, December 31, 2011

     303,106      $ 3,031      $ 692,723      $ 3,582,526       $ (325,394   $ 3,952,886   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

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COGNIZANT TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(in thousands)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2011     2010     2009  

Cash flows from operating activities:

      

Net income

   $ 883,618      $ 733,540      $ 534,963   

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:

      

Depreciation and amortization

     124,175        110,172        89,371   

Provision for doubtful accounts

     4,582        5,950        3,347   

Deferred income taxes

     (8,599     (51,909     (26,589

Stock-based compensation expense

     90,232        56,984        44,816   

Excess tax benefit on stock-based compensation plans

     (39,141     (71,919     (31,556

Other

     46,036        (7,598     (6,101

Changes in assets and liabilities:

      

Trade accounts receivable

     (284,167     (278,418     (98,451

Other current assets

     (99,224     (75,347     (42,778

Other assets

     (28,805     (24,296     (9,255

Accounts payable

     (8,593     18,597        6,675   

Other current and noncurrent liabilities

     195,038        348,898        207,883   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash provided by operating activities

     875,152        764,654        672,325   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash flows (used in) investing activities:

      

Purchases of property and equipment

     (288,221     (185,512     (76,639

Purchases of investments

     (1,338,664     (934,185     (348,209

Proceeds from maturity or sale of investments

     859,404        706,670        98,697   

Acquisitions, net of cash acquired

     (82,800     (33,863     (68,613
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash (used in) investing activities

     (850,281     (446,890     (394,764
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash flows (used in) provided by financing activities:

      

Issuance of common stock under stock-based compensation plans

     79,551        107,084        61,651   

Excess tax benefit on stock-based compensation plans

     39,141        71,919        31,556   

Repurchases of common stock

     (374,147     (59,000     (16,259
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities

     (255,455     120,003        76,948   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Effect of currency translation on cash and cash equivalents

     521        2,272        11,355   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

     (230,063     440,039        365,864   

Cash and cash equivalents, at beginning of year

     1,540,969        1,100,930        735,066   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents, at end of year

   $ 1,310,906      $ 1,540,969      $ 1,100,930   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Supplemental information:

      

Cash paid for income taxes during the year

   $ 248,229      $ 127,129      $ 120,544   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(Dollars in thousands, except share data)

1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

The terms “Cognizant,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.

Description of Business. Cognizant is a leading provider of custom information technology, or IT, consulting and business process outsourcing services. Our customers are primarily Global 2000 companies. Our core competencies include Technology Strategy Consulting, Complex Systems Development and Integration, Enterprise Software Package Implementation and Maintenance, Data Warehousing, Business Intelligence and Analytics, Application Testing, Application Maintenance, Infrastructure Management and Business and Knowledge Process Outsourcing. We tailor our services to specific industries, and utilize an integrated global delivery model. This seamless global delivery model combines technical and account management teams located on-site at the customer location and at dedicated near-shore and offshore development and delivery centers located primarily in India, China, the United States, Canada, Argentina, Hungary and the Philippines.

Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation. The consolidated financial statements are presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP, and reflect the consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows of our consolidated subsidiaries for all periods presented. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Cash and Cash Equivalents and Investments. Cash and cash equivalents consist of all cash balances, including money market funds and liquid instruments. Liquid instruments are classified as cash equivalents when their maturities at the date of purchase are three months or less and as short-term investments when their maturities at the date of purchase are greater than three months.

We determine the appropriate classification of our investments in marketable securities at the date of purchase and reevaluate such designation at each balance sheet date. We have classified and accounted for our marketable securities as available-for-sale. After consideration of our risk versus reward objectives, as well as our liquidity requirements, we may sell these securities prior to their stated maturities. As we view these marketable securities as available to support current operations, we classify such securities with maturities at the date of purchase beyond twelve months as short-term investments because such investments represent an investment in cash that is available for current operations. Non-marketable investments are classified as short-term investments when their maturities are between three and twelve months and as long-term investments when their maturities are greater than twelve months.

Available-for-sale securities are reported at fair value with changes in unrealized gains and losses recorded as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) until realized. We determine the cost of the securities sold based on the specific identification method. Trading securities are reported at fair value with any unrealized gains or losses related to the changes in fair value recorded in income or loss. Time deposits with financial institutions are valued at cost, which approximates fair value.

Interest and amortization of premiums and discounts for debt securities are included in interest income. We also evaluate our available-for-sale investments periodically for possible other-than-temporary impairment by reviewing factors such as the length of time and extent to which fair value has been below cost basis, the financial condition of the issuer, whether we intend to sell the security and whether it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security prior to recovery of its amortized cost basis. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is generally recorded to income and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

 

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Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. The allowance for doubtful accounts is determined by evaluating the relative credit-worthiness of each customer, historical collections experience and other information, including the aging of the receivables. We evaluate the collectibility of our accounts receivable on an on-going basis and write-off accounts when they are deemed to be uncollectible.

Unbilled Accounts Receivable. Unbilled accounts receivable represent revenues on contracts to be billed, in subsequent periods, as per the terms of the related contracts.

Short-term Financial Assets and Liabilities. Cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, accounts payable and other accrued liabilities are short-term in nature and, accordingly, their carrying values approximate fair value.

Property and Equipment. Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the term of the lease or the estimated useful life of the improvement. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred, while renewals and betterments are capitalized. Deposits paid towards acquisition of long-lived assets and the cost of assets not put in use before the balance sheet date are disclosed under the caption “capital work-in-progress” in Note 4.

Internal Use Software. Costs for software developed or obtained for internal use are capitalized, including the salaries and benefits of employees that are directly involved in the installation of such software. The capitalized costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the lesser of three years or the software’s useful life. Costs associated with preliminary project stage activities, training, maintenance and all other post-implementation stage activities are expensed as incurred.

Goodwill. We allocate the cost of an acquired entity to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values including goodwill and identifiable intangible assets. We do not amortize goodwill, but instead test goodwill at the reporting unit level for impairment at least annually or as circumstances warrant. If an impairment is indicated, a write-down to fair value (normally measured by discounting estimated future cash flows) is recorded. We do not have any indefinite-lived intangible assets.

Long-Lived Assets and Intangibles. We review long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. We recognize an impairment loss when the sum of undiscounted expected future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of such assets. The impairment loss would equal the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset. Other intangibles consist primarily of customer relationships and developed technology, which are being amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.

Stock Repurchase Program. Our existing stock repurchase program approved by our Board of Directors in December 2010 and subsequently amended during 2011 allows for the repurchase of $600,000 of our outstanding shares of Class A common stock. This stock repurchase program expires on June 30, 2012. We completed stock repurchases of 5,606,528 shares for $380,646, inclusive of fees and expenses, under this program. Under a stock repurchase program which expired in December 2009, we were authorized to repurchase up to $50,000, excluding fees and expenses, of our Class A common stock. We completed stock repurchases of 650,000 shares for $12,439, inclusive of fees and expenses, under this program. Additional stock repurchases were made in connection with our stock-based compensation plans, whereby Company shares were tendered by employees for payment of applicable statutory tax withholdings. During 2011, 2010, and 2009 such repurchases totaled 504,164, 292,576 and 114,642 shares, respectively at an aggregate cost of $35,365, $17,136 and $3,820 respectively. At the time of repurchase, shares are returned to the status of authorized and unissued shares. We account for the repurchases as constructively retired and record such repurchases as a reduction of Class A common stock and additional paid-in capital.

 

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Revenue Recognition. Our contracts are entered into on either a time-and-materials or fixed-price basis. Revenues related to time-and-material contracts are recognized as the service is performed. Revenues related to fixed-price contracts that provide for highly complex information technology application development services are recognized as the service is performed using the percentage of completion method of accounting, under which the total value of revenue is recognized on the basis of the percentage that each contract’s total labor cost to date bears to the total expected labor costs (cost to cost method). Revenues related to fixed-price contracts that provide solely for application maintenance services are recognized on a straight-line basis unless revenues are earned and obligations are fulfilled in a different pattern. Revenues related to fixed-price contracts that do not provide for highly complex information technology development services are recognized as services are performed on a proportional performance basis based upon the level of effort. Expenses are recorded as incurred over the contract period.

Revenues related to business process outsourcing, or BPO, contracts entered into on a time-and-material basis are recognized as the services are performed. Revenues from fixed-price BPO contracts are recognized on a straight-line basis, unless revenues are earned and obligations are fulfilled in a different pattern. Revenues from transaction-priced contracts are recognized as transactions are processed. Amounts billable for transition or set-up activities are deferred and recognized as revenue evenly over the period services are provided. Costs related to delivering BPO services are expensed as incurred with the exception of certain transition costs related to the set-up of processes, personnel and systems, which are deferred during the transition period and expensed evenly over the period of service. The deferred costs are specific internal costs or external costs directly related to transition or set-up activities necessary to enable the BPO services. Generally, deferred amounts are protected in the event of early termination of the contract and are monitored regularly for impairment. Impairment losses are recorded when projected undiscounted operating cash flows of the related contract are not sufficient to recover the carrying amount of the deferred assets. Deferred transition revenues and costs as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 were immaterial.

Contingent or incentive revenues are recognized when the contingency is satisfied and we conclude the amounts are earned. Volume discounts are recorded as a reduction of revenue over the contract period as services are provided.

For contracts with multiple deliverables, we evaluate at the inception of each new contract all deliverables in an arrangement to determine whether they represent separate units of accounting. For arrangements with multiple units of accounting, primarily fixed-price contracts that provide both application maintenance and application development services and certain application maintenance contracts, arrangement consideration is allocated among the units of accounting, where separable, based on their relative selling price. Relative selling price is determined based on vendor-specific objective evidence, if it exists. Otherwise, third-party evidence of selling price is used, when it is available, and in circumstances when neither vendor-specific objective evidence nor third-party evidence of selling price is available, management’s best estimate of selling price is used. Revenue is recognized for each unit of accounting based on our revenue recognition policy described above.

Fixed-price contracts are cancelable subject to a specified notice period. All services provided by us through the date of cancellation are due and payable under the contract terms. We issue invoices related to fixed-price contracts based upon achievement of milestones during a project or other contractual terms. Differences between the timing of billings, based upon contract milestones or other contractual terms, and the recognition of revenue are recognized as either unbilled receivables or deferred revenue. Estimates of certain fixed-price contracts are subject to adjustment as a project progresses to reflect changes in expected completion costs or efforts. The cumulative impact of any revision in estimates is reflected in the financial reporting period in which the change in estimate becomes known and any anticipated losses on contracts are recognized immediately. Warranty provisions generally exist under such contracts for a period of up to ninety days past contract completion and costs related to such provisions are accrued at the time the related revenues are recorded.

For all services, revenue is earned when, and if, evidence of an arrangement is obtained and the other criteria to support revenue recognition are met, including the price is fixed or determinable, services have been

 

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rendered and collectability is reasonably assured. Revenues related to services performed without a signed agreement or work order are not recognized until there is evidence of an arrangement, such as when agreements or work orders are signed or payment is received; however, the cost related to the performance of such work is recognized in the period the services are rendered.

We account for reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses as revenues. Subcontractor costs are included in cost of services as they are incurred.

Stock-Based Compensation. Stock-based compensation expense for awards of equity instruments to employees and non-employee directors is determined based on the grant-date fair value of those awards. We recognize these compensation costs net of an estimated forfeiture rate over the requisite service period of the award. Forfeitures are estimated on the date of grant and revised if actual or expected forfeiture activity differs materially from original estimates.

Foreign Currency. The assets and liabilities of our foreign subsidiaries whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar are translated into U.S. dollars from local currencies at current exchange rates and revenues and expenses are translated from local currencies at average monthly exchange rates. The resulting translation adjustments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position. The U.S. dollar is the functional currency for certain foreign subsidiaries who conduct business predominantly in U.S. dollars. For these foreign subsidiaries, non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured at historical exchange rates, while monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured at current exchange rates. Foreign currency exchange gains or losses from remeasurement are included in income. Net foreign currency exchange (losses) gains included in our results of operations, inclusive of our undesignated foreign currency hedges, were ($8,779), ($9,868), and $1,672, for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.

Derivative Financial Instruments. Derivative financial instruments are accounted for in accordance with the authoritative guidance which requires that each derivative instrument be recorded on the balance sheet as either an asset or liability measured at its fair value as of the reporting date. Our derivative financial instruments consist of foreign exchange forward contracts. For derivative financial instruments to qualify for hedge accounting, the following criteria must be met: (1) the hedging instrument must be designated as a hedge; (2) the hedged exposure must be specifically identifiable and expose us to risk; and (3) it is expected that a change in fair value of the derivative financial instrument and an opposite change in the fair value of the hedged exposure will have a high degree of correlation. The authoritative guidance also requires that changes in our derivatives’ fair values be recognized in income unless specific hedge accounting and documentation criteria are met (i.e., the instruments are accounted for as hedges). For items which hedge accounting is applied, we record the effective portion of our derivative financial instruments that are designated as cash flow hedges in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position. Any ineffectiveness or excluded portion of a designated cash flow hedge is recognized in income.

Use of Estimates. The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, including the recoverability of tangible and intangible assets, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. On an on-going basis, management reevaluates these estimates. The most significant estimates relate to the recognition of revenue and profits based on the percentage of completion method of accounting for certain fixed-bid contracts, the allowance for doubtful accounts, income taxes and related deferred income tax assets and liabilities, valuation of investments, goodwill and other long-lived assets, assumptions used in determining the fair value of stock-based compensation awards and derivative financial instruments, contingencies and litigation. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. The actual amounts may vary from the estimates used in the preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

 

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Risks and Uncertainties. The majority of our development and delivery centers and employees are located in India. As a result, we may be subject to certain risks associated with international operations, including risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and risks associated with the application and imposition of protective legislation and regulations relating to import and export or otherwise resulting from foreign policy or the variability of foreign economic or political conditions. Additional risks associated with international operations include difficulties in enforcing intellectual property rights, the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws, potential geo-political and other risks associated with terrorist activities and local or cross border conflicts and potentially adverse tax consequences, tariffs, quotas and other barriers.

Concentration of Credit Risk. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, time deposits, investments in securities, derivative financial instruments and trade accounts receivable. We maintain our cash and cash equivalents and investments with high credit quality financial institutions, invest in investment-grade debt securities and limit the amount of credit exposure to any one commercial issuer. Trade accounts receivable is dispersed across many customers operating in different industries; therefore, concentration of credit risk is limited.

Income Taxes. We provide for income taxes utilizing the asset and liability method of accounting. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recorded to reflect the tax consequences in future years of differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their financial reporting amounts at each balance sheet date, based on enacted tax laws and statutory tax rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that future tax benefits associated with a deferred income tax asset will not be realized, a valuation allowance is provided. The effect on deferred income tax assets and liabilities of a change in the tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Tax benefits earned on exercise of employee stock options in excess of compensation charged to income are credited to additional paid-in capital. Our provision for income taxes also includes the impact of provisions established for uncertain income tax positions, as well as the related interest.

Earnings Per Share, or EPS. Basic EPS excludes dilution and is computed by dividing earnings available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS includes all potential dilutive common stock in the weighted average shares outstanding. For purposes of computing diluted earnings per share for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, 7,074,000, 8,356,000, and 7,811,000 shares were assumed to have been outstanding related to common share equivalents. We exclude options with exercise prices that are greater than the average market price from the calculation of diluted EPS because their effect would be anti-dilutive. We excluded 12,500 shares in 2011, zero shares in 2010, and 3,839,000 shares in 2009 from our diluted EPS calculation. Also, in accordance with the authoritative guidance, we excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS options to purchase an additional 38,600 shares in 2011, 16,500 shares in 2010, and 228,000 shares in 2009, whose combined exercise price, unamortized fair value and excess tax benefits were greater in each of those periods than the average market price of our common stock because their effect would be anti-dilutive. We include performance stock unit awards in the dilutive potential common shares when they become contingently issuable per the authoritative guidance and exclude the awards when they are not contingently issuable.

Accounting Changes and New Accounting Standards.

In December 2010, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued new guidance clarifying certain disclosure requirements related to business combinations that are material on an individual or aggregate basis. Specifically, the guidance states that, if comparative financial statements are presented, the entity should disclose revenue and earnings of the combined entity as though the business combination(s) that occurred during the current year occurred as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period only. Additionally, the new standard expands the supplemental pro forma disclosures required by the authoritative guidance to include a description of the nature and amount of material, nonrecurring pro forma adjustments directly attributable to the business combination in the reported pro forma revenue and earnings. We adopted the new

 

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guidance effective January 1, 2011. Our adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on our financial condition or consolidated results of operations. However, it may result in additional disclosures in the event that we enter into a business combination that is material either on an individual or aggregate basis.

In June 2011, the FASB issued new guidance, which requires that comprehensive income be presented either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate consecutive statements, thus eliminating the option of presenting the components of comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. In addition, the new guidance requires that the reclassification adjustments for items that are reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income to net income be presented on the face of the financial statements. In December 2011, the FASB deferred the new requirements related to the presentation of reclassification adjustments. The requirement to present comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate consecutive statements has not been deferred and will be effective on a retrospective basis for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2012. The adoption of this standard affects financial statement presentation only and will have no effect on our financial condition or consolidated results of operations.

In September 2011, the FASB issued new guidance related to goodwill impairment testing. This standard allows, but does not require, an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, an entity determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. However, if an entity concludes otherwise, then it is required to perform the first step of the two-step impairment test by calculating the fair value of the reporting unit and comparing the fair value with the carrying amount of the reporting unit. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then the entity is required to perform the second step of the goodwill impairment test to measure the amount of the impairment loss, if any. The new standard gives an entity the option to bypass the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any period and proceed directly to performing the first step of the two-step goodwill impairment test. An entity may resume performing the qualitative assessment in any subsequent period. This new standard will be effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2012 and will not have a material effect on our financial condition or consolidated results of operations.

In December 2011, the FASB issued guidance requiring enhanced disclosures related to the nature of an entity’s rights to offset and any related arrangements associated with its financial instruments and derivative instruments. The new guidance requires the disclosure of the gross amounts subject to rights of set-off, amounts offset in accordance with the accounting standards followed and the related net exposure. The new guidance will be effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013. The adoption of this standard affects financial statement disclosures only and will have no effect on our financial condition or consolidated results of operations.

2. Acquisitions

During 2011, we completed two business combinations for total consideration, including stock, of approximately $91,000 (net of cash acquired). These transactions strengthen our business process and analytics solution offerings and enhance our retail SAP capabilities.

During 2010, we completed three business combinations for total consideration, including stock, of approximately $46,000 (net of cash acquired). These transactions expand our business process outsourcing expertise within our logistic services, strengthen our business transformation and program management capabilities and expand our testing services within Europe. As of December 31, 2010, we accrued additional consideration of approximately $6,500 that was contingent on the achievement of certain financial and operating targets during the earn-out period by a company which we previously acquired.

 

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During 2009, we completed four business combinations for an aggregate consideration of approximately $97,300 (net of cash acquired). In December 2009, we acquired the stock of UBS India Service Centre Private Limited (“UBS ISC”) for cash consideration of approximately $62,800, net of acquired cash. As part of this transaction, we acquired multi-year service agreements, an assembled workforce, land, equipment and other assets. The acquisition expands our business and knowledge process outsourcing capabilities in the financial services industry. In the third quarter of 2009, we entered into a transaction with Invensys pursuant to which we acquired a multi-year service agreement, an assembled workforce and certain other assets. Under the current authoritative business combination guidelines, this transaction qualified as business combination. This transaction, with no initial cash consideration, expands our business process outsourcing expertise within engineering services. The remaining two acquisitions were completed to strengthen our retail and infrastructure management capabilities.

We made an allocation of the purchase price to the tangible and intangible assets and liabilities acquired, including tax deductible goodwill and non-tax deductible goodwill as described in the table below:

 

     2011      2010      2009  

Total initial consideration, net of cash acquired(1)

   $ 91,000       $ 46,000