10-K 1 cci10-k123112.htm 10-K CCI 10-K 123112

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________
FORM 10-K
 __________________________
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012
or 
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number 001-16441
 __________________________
CROWN CASTLE INTERNATIONAL CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 __________________________ 
Delaware
 
76-0470458
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
1220 Augusta Drive, Suite 500, Houston Texas 77057-2261
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(713) 570-3000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code) 
Securities Registered Pursuant to
Section 12(b) of the Act
  
Name of Each Exchange
on Which Registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value
  
New York Stock Exchange
Rights to Purchase Series A Participating
Cumulative Preferred Stock
  
New York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE.
 ______________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Role 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicated by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  o    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a small reporting company. See definitions of a "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in rule 12B-2 of the Exchange Act.    Large accelerated filer   x    Accelerated filer  o    Non-accelerated filer  o    Smaller reporting company  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  o    No  x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $17.0 billion as of June 30, 2012, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price on that day of $58.66 per share.
Applicable Only to Corporate Registrants
As of February 5, 2013 there were 293,158,751 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
The information required to be furnished pursuant to Part III of this Form 10-K will be set forth in, and incorporated by reference from, the registrant's definitive proxy statement for the annual meeting of stockholders (the "2013 Proxy Statement"), which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012.




CROWN CASTLE INTERNATIONAL CORP.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
  
 
Page
 
  
 
Item 1.
  
Item 1A.
  
Item 1B.
  
Item 2.
  
Item 3.
  
Item 4.
  
 
  
 
Item 5.
  
Item 6.
  
Item 7.
  
Item 7A.
  
Item 8.
  
Item 9.
  
Item 9A.
  
Item 9B.
  
 
  
 
Item 10.
  
Item 11.
  
Item 12.
  
Item 13.
  
Item 14.
  
 
  
 
Item 15.
  
 
 
Cautionary Language Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management's expectations as of the filing date of this report with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). Statements that are not historical facts are hereby identified as forward-looking statements. In addition, words such as "estimate," "anticipate," "project," "plan," "intend," "believe," "expect," "likely," "predicted," and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Such statements include plans, projections and estimates contained in "Item 1. Business," "Item 3. Legal Proceedings," "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" ("MD&A") and "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" herein. Such forward-looking statements include (1) expectations regarding anticipated growth in the wireless communication industry, carriers' investments in their networks, new tenant additions, cancellations of customer contracts, demand for our towers, small cells and the impact of our acquisitions, (2) availability of cash flows and liquidity for, and plans regarding, future discretionary investments including capital expenditures, (3) anticipated growth in future revenues, margins, Adjusted EBITDA and operating cash flows, and (4) expectations regarding the credit markets, our availability to and cost of capital, our ability to service our debt and comply with debt covenants and the benefits of any future refinancings.
Such forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including prevailing market conditions, the risk factors described under "Item 1A. Risk Factors" herein and other factors. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those expected.




Unless this Form 10-K indicates otherwise or the context otherwise requires, the terms, "we," "our," "our company," "the company" or "us" as used in this Form 10-K refer to Crown Castle International Corp. ("CCIC"), a Delaware corporation organized on April 20, 1995, and its subsidiaries. Unless this Form 10-K indicates otherwise or the context otherwise requires, the terms "CCUSA" and "in the U.S." refer to our CCUSA segment while the terms "CCAL" and “in Australia” refer to our CCAL segment.
PART I
 
Item 1.     Business
Overview
We own, operate and lease shared wireless infrastructure, including: (1) towers and other structures, such as rooftops (collectively, "towers"), and to a lesser extent, (2) distributed antenna systems ("DAS"), a type of small cell network ("small cells"), and (3) interests in land under third party towers in various forms ("third party land interests") (collectively, "wireless infrastructure"). Our core business is providing access, including space or capacity, to our towers, and to a lesser extent, to our small cells and third party land interests via long-term contracts in various forms, including license, sublease and lease agreements (collectively, "contracts"). Our wireless infrastructure can accommodate multiple customers ("co-location") for antennas and other equipment necessary for the transmission of signals for wireless communication devices. We seek to increase our site rental revenues by adding more tenants on our wireless infrastructure, which we expect to result in significant incremental cash flows due to our relatively fixed operating costs.
Certain information concerning our business as of December 31, 2012 is as follows:
We owned, leased or managed approximately 31,500 towers.
We have approximately 29,800 towers in the United States, including Puerto Rico ("U.S."), and approximately 1,700 towers in Australia.
Approximately 59% and 74% of our towers in the U.S. are located in the 50 and 100 largest U.S. basic trading areas ("BTAs"), respectively. Our towers have a significant presence in 98 of the top 100 BTAs in the U.S. In Australia, 56% of our towers are located in seven major metropolitan areas.
We owned in fee or had perpetual or long-term easements in the land and other property interests, including rooftops, (collectively, "land") on which approximately 38% of our site rental gross margin is derived, and we leased, subleased, managed or licensed (collectively, "leased") the land interests on which approximately 62% of our site rental gross margin is derived. The leases for the land interests under our towers had an average remaining life of approximately 30 years, weighted based on site rental gross margin.
Certain information concerning our customers and site rental contracts as of December 31, 2012 is as follows:

Our customers include many of the world's major wireless communications companies. In the U.S., our four largest customers (Sprint Nextel ("Sprint"), AT&T, Verizon Wireless and T-Mobile USA, Inc. ("T-Mobile")) accounted for an aggregate 76% and 72% of our 2012 CCUSA and consolidated revenues, respectively. In Australia, our customers include Telstra, Optus and a joint venture between Vodafone and Hutchison ("VHA").
Site rental revenues represented 87% of our 2012 consolidated revenues.
Our site rental revenues are of a recurring nature, and typically in excess of 90% have been contracted for in a prior year.
Our site rental revenues typically result from long-term contracts with (1) initial terms of five to 15 years, (2) multiple renewal periods at the option of the tenant of five to ten years each, (3) limited termination rights for our customers, and (4) contractual escalations of the rental price.
Exclusive of renewals at the customers' option, our customer contracts have a weighted-average remaining life of approximately eight years and represent $20 billion of expected future cash inflows.
To a lesser extent, we also provide certain network services relating to our wireless infrastructure, primarily consisting of antenna installations and subsequent augmentations, as well as additional site development services relating to our wireless infrastructure.
Strategy
Our strategy is to increase long-term stockholder value by translating anticipated future growth in our core business into growth of our results on a per share basis. We believe our strategy is consistent with our mission to deliver the highest level of service to our customers at all times – striving to be their critical partner as we assist them in growing efficient, ubiquitous wireless networks. The key elements of our strategy are to:

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Organically grow the cash flows from our wireless infrastructure. We seek to maximize the site rental cash flows derived from our wireless infrastructure by co-locating additional tenants on our wireless infrastructure through long-term contracts as our customers deploy and improve their wireless networks. We seek to maximize new tenant additions or modifications of existing installations (collectively, "new tenant additions") through our focus on customer service and deployment speed. Due to the relatively fixed nature of the costs to operate our wireless infrastructure (which tend to increase at approximately the rate of inflation), we expect increases in cash rental receipts from new tenant additions and the related subsequent impact from contracted escalations to result in growth in our operating cash flows. We believe there is considerable additional future demand for our existing wireless infrastructure assets based on their location and the anticipated growth in the wireless communications industry.
Allocate capital efficiently. We seek to allocate our available capital, including the net cash provided by our operating activities, in a manner that will enhance per share results. Our discretionary investments have historically included those shown below (in no particular order):
purchase shares of our common stock ("common stock") from time to time;
acquire or construct wireless infrastructure;
acquire land interests under towers;
make improvements and structural enhancements to our existing wireless infrastructure; and
purchase, repay or redeem our debt.
Our long-term strategy is based on our belief that additional demand for our wireless infrastructure will be created by the expected continued growth in the wireless communications industry, which is predominately driven by the demand for wireless voice and data services by consumers. We believe that additional demand for wireless infrastructure will create future growth opportunities for us. We believe that such demand for our wireless infrastructure will continue, will result in organic growth of our cash flows due to new tenant additions on our existing wireless infrastructure, and will create other growth opportunities for us, such as demand for new wireless infrastructure.
During 2012, consumer demand for wireless data services continued to grow. As consumer demand for wireless devices such as smartphones, tablets and laptops increased, demand for voice services remained relatively constant. This growth in wireless data services is driven by increased mobile video, mobile internet usage and machine-to-machine applications. We expect that consumers' growing demands for network speed and quality will likely result in wireless carriers continuing their focus on improving network quality and expanding capacity by adding additional antennas and other equipment for the transmission of their services to wireless infrastructure or to their existing wireless networks in an effort to improve customer retention and satisfaction. Our customers have introduced, and we believe they plan to continue to deploy, next generation wireless technologies, including 3G and 4G, in response to consumer demand for high speed networks. We expect these next generation technologies and others, including long-term evolution ("LTE"), to translate into additional demand for wireless infrastructure, although the timing and rate of this growth is difficult to predict.
2012 Highlights and Recent Developments
See "Item 7. MD&A" and our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of developments and activities that occurred in 2012, including issuances, repurchases and redemptions of debt and the consummation of several acquisitions, including the acquisition ("WCP acquisition") of certain subsidiaries of Wireless Capital Partners, LLC ("WCP"), the acquisition ("NextG acquisition") of NextG Networks, Inc. ("NextG") and the acquisition ("T-Mobile acquisition") of rights to towers from T-Mobile. In addition, see "Item 7. MD&A" and notes 6 and 20 of our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of subsequent events occurring in 2013 through the date of this filing, including the repurchase or redemption in January 2013 of the 9% senior notes and the 7.75% secured notes that remained outstanding as of December 31, 2012 ("January 2013 Debt Retirements").
The Company
Virtually all of our operations are located in the U.S. and Australia. We conduct substantially all of our operations through subsidiaries of Crown Castle Operating Company ("CCOC"), including (1) certain subsidiaries which operate our wireless infrastructure portfolios in the U.S. and (2) a 77.6% owned subsidiary that operates our Australia tower portfolio. For more information about our operating segments, as well as financial information about the geographic areas in which we operate, see note 16 to our consolidated financial statements and "Item 7. MD&A."
CCUSA
Site Rental. The core business of CCUSA is providing access to our wireless infrastructure. We predominately provide access to wireless carriers under long-term contracts for their antennas which transmit a variety of signals related to wireless voice and data. We believe our wireless infrastructure is integral to our customers' networks and their ability to serve their customers.

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We acquired ownership interests or exclusive rights to most of our towers from the four largest wireless carriers (or their predecessors) through transactions consummated since 1999, including (1) approximately 7,100 towers from T-Mobile in 2012, (2) approximately 10,700 towers from Global Signal Inc. ("Global Signal") in 2007, of which approximately 6,600 were originally acquired from Sprint, (3) approximately 4,800 towers during 1999 to 2000 from companies now part of Verizon Wireless, (4) approximately 2,700 towers during 1999 to 2000 from companies now part of AT&T, as well as (5) other smaller acquisitions from companies now part of T-Mobile and other independent tower operators. Our small cells were predominately acquired through the acquisitions of NextG in 2012 and NewPath Networks, Inc. ("NewPath") in 2010.
We generally receive monthly rental payments from tenants, payable under long-term contracts. We have existing master lease agreements with most wireless carriers, including Verizon Wireless, AT&T, Sprint and T-Mobile; such agreements provide certain terms (including economic terms) that govern contracts on our towers entered into by such carriers during the term of their master lease agreements. Over the last several years, we have negotiated up to 15-year terms for both initial and renewal periods for certain of our customers, which often included fixed escalations. We continue to endeavor to negotiate with our existing customer base for longer contractual terms, which often may contain fixed escalation rates.
Our customer contracts have historically had a high renewal rate because (1) our wireless infrastructure is integral to our customers' networks, (2) it is generally financially unattractive for our customers to relocate their antennas and other equipment to other wireless infrastructure or to construct new wireless infrastructure, and (3) zoning and other barriers may preclude our customers from constructing new wireless infrastructure. With limited exceptions, the customer contracts may not be terminated prior to the end of their current term. In general, each customer contract which is renewable will automatically renew at the end of its term unless the customer provides prior notice of its intent not to renew. See note 15 to our consolidated financial statements for a tabular presentation of the minimum rental cash payments due to us by tenants pursuant to contract agreements without consideration of tenant renewal options.
The average monthly rental payment of a new tenant added to wireless infrastructure can vary based on (1) the different regions in the U.S., (2) aggregate customer volume, and (3) the type of signal transmitted by the tenant, primarily as a result of the physical size of the antenna installation and related equipment. In addition, with respect to our small cells, the amount of the monthly payments can also be influenced by (1) the cost of installation, including with respect to the fiber, and (2) the amount of upfront payments received. We also routinely receive rental payment increases in connection with contract amendments, pursuant to which our customers add additional antennas or other equipment to wireless infrastructure on which they already have equipment pursuant to pre-existing contract agreements.
Approximately two-thirds of our direct site operating expenses consist of lease expenses and the remainder includes property taxes, repairs and maintenance, employee compensation and related benefit costs, and utilities. Our cash operating expenses tend to escalate at approximately the rate of inflation, partially offset by reductions in cash lease expenses from our purchases of land interests. As a result of the relatively fixed nature of these expenditures, the co-location of additional tenants is achieved at a low incremental operating cost, resulting in high incremental operating cash flows. Our wireless infrastructure portfolio requires minimal sustaining capital expenditures, including maintenance and other non-discretionary capital expenditures, and are typically less than 2% of site rental revenues or an annual average over the last three years of approximately $30 million. See note 15 to our consolidated financial statements for a tabular presentation of the rental cash payments owed by us to landlords pursuant to our contractual agreements.
Network Services. To a lesser extent, we also offer wireless communication companies and their agents certain network services relating to our wireless infrastructure. For 2012, 48% of network services and other revenues related to customer equipment installations and subsequent augmentation (collectively, "installation services"), and the remainder related to the following additional site development services: site acquisition, architectural and engineering, zoning and permitting, fiber installations, other construction and other services related to network development. We have grown our network service revenues over the last several years as a result of our focus on customer service, increasing our market share for installation services on our wireless infrastructure, promoting site development services, expanding the scope of our services and engaging in an increased volume resulting from carrier network upgrades. We have the capability and expertise to install, with the assistance of our network of subcontractors, equipment and antenna systems for our customers. We do not always provide the installation or site development services on our wireless infrastructure as third parties also provide these services (see also "—Competition" below). These activities are typically non-recurring and highly competitive, with a number of local competitors in most markets. Nearly all of our antenna installation services are billed on a cost-plus profit basis.

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Customers. We work extensively with large national wireless carriers, and in general, our customers are primarily comprised of providers of wireless voice and data services who operate national or regional networks. The following table summarizes the net revenues from our four largest customers expressed as a percentage of our consolidated revenues for 2012. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors."
Customer
% of 2012
CCUSA
Net Revenues
 
% of 2012
Consolidated
Net Revenues
Sprint
25
%
 
24
%
AT&T
22
%
 
20
%
Verizon Wireless
18
%
 
17
%
T-Mobile
11
%
 
11
%
Total
76
%
 
72
%
Sales and Marketing. Our sales organization markets our wireless infrastructure within the wireless communications industry with the objectives of providing access to existing wireless infrastructure and to new wireless infrastructure prior to construction as well as obtaining network services related to our wireless infrastructure. We seek to become the critical partner and preferred independent wireless infrastructure provider for our customers and increase customer satisfaction relative to our peers by leveraging our (1) customer relationships, (2) process centric approach, and (3) technological tools.
A team of national account directors maintains our relationships with our largest customers. These directors work to develop wireless infrastructure leasing and network service opportunities, as well as to ensure that customers' wireless infrastructure needs are efficiently translated into new leases on our wireless infrastructure. Sales personnel in our area offices develop and maintain local relationships with our customers that are expanding their networks, entering new markets, bringing new technologies to market or requiring maintenance or add-on business. In addition to our full-time sales and marketing staff, a number of senior managers and officers spend a significant portion of their time on sales and marketing activities and call on existing and prospective customers.
We use public and proprietary databases to develop targeted marketing programs focused on carrier network expansions, including DAS, and related network services. We attempt to match specific wireless infrastructure in our portfolio with potential new site demand by obtaining and analyzing information, including our customers' existing antenna locations, tenant contracts, marketing strategies, capital spend plans, deployment status, and actual wireless carrier signal strength measurements taken in the field. We have developed a web-based tool that stores key wireless infrastructure information above and beyond normal property management information, including data on actual customer signal strength, demographics, site readiness and competitive structures. In addition, the web-based tool assists us in estimating potential demand for our wireless infrastructure with greater speed and accuracy. We believe these and other tools we have developed assist our customers in their site selection and deployment of their wireless networks and provide us with an opportunity to have proactive discussions with them regarding their wireless infrastructure deployment plans and the timing and location of their demand for our wireless infrastructure. A key aspect to our sales and marketing strategy is a continued emphasis on our process-centric approach to reduce cycle time related to new leasing and amendments, which helps provide our customers with faster deployment of their networks.
Competition. We compete with (1) other independent tower owners which also provide site rental and network services, (2) wireless carriers which build, own and operate their own tower networks and lease space to other wireless communication companies, and (3) owners of alternative infrastructure, including rooftops, water towers, broadcast towers, utility poles, DAS and other small cells. Some of the larger independent tower companies with which we compete in the U.S. include American Tower Corporation and SBA Communications Corporation. In addition, some wireless carriers own and operate their own tower networks, and certain of such carriers are larger and have greater financial resources than we have. We believe that tower location and capacity, deployment speed, quality of service and price have been and will continue to be the most significant competitive factors affecting the leasing of wireless infrastructure.
Competitors in our network services offering include site acquisition consultants, zoning consultants, real estate firms, right-of-way consulting firms, construction companies, tower owners and managers, radio frequency engineering consultants, telecommunications equipment vendors who can provide turnkey site development services through multiple subcontractors, and our customers' internal staff. We believe that our customers base their decisions on the outsourcing of network services on criteria such as a company's experience, track record, local reputation, price and time for completion of a project.
CCAL
Our primary business in Australia is providing access to antenna space on towers to our customers. We own 77.6% of CCAL. CCAL is the largest independent tower operator in Australia. As of December 31, 2012, CCAL had approximately 1,700 towers with 56% of such towers located in seven major metropolitan areas. The majority of CCAL's towers were acquired from Optus

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(in 2000) and Vodafone (in 2001). CCAL also provides a range of services including site maintenance and property management services for towers owned by third parties.
For 2012, CCAL comprised 6% of our consolidated net revenues. CCAL's principal customers are Telstra, Optus and VHA, which collectively accounted for approximately 90% of CCAL's 2012 revenues. During 2012, the Australian government continued the development and roll out of the National Broadband Network ("NBN"). NBN is a national high-speed open-access data network under development targeting nearly all Australian premises and includes a fixed wireless broadband network expected to be deployed by 2015. We believe that the continued development of NBN may result in additional future demand for new tenant additions on CCAL's existing towers and construction of new towers.
In Australia, CCAL competes with wireless carriers, which own and operate their own tower networks; service companies that provide site maintenance and property management services; and other site owners, such as broadcasters and building owners. The other significant tower owners in Australia are Broadcast Australia, an independent operator of broadcast towers, and Telstra and Optus, wireless carriers. We believe that tower location, capacity, quality of service, deployment speed and price within a geographic market are the most significant competitive factors affecting the leasing of wireless infrastructure in Australia.
Employees
At January 31, 2013, we employed approximately 1,600 people worldwide, including approximately 1,500 in the U.S. We are not a party to any collective bargaining agreements. We have not experienced any strikes or work stoppages, and management believes that our employee relations are satisfactory.
Regulatory and Environmental Matters
To date, we have not incurred any material fines or penalties or experienced any material adverse effects to our business as a result of any domestic or international regulations. The summary below is based on regulations currently in effect, and such regulations are subject to review and modification by the applicable governmental authority from time to time. If we fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we may be fined or even lose our rights to conduct some of our business.
United States
We are required to comply with a variety of federal, state and local regulations and laws in the U.S., including Federal Communications Commission ("FCC") and Federal Aviation Administration ("FAA") regulations and those discussed under "—Environmental" below.
Federal Regulations. Both the FCC and the FAA regulate towers used for wireless communications, radio and television broadcasting. Such regulations control the siting, lighting and marking of towers and may, depending on the characteristics of particular towers, require the registration of tower facilities with the FCC and the issuance of determinations confirming no hazard to air traffic. Wireless communications devices operating on towers are separately regulated and independently licensed based upon the particular frequency used. In addition, the FCC and the FAA have developed standards to consider proposals for new or modified tower and antenna structures based upon the height and location, including proximity to airports. Proposals to construct or to modify existing tower and antenna structures above certain heights are reviewed by the FAA to ensure the structure will not present a hazard to aviation, which determination may be conditioned upon compliance with lighting and marking requirements. The FCC requires its licensees to operate communications devices only on towers that comply with FAA rules and are registered with the FCC, if required by its regulations. Where tower lighting is required by FAA regulation, tower owners bear the responsibility of notifying the FAA of any tower lighting outage and ensuring the timely restoration of such outages. Failure to comply with the applicable requirements may lead to civil penalties.
Local Regulations. The U.S. Telecommunications Act of 1996 amended the Communications Act of 1934 to preserve state and local zoning authorities' jurisdiction over the siting of communications towers and DAS. The law, however, limits local zoning authority by prohibiting actions by local authorities that discriminate between different service providers of wireless services or ban altogether the provision of wireless services. Additionally, the law prohibits state and local restrictions based on the environmental effects of radio frequency emissions to the extent the facilities comply with FCC regulations.
Local regulations include city and other local ordinances (including subdivision and zoning ordinances), approvals for construction, modification and removal of towers and DAS, and restrictive covenants imposed by community developers. These regulations vary greatly, but typically require us to obtain approval from local officials prior to tower construction. Local zoning authorities may render decisions that prevent the construction or modification of towers or place conditions on such construction or modifications that are responsive to community residents' concerns regarding the height, visibility and other characteristics of the towers. To expedite the deployment of wireless networks, the FCC issued a declaratory ruling in 2009, which is currently under appeal, establishing timeframes for the review of applications by local and state governments of 90 days for co-locations and 150

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days for new tower construction. The Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 mandates that state and local governments must approve an eligible facility's request for the modification of an existing tower that does not substantially change the dimensions of such tower. Notwithstanding the FCC declaratory ruling and recent legislation, decisions of local zoning authorities may also adversely affect the timing and cost of wireless infrastructure construction and modification.
Some of our DAS related subsidiaries hold authorization to provide intrastate telecommunication services as competitive local exchange carriers ("CLEC") in numerous states and to provide domestic interstate telecommunication services as authorized by the FCC. These DAS subsidiaries are primarily regulated by state public service commissions which have jurisdiction over public rights-of-way. CLEC status, in certain cases, helps promote access to such public rights-of-way, which is beneficial to the deployment of our DAS on a timely basis. Status as a CLEC often allows us to deploy our DAS systems in locations where zoning restrictions might otherwise delay, restrict, or prevent building or expanding traditional wireless tower sites and traditional wireless rooftop sites.
Environmental. We are required to comply with a variety of federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations protecting environmental quality, including air and water quality and wildlife protection. To date, we have not incurred any material fines or penalties or experienced any material adverse effects to our business as a result of any domestic or international environmental regulations or matters. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors."
The construction of new towers and, in some cases, the modification of existing towers in the U.S. may be subject to environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended ("NEPA"), which requires federal agencies to evaluate the environmental impact of major federal actions. The FCC has promulgated regulations implementing NEPA which require applicants to investigate the potential environmental impact of the proposed tower construction. Should the proposed tower construction present a significant environmental impact, the FCC must prepare an environmental impact statement, subject to public comment. If the proposed construction or modification of a tower may have a significant impact on the environment, the FCC's approval of the construction or modification could be significantly delayed.
Our operations are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the management, use, storage, disposal, emission, and remediation of, and exposure to, hazardous and non-hazardous substances, materials and wastes. As an owner, lessee or operator of real property, we are subject to certain environmental laws that impose strict, joint-and-several liability for the cleanup of on-site or off-site contamination relating to existing or historical operations; and we could also be subject to personal injury or property damage claims relating to such contamination. In general, our customer contracts prohibit our customers from using or storing any hazardous substances on our tower sites in violation of applicable environmental laws and require our customers to provide notice of certain environmental conditions caused by them.
As licensees and wireless infrastructure owners, we are also subject to regulations and guidelines that impose a variety of operational requirements relating to radio frequency emissions. As employers, we are subject to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (and similar occupational health and safety legislation in Australia) and similar guidelines regarding employee protection from radio frequency exposure. The potential connection between radio frequency emissions and certain negative health effects, including some forms of cancer, has been the subject of substantial study by the scientific community in recent years.
We have compliance programs and monitoring projects to help assure that we are in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws. Nevertheless, there can be no assurance that the costs of compliance with existing or future environmental laws will not have a material adverse effect on us.
Other Regulations. We hold, through certain of our subsidiaries, licenses for common carrier microwave service, which are subject to additional regulation by the FCC. Our FCC license relating to our 1670-1675 MHz U.S. nationwide spectrum license ("Spectrum") contains certain conditions related to the services that may be provided thereunder, the technical equipment used in connection therewith and the circumstances under which it may be renewed. In 2007, after receiving FCC approval, we entered into a long-term lease of the Spectrum with an initial term through 2013.
Australia
Federal Regulations. Carrier licenses and nominated carrier declarations issued under the Australian Telecommunications Act 1997 authorize the use of network units for the supply of telecommunications services to the public. The definition of “network units” includes line links and base stations used for wireless voice services but does not include tower infrastructure. Accordingly, CCAL as a tower owner and operator does not require a carrier license under the Australian Telecommunications Act 1997. Similarly, because CCAL does not own any transmitters or spectrum, it does not currently require any apparatus or spectrum licenses issued under the Australian Radiocommunications Act 1992.

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Carriers have a statutory obligation to provide other carriers with access to towers, and if there is a dispute (including a pricing dispute), the matter may be referred to the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission for resolution. As a non-carrier, CCAL is not subject to this requirement, and our customers negotiate site access on a commercial basis.
While the Australian Telecommunications Act 1997 grants certain exemptions from planning laws for the installation of "low impact facilities," newly constructed towers are expressly excluded from the definition of "low impact facilities." Accordingly, in connection with the construction of towers, CCAL is subject to state and local planning laws that vary on a site by site basis, typically requiring us to obtain approval from local government agencies prior to tower construction, subject to certain exceptions. Structural enhancements may be undertaken on behalf of a carrier without state and local planning approval under the general "maintenance power" under the Australian Telecommunications Act 1997, although these enhancements may be subject to state and local planning laws if CCAL is unable to obtain carrier cooperation to use such power. For a limited number of towers, CCAL is also required to install aircraft warning lighting in compliance with federal aviation regulations. In Australia, a carrier may arguably be able to utilize the "maintenance power" under the Australian Telecommunications Act 1997 to remain as a tenant on a tower after the expiration of a site license or sublease; however, CCAL's customer access agreements generally limit the ability of customers to do this, and, even if a carrier did utilize this power, the carrier would be required to pay for CCAL's financial loss, which would roughly equal the site rental revenues that would have otherwise been payable.
Local Regulations. In Australia there are various local, state and territory laws and regulations which relate to, among other things, town planning and zoning restrictions, standards and approvals for the design, construction or alteration of a structure or facility, and environmental regulations. As in the U.S., these laws vary greatly, but typically require tower owners to obtain approval from governmental bodies prior to tower construction and to comply with environmental laws on an ongoing basis.

Item 1A.     Risk Factors
You should carefully consider all of the risks described below, as well as the other information contained in this document, when evaluating your investment in our securities.
Our business depends on the demand for wireless communications and wireless infrastructure, and we may be adversely affected by any slowdown in such demand. Additionally, a reduction in carrier network investment may materially and adversely affect our business (including reducing demand for new tenant additions and network services).
Demand for our wireless infrastructure depends on the demand for antenna space from our customers, which, in turn, depends on the demand for wireless voice and data services by their customers. The willingness of our customers to utilize our wireless infrastructure, or renew or extend existing contracts on our wireless infrastructure, is affected by numerous factors, including:
consumer demand for wireless services;
availability and capacity of our wireless infrastructure and associated land interests;
location of our wireless infrastructure;
financial condition of our customers, including their availability and cost of capital;
willingness of our customers to maintain or increase their capital expenditures;
increased use of network sharing, roaming, joint development, or resale agreements by our customers;
mergers or consolidations among our customers;
changes in, or success of, our customers' business models;
governmental regulations, including local and state restrictions on the proliferation of wireless infrastructure;
cost of constructing wireless infrastructure;
technological changes, including those affecting (1) the number or type of wireless infrastructure or other communications sites needed to provide wireless communications services to a given geographic area and (2) the obsolescence of certain existing wireless networks; and
our ability to efficiently satisfy our customers' service requirements.
A slowdown in demand for wireless communications or our wireless infrastructure may negatively impact our growth or otherwise have a material adverse effect on us. If our customers or potential customers are unable to raise adequate capital to fund their business plans, as a result of disruptions in the financial and credit markets or otherwise, they may reduce their spending, which could adversely affect our anticipated growth and the demand for our wireless infrastructure and network services.

7


Historically, the amount of our customers' network investment is cyclical and has varied based upon the various matters described in these risk factors. Changes in carrier network investment typically impact the demand for our wireless infrastructure. As a result, changes in carrier plans such as delays in the implementation of new systems, new technologies, including with respect to the use of small cells, or plans to expand coverage or capacity may reduce demand for our wireless infrastructure. Furthermore, the wireless communication industry could experience a slowdown or slowing growth rates as a result of numerous factors, including a reduction in consumer demand for wireless services and general economic conditions. There can be no assurances that weakness and uncertainty in the economic environment will not adversely impact the wireless communications industry, which may materially and adversely affect our business, including by reducing demand for our wireless infrastructure and network services. In addition, a slowdown may increase competition for site rental customers and network services. A wireless communications industry slowdown or a reduction in carrier network investment may materially and adversely affect our business.
A substantial portion of our revenues is derived from a small number of customers, and the loss, consolidation or financial instability of any of our limited number of customers may materially decrease revenues and reduce demand for our wireless infrastructure and network services.
For 2012, approximately 72% of our consolidated revenues were derived from Sprint, AT&T,Verizon Wireless and T-Mobile, which represented 24%, 20%, 17% and 11%, respectively, of our consolidated net revenues. The loss of any one of our large customers as a result of bankruptcy, insolvency, consolidation, network sharing, roaming, joint development, resale agreements by our customers, merger with other customers of ours or otherwise may result in (1) a material decrease in our revenues, (2) uncollectible account receivables, (3) an impairment of our deferred site rental receivables, wireless infrastructure assets, site rental contracts and customer relationships intangible assets, (4) inability to realize our deferred tax asset, and (5) other adverse effects to our business. We cannot guarantee that contracts with our major customers will not be terminated or that these customers will renew their contracts with us. In addition to our four largest customers in the U.S., we also derive a portion of our revenues and anticipated future growth from customers offering or contemplating offering emerging wireless services; such customers are smaller and have less financial resources than our four largest customers, have business models which may not be successful, and may require additional capital. See also "Item 1. Business—The Company."
Consolidation among our customers will likely result in duplicate or overlapping parts of networks, for example where they are co-residents on a tower, which may result in a reduction of wireless infrastructure and impact revenues from our wireless infrastructure. In addition, consolidation may result in a reduction in such customers' future capital expenditures in the aggregate because their expansion plans may be similar. Wireless carrier consolidation could decrease the demand for our wireless infrastructure, which in turn may result in a reduction in our revenues and cash flows.
Potential Consolidations. In October 2012, T-Mobile entered into a definitive agreement to acquire MetroPCS, subject to regulatory approval and other closing conditions. During 2012, T-Mobile and MetroPCS accounted for 11% and 4%, respectively, of our consolidated net revenues. As of December 31, 2012, T-Mobile and MetroPCS are co-residents on approximately 1,550 of our towers. Net revenues from MetroPCS on these 1,550 towers represented approximately 2% of our consolidated net revenues during 2012. In December 2012, Sprint entered into a definitive agreement to acquire the portion of Clearwire it does not already own, subject to regulatory approvals and other closing conditions. During 2012, Sprint and Clearwire accounted for 24% and 3%, respectively, of our consolidated net revenues. As of December 31, 2012, Sprint and Clearwire are co-residents on approximately 2,700 of our towers.
If consummated, in whole or in part, these potential consolidations could result in decreased revenues and reduced or delayed demand for our wireless infrastructure as a result of the anticipated integration of these networks and consolidation of duplicate or overlapping parts of the networks. We expect that any termination of customer contracts as a result of these potential acquisitions would be spread over multiple years as existing contracts expire.
Recent Consolidations. Sprint merged with Nextel in August 2005, resulting in the combined company's use of two separate wireless technologies. During 2010, Sprint announced Network Vision, a multi-year network enhancement project to improve network speed, quality and efficiency and consolidate their multiple network technologies, including the elimination of their narrow-band push-to-talk network, referred to as iDEN. Sprint expects the Network Vision deployment to reach 250 million people by the end of 2013. While we do not expect that any of our customers' network enhancement deployments and any related non-renewal of customer contracts anticipated in 2014 and 2015, including Sprint's Network Vision and any corresponding non-renewal iDEN leases, to have a material adverse effect on our operations and cash flows for 2013 and subsequent periods, there can be no assurances that additional or similar actions by our customers would not adversely affect our operations and cash flows in the future.

8


Our substantial level of indebtedness could adversely affect our ability to react to changes in our business, and the terms of our debt instruments limit our ability to take a number of actions that our management might otherwise believe to be in our best interests. In addition, if we fail to comply with our covenants, our debt could be accelerated.
As a result of our substantial indebtedness:
we may be more vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
we may find it more difficult to obtain additional financing to fund discretionary investments and other general corporate requirements or to refinance our existing indebtedness;
we are or will be required to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, thereby reducing the available cash flows to fund other projects, including the discretionary investments discussed in "Item 1. Business;"
we may have limited flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and in the industry;
we may have a competitive disadvantage relative to other companies in our industry with less debt;
we may be required to issue equity securities or securities convertible into equity or sell some of our assets, possibly on unfavorable terms, in order to meet payment obligations; and
we may be limited in our ability to take advantage of strategic business opportunities, including wireless infrastructure development and mergers and acquisitions.
Currently we have debt instruments in place that limit in certain circumstances our ability to incur indebtedness, pay dividends, create liens, sell assets and engage in certain mergers and acquisitions, among other things. Certain of our subsidiaries, under their debt instruments, are also required to maintain specific financial ratios. Our ability to comply with the financial ratio covenants under these instruments and to satisfy our debt obligations will depend on our future operating performance. If we fail to comply with the debt restrictions, we will be in default under those instruments, which in some cases would cause the maturity of a substantial portion of our long-term indebtedness to be accelerated. If our operating subsidiaries were to default on the debt, the trustee could seek to foreclose the collateral securing such debt, in which case we could lose the wireless infrastructure and the revenues associated with the wireless infrastructure. We are currently in compliance with our debt service coverage and leverage ratios. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Debt Covenants" for a further discussion of our debt covenants.
CCIC and CCOC are holding companies that conduct all of their operations through their subsidiaries. Accordingly, CCIC's and CCOC's respective sources of cash to pay interest and principal on their outstanding indebtedness are distributions relating to their respective ownership interests in their subsidiaries from the net earnings and cash flows generated by such subsidiaries or from proceeds of debt or equity offerings. Earnings and cash flows generated by their subsidiaries are first applied by such subsidiaries to conduct their operations, including servicing their respective debt obligations, after which any excess cash flows generally may be paid to such holding company, in the absence of any special conditions such as a continuing event of default. However, their subsidiaries are legally distinct from the holding companies and, unless they guarantee such debt, have no obligation to pay amounts due on their debt or to make funds available to us for such payment.
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness. In the event we do not repay or refinance such indebtedness, we could face substantial liquidity issues and might be required to issue equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities, or sell some of our assets to meet our debt payment obligations.
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness (approximately $11.0 billion as of December 31, 2012, after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements), which we will need to refinance or repay. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources" for a tabular presentation of our contractual debt maturities. There can be no assurances we will be able to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms, or terms, including with respect to interest rates, as favorable as our current debt, or at all.
Economic conditions and the credit markets continue to experience a period of volatility, uncertainty and weakness due to, among other things, the impact of uncertainty around European sovereign debt and U.S. fiscal and monetary policies. Any renewed financial turmoil, worsening credit environment, weakening of the general economy and further uncertainty could impact the availability and cost of debt financing, including with respect to any refinancing of the obligations described above and on our ability to draw the full amount of our $1.5 billion revolving credit facility that, as of February 5, 2013, has $247.0 million of undrawn availability.

9


If we are unable to refinance or renegotiate our debt, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to generate enough cash flows from operations or that we will be able to obtain enough capital to service our debt or fund our planned capital expenditures. In such an event, we could face substantial liquidity issues and might be required to issue equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities, or sell some of our assets to meet our debt payment obligations. Failure to refinance indebtedness when required could result in a default under such indebtedness. Assuming we meet certain financial ratios, we have the ability under our debt instruments to incur additional indebtedness, and any additional indebtedness we incur could exacerbate the risks described above.
Sales or issuances of a substantial number of shares of our common stock may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Future sales or issuances of a substantial number of shares of our common stock or other equity related securities may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. As of February 5, 2013, we had 293,158,751 shares of common stock outstanding, and we reserved 7.1 million shares of common stock for future issuance under our various stock compensation plans.
In addition, a small number of stockholders own a significant percentage of our outstanding common stock. If any one of these stockholders, or any group of our stockholders, sells a large quantity of shares of our common stock, or the public market perceives that existing stockholders might sell a large quantity of shares of our common stock, the market price of our common stock may significantly decline.
As a result of competition in our industry, including from some competitors with significantly more resources or less debt than we have, we may find it more difficult to achieve favorable rental rates on our new or renewing customer contracts.
Our growth is dependent on entering into new customer contracts as well as renewing or renegotiating customer contracts when existing customer contracts terminate. We face competition for site rental customers from various sources, including:
other independent wireless infrastructure owners or operators, including towers, rooftops, water towers, DAS, broadcast towers and utility poles;
wireless carriers that own and operate their own wireless infrastructure and lease antenna space to other wireless communication companies; and
new alternative deployment methods in the wireless communication industry.
Certain wireless carriers own and operate their own tower networks, and certain of such carriers are larger and have greater financial resources than we have. Competition in our industry may make it more difficult for us to attract new customers, maintain or increase our gross margins or maintain or increase our market share.
The business model for our small cell operations contains differences from our traditional site rental business, resulting in different operational risks. If we do not successfully operate that business model or identify and manage those operational risks, such operations may produce results that are less than anticipated.
The business model for our small cell operations contains differences from our traditional tower operations, including differences relating to customer contract terms, landlord demographics, ownership of certain network assets, operational oversight requirements (including requirements for service level agreements regarding network performance and maintenance), applicable laws and initial gross margins (although long-term gross margins are expected to be similar).
In addition, our small cell operations have operational risks that are different from our traditional site rental business, including the (1) use of CLEC status, (2) use of public rights-of-way, (3) use of poles owned by third parties, and (4) risks relating to overbuilding. Small cells also have risks similar to our tower operations, such as there can be no assurances that new customers will co-locate on our small cells or that either our existing small cell customers or our small cell landlords will renew their contracts at the same rate as our traditional site rental business. In addition, the rate at which wireless carriers adopt small cells may be lower or slower than we anticipate. Our small cell operations will also expose us to different safety or liability risks and hazards than our traditional site rental business as a result of numerous factors, including the location and nature of the assets involved. Because small cells are comparatively new technologies and are continuing to evolve, there may be other risks related to small cells of which we are not yet aware.
As a result of the NextG acquisition in April 2012, we have significantly increased the size and scope of our small cell operations, which may exacerbate the impact of the risks described above. In addition, there can be no assurances that assets acquired in the NextG acquisition will perform as expected by us and provide us with the benefits anticipated. If the NextG assets fail to perform as expected, or if we fail to otherwise realize the anticipated benefits of the NextG acquisition, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.

10


New technologies may significantly reduce demand for our wireless infrastructure and negatively impact our revenues.
Improvements in the efficiency of wireless networks could reduce the demand for our wireless infrastructure. For example, signal combining technologies that permit one antenna to service multiple frequencies and, thereby, multiple customers may reduce the need for our wireless infrastructure. In addition, other technologies, such as femtocells, other small cells, and satellite transmission systems (such as low earth orbiting) may, in the future, serve as substitutes for or alternatives to leasing that might otherwise be anticipated or expected on wireless infrastructure had such technologies not existed. Any significant reduction in wireless infrastructure leasing demand resulting from the previously mentioned technologies or other technologies may negatively impact our revenues or otherwise have a material adverse effect on us.
New wireless technologies may not deploy or be adopted by customers as rapidly or in the manner projected.
There can be no assurances that new wireless services and technologies will be introduced or deployed as rapidly or in the manner projected by the wireless or broadcast industries. In addition, demand and customer adoption rates for such new technologies may be lower or slower than anticipated for numerous reasons. As a result, growth opportunities and demand for our wireless infrastructure as a result of such technologies may not be realized at the times or to the extent anticipated.
If we fail to retain rights to our wireless infrastructure, including the land interests under our towers, our business may be adversely affected.
Our property interests relating to the land interests on which our towers reside consist primarily of leasehold and sub-leasehold interests, fee interests, easements, licenses and rights-of-way. A loss of these interests may interfere with our ability to conduct our business and generate revenues. For various reasons, we may not always have the ability to access, analyze and verify all information regarding titles and other issues prior to purchasing wireless infrastructure. Further, we may not be able to renew ground leases on commercially viable terms. Our ability to retain rights to the land interests on which our towers reside depends on our ability to purchase such land or to renegotiate and extend the terms of the leases relating to such land. Approximately 9% of our site rental gross margins for the year ended December 31, 2012 are derived from towers where the leases for the land interests under such towers have final expiration dates of less than ten years. If we are unable to retain rights to the land interests on which our towers reside, our business may be adversely affected.
Approximately 6,500 of our towers are leased or operated for an initial period of 32 years (through May 2037) under master leases and subleases with Sprint. We have the option to purchase in 2037 all (but not less than all) of the Sprint towers from Sprint for approximately $2.3 billion. Approximately 6,200 of our towers are leased or subleased or operated and managed under a master prepaid lease and other related agreements with T-Mobile with a weighted-average term of approximately 28 years, weighted on site rental gross margin. We have the option to purchase these towers from T-Mobile at the end of the respective lease or sublease terms for aggregate option payments of approximately $2.0 billion, which payments, if exercised, would be between 2035 and 2049. Approximately 470 of our towers are subject to a lease and sublease and other related arrangements with AT&T. We have the option to purchase these towers that we do not otherwise already own at the end of their respective lease terms for aggregate option payments of up to approximately $405 million, which payments, if exercised, would be due between 2018 and 2032 (less than $10 million would be due before 2025). We may not have the required available capital to exercise our right to purchase some or all of these towers at the time these options are required to be exercised. Even if we do have available capital, we may choose not to exercise our right to purchase the Sprint towers or some or all of the T-Mobile towers for business or other reasons. In the event that we do not exercise these purchase rights, or are otherwise unable to acquire an interest that would allow us to continue to operate these towers after the applicable period, we will lose the cash flows derived from such towers, which may have a material adverse effect on our business. In the event that we decide to exercise these purchase rights, the benefits of the acquisition of the applicable Sprint towers or T-Mobile towers may not exceed the costs, which could adversely affect our business.
Under master lease and master prepaid lease arrangements we have with T-Mobile and Sprint, certain of our subsidiaries lease or sublease, or are otherwise granted the right to manage and operate, sites from bankruptcy remote subsidiaries of such carriers. If one of these bankruptcy remote subsidiaries nevertheless becomes a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding and is permitted to reject the underlying ground lease, our subsidiaries could lose their interest in the applicable sites. If our subsidiaries were to lose their interest in the applicable sites or if the applicable ground leases were to be terminated, we would lose the cash flow derived from the towers on those sites, which may have a material adverse effect on our business. We have similar bankruptcy risks with respect to sites that we operate under management agreements.

11


Our network services business has historically experienced significant volatility in demand, which reduces the predictability of our results.
The operating results of our network services business for any particular period may vary significantly and should not necessarily be considered indicative of longer-term results for this activity. Our network services business may be adversely impacted by various factors including competition, economic weakness and uncertainty, our market share, and changes in the type and volume of work performed.
The expansion and development of our business, including through acquisitions, increased product offerings and other strategic growth opportunities, may cause disruptions in our business, which may have an adverse effect on our business, operations and financial results.
We seek to expand and develop our business, including through acquisitions (recent examples of which include the WCP acquisition, the NextG acquisition and the T-Mobile acquisition), increased product offerings and other strategic growth opportunities. In the ordinary course of our business, we review, analyze and evaluate various potential transactions and other activities in which we may engage. Such transactions and activities could cause disruptions in, increase risk or otherwise negatively impact our business. Among other things, such transaction and activities may:
disrupt our business relationships with our customers, depending on the nature of or counterparty to such transactions and activities;
direct the time and attention of management away from other business operations toward such transactions and activities, including integrations;
fail to achieve revenue or margin targets, operational synergies or other benefits contemplated;
increase operational risk or volatility in our business; or
result in current and prospective employees experiencing uncertainty about their future roles with us, which might adversely affect our ability to retain or attract key managers and other employees.
For example, the integration of the towers from the T-Mobile acquisition is a significant undertaking and requires significant resources, as well as attention from our management team. In addition, the integration of these towers into our operations requires certain one-time costs for tasks such as tower visits and audits and ground and tenant lease verification. If we fail to successfully and efficiently integrate the towers from the T-Mobile acquisition, we may not realize the benefits we expect from the T-Mobile acquisition, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
If we fail to comply with laws or regulations which regulate our business and which may change at any time, we may be fined or even lose our right to conduct some of our business.
A variety of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations apply to our business, including those discussed in "Item 1. Business." Failure to comply with applicable requirements may lead to civil penalties or require us to assume indemnification obligations or breach contractual provisions. We cannot guarantee that existing or future laws or regulations, including state and local tax laws, will not adversely affect our business, increase delays or result in additional costs. These factors may have a material adverse effect on us.
If radio frequency emissions from wireless handsets or equipment on our wireless infrastructure are demonstrated to cause negative health effects, potential future claims could adversely affect our operations, costs and revenues.
The potential connection between radio frequency emissions and certain negative health effects, including some forms of cancer, has been the subject of substantial study by the scientific community in recent years. We cannot guarantee that claims relating to radio frequency emissions will not arise in the future or that the results of such studies will not be adverse to us.
Public perception of possible health risks associated with cellular and other wireless communications may slow or diminish the growth of wireless companies, which may in turn slow or diminish our growth. In particular, negative public perception of, and regulations regarding, these perceived health risks may slow or diminish the market acceptance of wireless communications services. If a connection between radio frequency emissions and possible negative health effects were established, our operations, costs and revenues may be materially and adversely affected. We currently do not maintain any significant insurance with respect to these matters.

12


Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation, by-laws and operative agreements and domestic and international competition laws may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us or for us to acquire control of a third party, even if such a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders.
We have a number of anti-takeover devices in place that will hinder takeover attempts and may reduce the market value of our common stock. Our anti-takeover provisions include:
a staggered board of directors;
the authority of the board of directors to issue preferred stock without approval of the holders of our common stock; and
advance notice requirements for director nominations and actions to be taken at annual meetings.
Our by-laws permit special meetings of the stockholders to be called only upon the request of our Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the board of directors, and deny stockholders the ability to call such meetings. Such provisions, as well as the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, may impede a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination or discourage a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.
In addition, domestic and international competition laws may prevent or discourage us from acquiring wireless infrastructure in certain geographical areas or impede a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination or discourage a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.
We may be adversely effected by exposure to changes in foreign currency exchange rates relating to our operations in Australia.
Our Australian operations expose us to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. For 2012, approximately 6% of our consolidated net revenues were denominated in Australian dollars. Over the past five years, the Australian dollar has strengthened by 18% against the U.S. dollar. We have not historically engaged in significant hedging activities relating to our Australian operations, and we may suffer future losses as a result of changes in currency exchange rates.
Available Information and Certifications
We maintain an internet website at www.crowncastle.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K (and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) are made available, free of charge, through the investor relations section of our internet website at http://investor.crowncastle.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
In addition, our corporate governance guidelines, business practices and ethics policy and the charters of our Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating & Corporate Governance Committee are available through the investor relations section of our internet website at http://www.crowncastle.com/investor/corpGovernance.asp, and such information is also available in print to any stockholder who requests it.
We submitted the Chief Executive Officer certification required by Section 303A.12(a) of the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") Listed Company Manual, relating to compliance with the NYSE's corporate governance listing standards, to the NYSE on June 18, 2012 with no qualifications. We have included the certifications of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer required by Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related rules as Exhibits 31.1 and 31.2 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

Item 2.     Properties
Offices
Our principal corporate headquarters is owned and located in Houston, Texas. In addition, we have offices in the U.S. where we have high wireless infrastructure concentrations and an office in Sydney, Australia.

13


Wireless Infrastructure
Towers are vertical metal structures generally ranging in height from 50 to 500 feet. In addition, wireless communications equipment may also be placed on building rooftops and other structures. Our towers are located on tracts of land with an average size of approximately 20,000 square feet. These tracts of land support the towers, equipment shelters and, where applicable, guyed wires to stabilize the structure. Our small cells are typically located in areas in which zoning restrictions or other barriers may prevent or delay the deployment of a tower and often are attached to public right-of-way infrastructure, including utility poles and street lights, or are located at venues and universities. Our small cells are typically DAS, which is a network of antennas for the benefit of wireless carriers and is connected by fiber to communication hubs designed to facilitate wireless communications.
See "Item 1. Business—Overview" for information regarding our wireless infrastructure portfolio including with respect to our land interests and for a discussion of the location of our towers in the U.S. and Australia, including the percentage of our U.S. towers in the top 50 and 100 BTAs. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Contractual Cash Obligations" for a tabular presentation of the remaining terms to final expiration of the leases for the land interests which we do not own and on which our towers are located as of December 31, 2012.
Approximately 78% of our debt is secured. Approximately 8,500 towers (27% of our total), as well as nearly all of the third party land interests and other assets acquired in the WCP acquisition, and their related cash flows effectively secure $4.0 billion of our debt. Governing documents relating to another approximately 4,900 towers prevent liens from being granted on those towers without approval of a subsidiary of Verizon; however, distributions paid from the entities that own those towers also service our tower revenue notes. In addition, we have pledged the equity interests in certain subsidiaries in connection with our debt agreements. See note 6 to our consolidated financial statements.
Approximately 13,200 of our towers are leased or operated under master leases and subleases with wireless carriers, primarily Sprint and T-Mobile. We have the option to purchase these towers at the end of their respective lease terms. See note 1 to our consolidated financial statements and "Item 1A. Risk Factors" for a further discussion.
Substantially all of our wireless infrastructure can accommodate another tenant either as currently constructed or with appropriate modifications to the structure. Additionally, if so inclined as a result of a customer request for a new co-location or amendment of an existing installation, we could generally replace an existing tower with another tower in its place providing additional capacity, subject to certain restrictions. As of December 31, 2012, the average number of tenants (defined as a unique license and any related amendments thereto for count purposes) per tower is approximately 2.4 on our towers. The following is a summary of the number of existing tenants per tower as of December 31, 2012 (see "Item 7. MD&A—Accounting and Reporting Matters—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" for a discussion of our impairment evaluation and our towers with no tenants).
 
Number of Tenants
  
Percent of Towers
Greater than five
  
6
%
Five
  
6
%
Four
  
10
%
Three
  
17
%
Two
  
24
%
Less than two
  
37
%
Total
  
100
%

Item 3.     Legal Proceedings
We are periodically involved in legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business. Most of these proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business involve disputes with landlords, vendors, collection matters involving bankrupt customers, zoning and variance matters, condemnation or wrongful termination claims. While the outcome of these matters cannot be predicted with certainty, management does not expect any pending matters to have a material adverse effect on us.

Item 4.     Mine Safety Disclosures
N/A

14


PART II
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Price Range of Common Stock
Our common stock is listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol "CCI." The following table sets forth for the calendar periods indicated the high and low sales prices per share of our common stock as reported by the NYSE.
 
 
High
 
Low
2012:
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
55.99

 
$
44.62

Second Quarter
59.26

 
51.86

Third Quarter
66.11

 
57.60

Fourth Quarter
72.30

 
63.42

2011:
 
 
 
First Quarter
$
46.27

 
$
36.38

Second Quarter
44.49

 
39.74

Third Quarter
44.80

 
37.53

Fourth Quarter
44.92

 
38.70

As of February 5, 2013, there were approximately 850 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. It is our current policy to utilize our net cash provided by operating activities to engage in discretionary investments such as those discussed in "Item 1. Business." Periodically, our board of directors assesses the advisability of declaring and paying cash dividends at some point in the future, based on the then-current and anticipated future conditions, including our earnings, net cash provided by operating activities, capital requirements, financial condition, our relative market capitalization, taxable income, taxpayer status, and other factors deemed relevant by the board of directors. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is limited by the terms of our debt instruments under certain circumstances.
In 2012 and 2011, dividends on our 6.25% redeemable convertible preferred stock were paid utilizing approximately $2.5 million and $19.5 million in cash, respectively. In February 2012, we converted all of the outstanding 6.25% redeemable convertible preferred stock into shares of common stock.
Equity Compensation Plans
Certain information with respect to our equity compensation plans is set forth in Item 12 herein.

15


Performance Graph
The following performance graph is a comparison of the five year cumulative stockholder return on our common stock against the cumulative total return of the NYSE Market Index, S&P 500 Market Index and the Dow Jones Telecommunication Equipment Index for the period commencing December 31, 2007 and ending December 31, 2012. The performance graph assumes an initial investment of $100.0 in our common stock and in each of the indices. The performance graph and related text are based on historical data and are not necessarily indicative of future performance.
 
  
 
Years Ended December 31,
Company/Index/Market
 
2007
 
2008
 
2009
 
2010
 
2011
 
2012
Crown Castle International Corp.
 
$
100.00

 
$
42.27

 
$
93.86

 
$
105.38

 
$
107.71

 
$
173.49

NYSE Market Index
 
100.00

 
60.86

 
78.25

 
88.91

 
85.63

 
99.29

S&P 500 Market Index
 
100.00

 
63.00

 
79.68

 
91.68

 
93.61

 
108.59

DJ Telecommunication Equipment Index
 
100.00

 
59.44

 
89.65

 
92.61

 
85.30

 
87.85

The performance graph above and related text are being furnished solely to accompany this annual report on Form 10-K pursuant to Item 201(e) of Regulation S-K, and are not being filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and are not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of ours, whether made before or after the date hereof, regardless of any general incorporation language in such filing.


16


Item 6.     Selected Financial Data
Our selected historical consolidated financial and other data set forth below for each of the five years in the period ended December 31, 2012, and as of December 31, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008 have been derived from our consolidated financial statements. The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with "Item 1. Business," "Item 7. MD&A" and our consolidated financial statements.

 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2012(a)
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
2008
 
(In thousands of dollars, except per share amounts)
Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Site rental
$
2,124,190

 
$
1,853,550

 
$
1,700,761

 
$
1,543,192

 
$
1,402,559

Network services and other
308,490

 
179,179

 
177,897

 
142,215

 
123,945

Net revenues
2,432,680

 
2,032,729

 
1,878,658

 
1,685,407

 
1,526,504

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Costs of operations(b):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Site rental
539,239

 
481,398

 
467,136

 
456,560

 
456,123

Network services and other
189,750

 
106,987

 
114,241

 
92,808

 
82,452

Total costs of operations
728,989

 
588,385

 
581,377

 
549,368

 
538,575

General and administrative
212,572

 
173,493

 
165,356

 
153,072

 
149,586

Asset write-down charges
15,548

 
22,285

 
13,687

 
19,237

 
16,888

Acquisition and integration costs
18,298

 
3,310

 
2,102

 

 
2,504

Depreciation, amortization and accretion
622,592

 
552,951

 
540,771

 
529,739

 
526,442

Operating income (loss)
834,681

 
692,305

 
575,365

 
433,991

 
292,509

Interest expense and amortization of deferred financing costs(c)
(601,044
)
 
(507,587
)
 
(490,269
)
 
(445,882
)
 
(354,114
)
Impairment of available-for-sale securities(d)

 
(4,216
)
 

 

 
(55,869
)
Gains (losses) on retirement of long-term obligations(c)
(131,974
)
 

 
(138,367
)
 
(91,079
)
 
42

Net gain (loss) on interest rate swaps(e)

 

 
(286,435
)
 
(92,966
)
 
(37,888
)
Interest income
4,556

 
666

 
2,204

 
2,967

 
8,336

Other income (expense)
(5,392
)
 
(1,361
)
 
(603
)
 
2,446

 
(6,235
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
100,827

 
179,807

 
(338,105
)
 
(190,523
)
 
(153,219
)
Benefit (provision) for income taxes(f)
100,061

 
(8,347
)
 
26,846

 
76,400

 
104,361

Net income (loss)(g)
200,888

 
171,460

 
(311,259
)
 
(114,123
)
 
(48,858
)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to the noncontrolling interest
12,304

 
383

 
(319
)
 
209

 

Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders
188,584

 
171,077

 
(310,940
)
 
(114,332
)
 
(48,858
)
Dividends on preferred stock and losses on purchases of preferred stock(h)
(2,629
)
 
(22,940
)
 
(20,806
)
 
(20,806
)
 
(20,806
)
Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders after deduction of dividends on preferred stock and losses on purchases of preferred stock
$
185,955

 
$
148,137

 
$
(331,746
)
 
$
(135,138
)
 
$
(69,664
)
Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC common stockholders, after deduction of dividends on preferred stock and losses of purchases of preferred stock, per common share - basic and diluted
$
0.64

 
$
0.52

 
$
(1.16
)
 
$
(0.47
)
 
$
(0.45
)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
289,285

 
283,821

 
286,764

 
286,622

 
282,007

Diluted
291,270

 
285,947

 
286,764

 
286,622

 
282,007


17


 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2009
 
2008
 
(In thousands of dollars, except per share amounts)
Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary cash flow information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used for) operating activities
$
772,557

 
$
643,454

 
$
603,430

 
$
571,256

 
$
513,001

Net cash provided by (used for) investing activities
(4,199,596
)
 
(399,865
)
 
(390,949
)
 
(172,145
)
 
(476,613
)
Net cash provided by (used for) financing activities(c)
3,786,803

 
(275,712
)
 
(866,624
)
 
214,396

 
47,717

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges(i)
1.1

 
1.3

 

 

 

Balance Sheet Data (at period end):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
441,364

 
$
80,120

 
$
112,531

 
$
766,146

 
$
155,219

Property and equipment, net
6,917,531

 
4,861,227

 
4,893,651

 
4,895,983

 
5,060,126

Total assets
16,088,709

 
10,545,096

 
10,469,529

 
10,956,606

 
10,361,722

Total debt and other long-term obligations(c)
11,611,242

 
6,885,699

 
6,778,894

 
6,579,150

 
6,102,189

Total CCIC stockholders' equity
2,938,746

 
2,386,245

 
2,445,373

 
2,936,241

 
2,715,865

    
(a)
Inclusive of the impact of acquisitions. See note 3 to our consolidated financial statements.
(b)
Exclusive of depreciation, amortization and accretion shown separately.
(c)
Over the last five years, we have used debt to refinance other debt and fund discretionary investments such as acquisitions and purchases of common stock. We maintain debt leverage at levels that we believe optimize our weighted-average cost of capital. The following is a discussion of our debt activity during the last five years. See also "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Contractual Cash Obligations" and notes 6 and 20 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our debt, including the repurchase and redemption of the 9% senior notes and 7.75% secured notes completed in January 2013.
During 2010 and 2009, we issued $3.5 billion and $2.9 billion face value of debt, respectively, and purchased and repaid $3.4 billion and $2.4 billion face value of debt, respectfully. These refinancings extended the maturities of our debt portfolio. We incurred losses on the purchase and repayment of this debt.
During 2012, we refinanced our credit facility, the 7.75% secured notes and the 9% senior notes, and we incurred and assumed additional debt related to our acquisitions.
(d)
In 2011 and 2008, we recorded impairment charges related to an other-than-temporary decline in the value of our investment in FiberTower Corporation.
(e)
The 2010 and 2009 amounts are predominately losses on various interest rate swaps that no longer qualified for hedge accounting and included swaps that were no longer economic hedges. The 2008 amount predominately represents losses on our former interest rate swaps with a subsidiary of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. that no longer qualified for hedge accounting. As of December 31, 2012, we had no interest rate swaps outstanding.
(f)
As a result of a deferred tax liability recorded in connection with the Global Signal Merger, we recorded partial tax benefits for our losses in 2010 and full tax benefits for all of 2009 and 2008. 2008 includes tax benefits of $74.9 million resulting from the completion of the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") examination of our federal tax return for 2004. See note 9 to our consolidated financial statements regarding our tax position as of and for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 including our reversal of valuation allowances in 2012.
(g)
No cash dividends on our common stock were declared or paid in 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 or 2008.
(h)
In 2012, we converted our redeemable convertible preferred stock into shares of our common stock. See note 10 to our consolidated financial statements.
(i)
For purposes of computing the ratio of earnings to fixed charges, earnings represent income (loss) before income taxes and fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of interest expense, the interest component of operating leases, amortization of deferred financing costs and dividends on preferred stock classified as liabilities. For 2010, 2009 and 2008 earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges by $338.1 million, $190.5 million, and $153.2 million, respectively.



18


Item 7.     Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
General Overview
Overview
We own, operate or lease shared wireless infrastructure. See "Item 1. Business" for a further discussion of our business, including our long-term strategy, certain key terms of our lease agreements and growth trends in the wireless communications industry. Site rental revenues represented 87% of our 2012 consolidated net revenues. CCUSA, our largest operating segment, accounted for 94% of our 2012 site rental revenues.
The following are certain highlights of our business fundamentals as of and for the year ended December 31, 2012:
Potential growth resulting from wireless network expansion and new entrants
We expect wireless carriers will continue their focus on improving network quality and expanding capacity by adding additional antennas and other equipment on our wireless infrastructure.
We expect existing and potential new wireless carrier demand for our wireless infrastructure will result from (1) next generation technologies, (2) continued development of mobile internet applications, (3) adoption of other emerging and embedded wireless devices, (4) increasing smartphone penetration, and (5) wireless carrier focus on expanding coverage.
Substantially all of our wireless infrastructure can accommodate additional tenancy, either as currently constructed or with appropriate modifications to the structure.
U.S. wireless carriers continue to invest in their networks.
Our site rental revenues grew $271 million, or 15%, from the full year 2011 to 2012. Our 2012 site rental revenues growth was impacted by:
Our acquisitions in 2012 (see note 3 of our consolidated financial statements); and
The fact that we have effectively pre-sold via a firm contractual commitment a significant portion of the modification of the existing installations relating to certain 4G upgrades.  We have done so by increasing the future contracted revenue above that of a typical escalation over a period of time, typically a three or four year period.  As a result for any given period, the increase in cash rental receipts may not translate into a corresponding increase in reported revenues from the application of straight-line revenue recognition (see note 2 of our consolidated financial statements).  
Our 2013 site rental revenues growth will also be impacted by both of these same items that impacted our 2012 site rental revenues growth, including an approximately 13% expected contribution from the 2012 acquisitions.  Additionally, we do not expect that any of our customers' network enhancement deployments and any related non- renewal of customer contracts anticipated in 2014 and 2015, including Sprint's Network Vision and any corresponding non-renewal of iDEN leases, will have a material adverse effect on our operations and cash flows for 2013 and subsequent periods.
Site rental revenues under long-term customer contracts with contractual escalations
Initial terms of five to 15 years with multiple renewal periods at the option of the tenant of five to ten years each.
Weighted-average remaining term of approximately eight years, exclusive of renewals at the customer's option, representing approximately $20 billion of expected future cash inflows.
Revenues predominately from large wireless carriers
Verizon Wireless, AT&T, Sprint and T-Mobile accounted for 72% of consolidated revenues.
Majority of land interests under our towers under long-term control
Approximately 91% and 77% of our site rental gross margin is derived from towers that we own or control for greater than ten and 20 years, respectively. The aforementioned percentages include towers that reside on land interests that are owned in fee or where we have perpetual or long-term easements, which represent approximately 38% of our site rental gross margin.
Relatively fixed wireless infrastructure operating costs
Our wireless infrastructure operating costs tend to increase at approximately the rate of inflation and are not typically influenced by new tenant additions.
Minimal sustaining capital expenditure requirements
Sustaining capital expenditures were $37.1 million, which represented less than 2% of net revenues.
Debt portfolio with long-dated maturities extended over multiple years with the majority of such debt having a fixed rate (see "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for a further discussion of our debt)
70% of our debt has fixed rate coupons, after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements.

19


Our debt service coverage and leverage ratios were comfortably within their respective financial maintenance and cash trap covenants. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources" for a further discussion of our debt covenants.
Significant cash flows from operations
Net cash provided by operating activities was $772.6 million.
We believe our core business of providing access to our wireless infrastructure can be characterized as a stable cash flow stream, which we expect to grow as a result of future demand for our wireless infrastructure.
Capital allocated to drive long-term stockholder value (per share) (see also "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources" )
Historical discretionary investments include (in no particular order): purchasing our common stock, acquiring or constructing wireless infrastructure, acquiring land interests under our towers, improving and structurally enhancing our existing wireless infrastructure, and purchasing, repaying or redeeming our debt.
Discretionary investments during 2012 included the following acquisitions:
In September 2012, we entered into a definitive agreement with T-Mobile to acquire the exclusive rights to lease, operate or otherwise acquire approximately 7,100 T-Mobile towers for approximately $2.5 billion. On November 30, 2012, we closed on the T-Mobile acquisition. We have the exclusive right to lease and operate the T-Mobile towers (that are otherwise not owned by the Company). In addition, we have the option to purchase such towers at the end of their respective lease terms. See note 1 of our consolidated financial statements for a further discussion of the terms of the T-Mobile lease including the purchase option. We utilized cash on hand, inclusive of the proceeds from the October 2012 issuance of the 5.25% senior notes, and borrowings under our revolving credit facility to fund the T-Mobile acquisition.
In April 2012, we closed on the acquisition of NextG for approximately $1.0 billion in cash, subject to certain adjustments.
In January 2012, we acquired certain subsidiaries of WCP for a purchase price of $214.7 million, including $39.2 million of restricted cash and excluding the assumption of $336.3 million (after fair value adjustments) of debt. Upon closing in January 2012, WCP held various contracts with wireless site owners, including approximately 2,300 ground lease related assets.
Other investing and financing activities during 2012 included the following:
Discretionary capital expenditures of $404.3 million including wireless infrastructure improvements in order to support additional site rentals, construction of wireless infrastructure and land purchases.
The purchase of 0.7 million shares of common stock for $36.0 million.
In January 2012, we refinanced our previously outstanding credit facility with a new credit facility that consisted of a $1.0 billion revolving credit facility and $2.1 billion of term loan facilities. In December 2012, we increased our revolving credit facility by $500 million to $1.5 billion. Borrowings under such credit facility were used to fund the cash consideration of the WCP acquisition, NextG acquisition and to partially fund the purchase and redemption of the 9% senior notes.
In October 2012, we issued $1.65 billion aggregate principal amount of 5.25% senior notes due 2023 to partially fund the T-Mobile acquisition.
In December 2012, we extended the maturity of our debt while reducing our interest rates by issuing $500 million aggregate principal amount of 2.381% secured notes due 2017 and $1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 3.849% secured notes due 2023, for an aggregate principal amount of $1.5 billion with a blended rate of 3.36% ("2012 secured notes"), using the proceeds therefrom, together with borrowings under our credit facility, to repurchase and redeem all of the outstanding 7.75% secured notes and 9.00% senior notes.
Through our 2012 financing activities, we lowered our average cost of debt from 6.2% as of December 31, 2011 to 4.5% as of December 31, 2012. As a result of our financing and investing activities during 2012, including the impact of the T-Mobile acquisition, the CCIC consolidated leverage ratio increased from approximately 5.3 times as of December 31, 2011 to approximately 6.5 times as of December 31, 2012, after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements. This current CCIC consolidated leverage ratio is below our restrictive covenant of 7.0 times. As a result of the financial performance and our refinancings that lowered our cost of debt, our interest coverage ratios and debt service coverage ratios improved during 2012. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources."

20


Results of Operations
The following discussion of our results of operations should be read in conjunction with "Item 1. Business," "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources" and our consolidated financial statements. The following discussion of our results of operations is based on our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. which require us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts (see "Item 7. MD&A—Accounting and Reporting Matters—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" and note 2 to our consolidated financial statements).
Comparison of Consolidated Results
The following is a comparison of our 2012, 2011 and 2010 consolidated results of operations:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
Percent Change(b)
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
2012
vs.
2011
 
2011
vs.
2010
 
(In thousands of dollars)
 
 
 
 
Net revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Site rental
$
2,124,190

 
$
1,853,550

 
$
1,700,761

 
15
%
 
9
 %
Network services and other
308,490

 
179,179

 
177,897

 
72
%
 
1
 %
Net revenues
2,432,680

 
2,032,729

 
1,878,658

 
20
%
 
8
 %
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Costs of operations(a):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Site rental
539,239

 
481,398

 
467,136

 
12
%
 
3
 %
Network services and other
189,750

 
106,987

 
114,241

 
77
%
 
(6
)%
Total costs of operations
728,989

 
588,385

 
581,377

 
24
%
 
1
 %
General and administrative
212,572

 
173,493

 
165,356

 
23
%
 
5
 %
Asset write-down charges
15,548

 
22,285

 
13,687

 
*

 
*

Acquisition and integration costs
18,298

 
3,310

 
2,102

 
*

 
*

Depreciation, amortization and accretion
622,592

 
552,951

 
540,771

 
13
%
 
2
 %
Total operating expenses
1,597,999

 
1,340,424

 
1,303,293

 
19
%
 
3
 %
Operating income (loss)
834,681

 
692,305

 
575,365

 
21
%
 
20
 %
Interest expense and amortization of deferred financing costs
(601,044
)
 
(507,587
)
 
(490,269
)
 
*

 
*

Gains (losses) on retirement of long-term obligations
(131,974
)
 

 
(138,367
)
 
*

 
*

Net gain (loss) on interest rate swaps

 

 
(286,435
)
 
*

 
*

Interest income
4,556

 
666

 
2,204

 
*

 
*

Other income (expense)
(5,392
)
 
(5,577
)
 
(603
)
 
*

 
*

Income (loss) before income taxes
100,827

 
179,807

 
(338,105
)
 
*

 
*

Benefit (provision) for income taxes
100,061

 
(8,347
)
 
26,846

 
*

 
*

Net income (loss)
200,888

 
171,460

 
(311,259
)
 
*

 
*

Less: Net income (loss) attributable to the noncontrolling interest
12,304

 
383

 
(319
)
 
*

 
*

Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders
$
188,584

 
$
171,077

 
$
(310,940
)
 
*

 
*

    
*
Percentage is not meaningful
(a)
Exclusive of depreciation, amortization and accretion shown separately.
(b)
Inclusive of the impact of foreign exchange fluctuations. See "Item 7. MD&A—Results of Operations—Comparison of Operating Segments—CCAL."
2012 and 2011. Our consolidated results of operations for 2012 and 2011, respectively, predominately consist of our CCUSA segment, which accounted for (1) 94% and 94% of consolidated net revenues, (2) 94% and 94% of consolidated gross margins, and (3) 77% and 98% of consolidated net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders. Our operating segment results for 2012 and 2011, including CCUSA, are discussed below (see "Item 7. MD&A—Results of Operations—Comparison of Operating Segments"). Our consolidated results of operations for 2012 were impacted by the WCP acquisition, NextG acquisition and T-Mobile acquisition which resulted in (1) increases to consolidated net revenues of $143.3 million and (2) a net loss of $12.6 million included in net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders, which includes the impact of the debt assumed in the WCP acquisition and approximately $16.2 million of acquisition and integration expenses, but excludes the interest expense associated with the financing to fund each of these acquisitions.

21


2011 and 2010. Our consolidated results of operations for 2011 and 2010, respectively, predominately consist of our CCUSA segment, which accounted for (1) 94% and 95% of consolidated net revenues, (2) 94% and 95% of consolidated gross margins, and (3) 98% and 100% of consolidated net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders. Virtually all of the increase in site rental revenues resulted from wireless infrastructure we owned as of January 1, 2010. Our operating segment results for 2011 and 2010, including CCUSA, are discussed below (see "Item 7. MD&A—Results of Operations—Comparison of Operating Segments").
Comparison of Operating Segments
Our reportable operating segments for 2012 are (1) CCUSA, consisting of our U.S. operations, and (2) CCAL, our Australian operations. Our financial results are reported to management and the board of directors in this manner.
See note 16 to our consolidated financial statements for segment results and a reconciliation of net income (loss) to Adjusted EBITDA (defined below).
Our measurement of profit or loss currently used to evaluate our operating performance and operating segments is earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization and accretion, as adjusted ("Adjusted EBITDA"). Our measure of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies, including companies in the tower sector and other similar providers of wireless infrastructure, and is not a measure of performance calculated in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP").
We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) plus restructuring charges (credits), asset write-down charges, acquisition and integration costs, depreciation, amortization and accretion, amortization of prepaid lease purchase price adjustments, interest expense and amortization of deferred financing costs, gains (losses) on retirement of long-term obligations, net gain (loss) on interest rate swaps, impairment of available-for-sale securities, interest income, other income (expense), benefit (provision) for income taxes, cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle, income (loss) from discontinued operations and stock-based compensation expense (see note 12 to our consolidated financial statements). The reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to our net income (loss) is set forth in note 16 to our consolidated financial statements. Adjusted EBITDA is not intended as an alternative measure of operating results or cash flows from operations as determined in accordance with GAAP, and Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies. Adjusted EBITDA is discussed further under "Item 7. MD&AAccounting and Reporting Matters—Non-GAAP Financial Measures."
CCUSA—2012 and 2011. See note 3 in our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of the impact of our 2012 acquisitions.
Net revenues for 2012 increased by $379.8 million, or 20%, from 2011. This increase in net revenues resulted from an increase in site rental revenues of $256.1 million, or 15%, for the same periods. This increase in site rental revenues was impacted by the following items, inclusive of straight-line accounting, in no particular order: new tenant additions across our entire portfolio, renewals or extensions of customer contracts, acquisitions, escalations and cancellations of customer contracts. See "Item 7. MD&A—Accounting and Reporting Matters—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" for a further discussion of our revenue recognition policies. Tenant additions were influenced by the previously mentioned growth in the wireless communications industry. See also "Item 1. Business—The Company—CCUSA."
Site rental gross margins for 2012 increased by $199.3 million, or 15%, from 2011. The increase in the site rental gross margins was related to the previously mentioned 15% increase in site rental revenues. Site rental gross margins for 2012 increased primarily as a result of (1) the high incremental margins associated with tenant additions given the relatively fixed costs to operate wireless infrastructure and (2) acquisitions. The $199.3 million incremental margin represents 78% of the related increase in site rental revenues, inclusive of impact of acquisitions.
Network services and other revenues for 2012 increased by $123.8 million, or 77%, from 2011, and the related gross margin increased by $46.1 million, or 70%, from 2011. The increase in our gross margin from our network services and other revenues is a reflection of the carrier network enhancements such as LTE upgrades and the general volatility in the volume and mix of network services work. Our network services offering is of a variable nature as these revenues are not under long-term contracts.
General and administrative expenses for 2012 increased by $33.2 million, or 22%, from 2011 but were 8% of net revenues for both 2012 and 2011. General and administrative expenses are inclusive of stock-based compensation charges, which increased $5.7 million during 2012 primarily related to a non-recurring stock grant. See also note 12 to our consolidated financial statements. The increase in general and administrative expenses in nominal dollars was commensurate with the growth in our business as a result of our acquisitions. Typically, our general and administrative expenses do not significantly increase as a result of the co-location of additional tenants on our wireless infrastructure.

22


Adjusted EBITDA for 2012 increased by $235.5 million, or 19%, from 2011. Adjusted EBITDA was positively impacted by the growth in our site rental, as well as the contributions from network services activities and acquisitions.
Depreciation, amortization and accretion for 2012 increased by $68.7 million, or 13%, from 2011. This increase predominately resulted from the fixed asset and intangible asset additions related to the NextG acquisition and the T-Mobile acquisition.
During 2012, we completed several debt transactions, including refinancing and increasing availability under our credit facility and issuing the 5.25% senior notes and the 2012 secured notes. These financing transactions provided funding for the WCP acquisition, NextG acquisition and T-Mobile acquisition as well as refinancing certain of our debt and extending our debt maturities. As a result of repurchasing and redeeming certain of our debt, we incurred a net loss of $132.0 million for 2012, inclusive of (1) non cash losses of $48.1 million resulting from the write-off of deferred financing costs and discounts and (2) cash losses of $83.9 million including with respect to make whole payments. During 2011, we had no significant debt transactions. The increase in interest expense and amortization of deferred financing costs of $93.8 million, or 18%, in 2012 resulted predominately from the increase in debt outstanding. For a further discussion of the debt refinancings, including the impact to our results of operations for the first quarter of 2013 related to the January 2013 Debt Retirements, see notes 6, 7 and 20 to our consolidated financial statements, "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources" and "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk."
Our acquisition and integration expenses for 2012 predominately related to the NextG acquisition and T-Mobile acquisition. See note 3 of our consolidated financial statements.

The benefit (provision) for income taxes for 2012 was a benefit of $60.1 million inclusive of a valuation allowance reversal of $115.2 million resulting from (1) the NextG acquisition and (2) our determination to reverse a portion of the valuation allowance based upon our consideration of our recent historical trends and anticipated future taxable income. For 2012 and 2011, the effective tax rate differs from the federal statutory rate predominately due to our federal deferred tax valuation allowance and the net impact of state taxes. See "Item 7. MD&A—Accounting and Reporting Matters—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" and note 9 in our consolidated financial statements.
Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders for 2012 was income of $144.6 million compared to income of $168.1 million for 2011. The decrease in net income was predominately due to the increase in interest expense and the net losses on the retirement of debt partially offset by (1) the growth in our existing business and (2) a change in our benefit (provision) for income taxes primarily as a result of the reversal of the U.S. federal and state deferred tax valuation allowances.
CCAL—2012 and 2011. The increases and decreases between 2012 and 2011 were inclusive of exchange rate fluctuations. The average exchange rate of Australian dollars expressed in U.S dollars for 2012 was approximately 1.04, an increase of approximately 1% from approximately 1.03 for the same period in the prior year. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk."
Total net revenues for 2012 increased by $20.1 million, or 16%, from 2011. Site rental revenues for 2012 increased by $14.6 million, or 13%, from 2011. The increase in the exchange rate did not have a significant impact on the growth from 2012 from 2011. Site rental revenues were also impacted by various other factors, inclusive of straight-line accounting, including, in no particular order: tenant additions on our wireless infrastructure, renewals of customer contracts, acquisitions, escalations and cancellations of customer contracts. Net revenues were also impacted by a $5.5 million increase in network services and other revenues.
Site rental gross margins for 2012 increased by $13.5 million, or 18%, from 2011 and Adjusted EBITDA for 2012 increased by $10.3 million, or 17%, from 2011. The increase in the site rental gross margin and Adjusted EBITDA were primarily due to previously mentioned growth in our site rental revenues.
Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders for 2012 was a net income of $44.0 million, inclusive of income tax benefit of $39.9 million resulting from the reversals of the valuation allowance related to deferred tax assets, compared to net income of $3.0 million for 2011, inclusive of income tax provision of $2.2 million. The increase in net income was primarily related to the change in income tax benefit (provision) and the previously mentioned increase in net revenues.
CCUSA—2011 and 2010. Net revenues for 2011 increased by $130.3 million, or 7%, from 2010. This increase in net revenues resulted from an increase in site rental revenues of $136.9 million, or 9%, for the same periods. This increase in site rental revenues was impacted by the following items, inclusive of straight-line accounting, in no particular order: new tenant additions across our entire portfolio, renewals or extensions of customer contracts, escalations and cancellations of customer contracts. See "Item 7. MD&A—Accounting and Reporting Matters—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates" for a further discussion of our revenue recognition policies. Tenant additions were influenced by the previously mentioned growth in the wireless communications industry. See also "Item 1. Business—The Company—CCUSA."

23


Site rental gross margins for 2011 increased by $127.8 million, or 11%, from 2010. The increase in site rental gross margins was related to the previously mentioned 9% increase in site rental revenues. Site rental gross margins for 2011 increased primarily as a result of the high incremental margins associated with tenant additions given the relatively fixed costs to operate wireless infrastructure. The $127.8 million incremental margin represents 93% of the related increase in site rental revenues.
Network services and other revenues for 2011 decreased by $6.6 million, or 4%, from 2010, and the related gross margin increased by $5.0 million, or 8%, from 2010. The increase in our gross margin from our network services and other revenues is a reflection of the general volatility in the volume and mix of such work. Our network services offering is of a variable nature as these revenues are not under long-term contracts.
General and administrative expenses for 2011 increased by $3.4 million, or 2%, from 2010. General and administrative expenses are inclusive of stock-based compensation charges, as discussed further in note 12 to our consolidated financial statements. General and administrative expenses increased primarily as a result of DAS operations, driven by our acquisition of NewPath in 2010. General and administrative expenses were 8% of net revenues for both 2011 and 2010. Typically, our general and administrative expenses do not significantly increase as a result of new tenant additions on our wireless infrastructure.
Adjusted EBITDA for 2011 increased by $125.5 million, or 11%, from 2010. Adjusted EBITDA was positively impacted by the growth in our site rental gross margin, including the high incremental site rental margin on the new tenant additions.
Depreciation, amortization and accretion for 2011 increased by $9.2 million, or 2%, from 2010. The increase is consistent with the insignificant movement in our fixed assets and intangible assets, which did not materially change between 2011 and 2010.
During 2010, we repaid or purchased $3.4 billion of face value of debt using cash from our issuances of debt in order to extend the maturities of our debt portfolio. As a result of purchasing and early retiring certain of our debt, we incurred a net loss of $138.4 million for 2010, inclusive of make whole payments. During 2010, we realized losses on interest rate swaps of $286.4 million, which predominately resulted from an increase in the liability for those swaps not subject to hedge accounting due to changes in the LIBOR yield curve. All of our forward-starting swaps were settled during 2010, so no further cash outflows associated with these swaps will occur. The increase in interest expense and amortization of deferred financing costs of $18.4 million, or 4%, in 2011 resulted predominately from a $17.5 million increase in the amortization of interest rate swaps primarily related to the loss realized in 2010 on the swaps hedging the refinancing of the 2006 tower revenue notes. For a further discussion of the debt refinancings and the interest rate swaps see notes 6 and 7 to our consolidated financial statements.
Benefit (provision) for income taxes for 2011 was a provision of $6.1 million compared to a benefit of $28.8 million for 2010. For 2011 and 2010, the effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate predominately due to our federal deferred valuation allowances. In addition, 2010 included $19.8 million of federal tax benefits recorded predominately as a result of discrete events, including acquisitions.
Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders for 2011 was income of $168.1 million. Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders for 2010 was a loss of $310.2 million, inclusive of (1) net losses from interest rate swaps of $286.4 million and (2) net losses from repayments and purchases and early retirement of debt of $138.4 million. The change from net loss to net income was predominately due to (1) the previously mentioned charges and (2) growth in our core business.
CCAL—2011 and 2010. The increases and decreases between 2011 and 2010 are inclusive of exchange rate fluctuations. The average exchange rate of Australian dollars to U.S dollars for 2011 was approximately 1.03, an increase of 12% from approximately 0.92 for the same period in the prior year. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk."
Total net revenues for 2011 increased by $23.8 million, or 23%, from 2010. Site rental revenues for 2011 increased by $15.9 million, or 17%, from 2010. The increase in the exchange rate positively impacted net revenues and site rental revenues by approximately $13.9 million and $11.9 million, respectively, and accounted for an increase of 14% and 13%, respectively, for 2011 from 2010. Site rental revenues were also impacted by various other factors inclusive of straight-line accounting, including, in no particular order: new tenant additions on our wireless infrastructure, renewals of customer contracts, escalations and cancellations of customer contracts. Net revenues were also impacted by a $7.9 million increase in network services and other revenues.
Site rental gross margins increased by $10.7 million, or 17%, for 2011 from $63.3 million, and Adjusted EBITDA for 2011 increased by $9.4 million, or 18%, from $53.0 million. The increase in the site rental gross margin and Adjusted EBITDA were primarily due to exchange rate fluctuations.

24


Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders for 2011 was a net income of $3.0 million, compared to a net loss of $0.7 million for 2010. The change from net loss to net income was primarily related to previously mentioned increase in net revenues.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
General. We believe our core business can be characterized as a stable cash flow stream, generated by revenues under long-term contracts (see "Item 7. MD&A—General Overview—Overview"). Since we became a public company in 1998, our cumulative net cash provided by operating activities (net of cash interest payments) has exceeded our capital expenditures and provided us with cash available for discretionary investments. For the foreseeable future, we expect to continue to generate net cash provided by operating activities that exceeds our capital expenditures and will be available for discretionary investments. In addition to investing net cash provided by operating activities, in certain circumstances, we may also use debt financings and issuances of equity or equity related securities to fund discretionary investments.
We seek to allocate the net cash provided by our operating activities in a manner that will enhance per share results. Our historical discretionary investments include (in no particular order): purchasing our common stock, acquiring or constructing wireless infrastructure, acquiring land interests under towers, improving and structurally enhancing our existing wireless infrastructure, and purchasing, repaying or redeeming our debt.
We seek to maintain a capital structure that we believe drives long-term stockholder value and optimizes our weighted-average cost of capital.  We target a leverage ratio of approximately four to six times Adjusted EBITDA and interest coverage of approximately three times Adjusted EBITDA, subject to various factors such as the availability and cost of capital and the potential long-term return on our discretionary investments. We may choose to increase or decrease our leverage and coverage from these targets for various periods of time. See our discussion of the impact of the T-Mobile acquisition on our leverage in "Item 7. MD&A—General Overview—Overview."
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. Currently we endeavor to utilize our net cash provided by operating activities to engage in discretionary investments. We seek to maintain flexibility in our discretionary investments with both net cash provided by operating activities and cash available from financing capacity. Periodically, our board of directors assesses the advisability of declaring and paying cash dividends at some point in the future, based on the then-current and anticipated future conditions, including our earnings, net cash provided by operating activities, capital requirements, financial condition, our relative market capitalization, taxable income, taxpayer status, and other factors deemed relevant by the board of directors.
We pay minimal cash income taxes as a result of our net operating loss carryforwards. We have $2.7 billion of federal net operating losses to offset future taxable income. We expect to utilize our federal net operating losses between now and 2017 based on current taxable income projections. We evaluate our options with respect to appropriately managing our tax position on an on-going basis. These options may include a conversion to a real estate investment trust ("REIT"), which would require the payment of dividends on our common stock. If we were to convert to a REIT, we expect that certain subsidiaries would not qualify as a REIT and would continue to be subject to corporate income taxes.
Liquidity Position. The following is a summary of our capitalization and liquidity position as of December 31, 2012, after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" and notes 6 and 20 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our debt.
 
December 31, 2012
 
(In thousands of dollars)
Cash and cash equivalents(a)
$
109,542

Undrawn revolving credit facility availability(b)
247,000

Restricted cash
263,676

Debt and other long-term obligations
11,015,130

Total equity
2,915,397

    
(a)
Exclusive of restricted cash.
(b)
Availability at any point in time is subject to reaffirmation of the representations and warranties in, and there being no default under, our credit agreement. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Financing Activities" and "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Debt Covenants."



25


Over the next 12 months, after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements:
We expect that our cash on hand, undrawn revolving credit facility availability and net cash provided by operating activities (net of cash interest payments) should be sufficient to cover our expected (1) debt service obligations of $88.2 million (principal payments) and (2) capital expenditures of roughly $400 million to $450 million (sustaining and discretionary). As CCIC and CCOC are holding companies, this cash flow from operations is generated by our operating subsidiaries.
We have no debt maturities other than principal payments on amortizing debt. We do not anticipate the need to access the capital markets to refinance our existing debt until at least 2015. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for a tabular presentation of our debt maturities as of December 31, 2012.
Summary Cash Flows Information 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
(In thousands of dollars)
Net cash provided by (used for):
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
772,557

 
$
643,454

 
$
603,430

Investing activities
(4,199,596
)
 
(399,865
)
 
(390,949
)
Financing activities
3,786,803

 
(275,712
)
 
(866,624
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
1,480

 
(288
)
 
528

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
$
361,244

 
$
(32,411
)
 
$
(653,615
)
Operating Activities
The increase in net cash provided by operating activities for 2012 from 2011 and 2010 was due primarily to growth in our core site rental business, inclusive of our acquisitions. Changes in working capital, and particularly changes in accounts receivable, deferred site rental receivables, deferred rental revenues, prepaid ground leases, restricted cash and accrued interest, can have a significant impact on net cash provided by operating activities, largely due to the timing of prepayments and receipts. We expect net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2013 will be sufficient to cover the next 12 months of our expected debt service obligations and capital expenditures. We expect to grow our net cash provided by operating activities in the future (exclusive of movements in working capital) if we realize expected growth in our site rental business.
Investing Activities
Capital Expenditures. We categorize our capital expenditures as sustaining or discretionary. Sustaining capital expenditures include capitalized costs related to (1) maintenance activities on our wireless infrastructure, which are generally related to replacements and upgrades that extend the life of the asset, (2) vehicles, (3) information technology equipment, and (4) office equipment. Discretionary capital expenditures, which we also commonly refer to as "revenue-generating capital expenditures," include (1) purchases of land interests under towers, (2) wireless infrastructure improvements and structural enhancements in order to support additional site rentals, and (3) the construction of wireless infrastructure.
A summary of our capital expenditures for the last three years is as follows: 
 
For Years Ended December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
 
(In thousands of dollars)
Discretionary:
 
 
 
 
 
Purchases of land interests
$
134,171

 
$
196,380

 
$
109,097

Wireless infrastructure improvements and other
144,969

 
82,780

 
73,917

Construction of wireless infrastructure
125,137

 
45,391

 
20,718

Sustaining
37,106

 
23,391

 
24,326

Total
$
441,383

 
$
347,942

 
$
228,058


26


Other than sustaining capital expenditures, which we expect to be approximately $28 million to $32 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, our capital expenditures are discretionary and are made with respect to activities which we believe exhibit sufficient potential to improve our long-term results on a per share basis. We expect to use roughly $400 million to $450 million of our cash flows on capital expenditures (sustaining and discretionary) for full year 2013, with approximately one-fourth of our total capital expenditures targeted for our existing wireless infrastructure assets related to customer installations and related capacity improvement. Our decisions regarding capital expenditures are influenced by the availability and cost of capital and expected returns on alternative investments. The following is a discussion of certain aspects of our capital expenditures.
The decrease in purchases of land interests from 2011 to 2012 was driven by a single transaction during 2011 for $87.7 million for perpetual easements and other interests.
Capital expenditures for construction of wireless infrastructure increased from 2011 to 2012 primarily as a result of additional DAS network builds.
Capital expenditures for wireless infrastructure improvements typically vary based on (1) the type of work performed on the wireless infrastructure, with the installation of a new antenna typically requiring greater capital expenditures than a modification to an existing installation, (2) the existing capacity of the wireless structure prior to installation and (3) changes in structural engineering regulations and our internal structural standards.
Acquisitions.  Acquisitions consist of the acquisitions of businesses such as towers, DAS and third party land sites. See notes 3 and 5 for a discussion of the WCP acquisition, the NextG acquisition and the T-Mobile acquisition in 2012 and our acquisition of NewPath in 2010.
Financing Activities
We seek to allocate cash generated by our operations in a manner that will enhance per share results, which may include various financing activities, such as (in no particular order) purchasing our common stock and purchasing, repaying or redeeming our debt. Since the beginning of 2010, we have purchased an aggregate of 12.2 million shares of common stock for $499.1 million, which purchases we believe are consistent with our objective to drive per share results. During 2010, we extended the maturities of our debt by issuing an aggregate $3.5 billion face value of debt and purchased and repaid $3.4 billion face value of debt. In 2012, our financing activities predominately related to the issuance and borrowing of an aggregate $6.5 billion of face value of debt which provided funding for the WCP acquisition, NextG acquisition and T-Mobile acquisition, as well as the refinancing of our credit facility and the repurchase and redemption of the 7.75% secured notes and the 9% senior notes, which lowered our cost of debt. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Overview" and notes 6 and 20 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding January 2013 Debt Retirements.
Incurrence of Debt. See note 6 to our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of our issuances of debt during 2010 and 2012, which extended the maturities of our debt portfolio, provided funding for our acquisitions and lowered our cost of debt. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Overview—Liquidity Position." Highlights of the security for our debt is as follows:
Approximately 78% of our debt is secured. As of December 31, 2012, 27% of our towers, as well as nearly all of the third party land interests and other assets acquired in the WCP acquisition, and the cash flows from these towers effectively secure $4.0 billion of our debt. Distributions paid from our entities that hold approximately 4,900 towers also service this secured debt.
We have pledged the equity interests in certain subsidiaries as well as certain of our deposit accounts in connection with certain of our debt agreements.
Debt Purchases and Repayments. See note 6 to our consolidated financial statements for a summary of our repurchases, redemptions and repayments of debt during 2010 and 2012, including the gains (losses) on retirement of long-term obligations. See note 6 and 20 to our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of the January 2013 Debt Retirements, which we expect will result in a loss on the retirement of debt in our first quarter of 2013 of approximately $36 million.
Interest Rate Swaps. During 2010, we settled all of our forward-starting interest rate swaps. See note 7 to our consolidated financial statements for a further discussion of interest rate swaps.
Common Stock and Preferred Stock Activity. As of December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, we had 293.2 million, 284.4 million and 290.8 million common shares outstanding, respectively. During the three years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, we purchased an aggregate 0.7 million, 7.4 million, and 4.1 million shares, respectively, of common stock. We may continue to purchase our common stock in the future as we seek to allocate capital to discretionary investments in a manner that we believe will enhance per share results. In February 2012, we converted all of the outstanding 6.25% redeemable convertible preferred stock into common stock. See "Item 1. Business—Strategy" and note 10 to our consolidated financial statements.

27


Revolving Credit Facility. In January 2012, we refinanced our previously outstanding credit facility with a new credit facility that consisted of a $1.0 billion revolving credit facility and $2.1 billion of term loan facilities. In December 2012, we increased our revolving credit facility by $500 million to $1.5 billion. The proceeds of our revolving credit facility may be used for general corporate purposes, which may include the financing of capital expenditures, acquisitions and purchases of our common stock. Typically, we use our revolving credit facility to fund discretionary investments and not for operating activities, such as working capital, which are typically funded by net cash provided by operating activities. As of February 5, 2013, there is $1.3 billion outstanding under our $1.5 billion revolving credit facility, and there is $247.0 million of undrawn availability. We have not made any repayments on our existing revolving credit facility. The weighted-average interest rate as of December 31, 2012 was 2.7% on the existing revolving credit facility. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Overview."
Restricted Cash. Pursuant to the indentures governing certain of our operating companies' debt securities, all rental cash receipts of the issuers of these debt instruments and their subsidiaries are restricted and held by an indenture trustee. The restricted cash in excess of required reserve balances is subsequently released to us in accordance with the terms of the indentures. As of December 31, 2012, restricted cash included $316.6 million of cash held by the trustee in connection with the redemption of the 7.75% secured notes. The redemption was completed in January 2013. See also notes 2, 6 and 20 to our consolidated financial statements.
Contractual Cash Obligations
The following table summarizes our contractual cash obligations as of December 31, 2012 after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements. These contractual cash obligations relate primarily to our outstanding borrowings and lease obligations for land interests under our towers. The debt maturities reflect contractual maturity dates and do not consider the impact of the principal payments that will commence following the anticipated repayment dates on the tower revenue notes (see footnote (c)) and the WCP securitized notes (see footnote (d)). 
 
Years Ending December 31,
Contractual Obligations(a)
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
Thereafter
 
Totals
 
(In thousands of dollars)
Debt and other long-term
    obligations(b)(c)
$
88,183

 
$
99,101

 
$
111,437

 
$
112,782

 
$
2,139,893

 
$
8,452,061

 
$
11,003,457

Interest payments on debt and other long-term obligations(c)(d)
448,982

 
492,720

 
505,120

 
523,611

 
503,190

 
7,277,071

 
9,750,694

Lease obligations(e)
428,839

 
430,348

 
434,247

 
437,690

 
440,573

 
5,761,353

 
7,933,050

Other
4,278

 
3,812

 
3,441

 
157

 

 

 
11,688

Total contractual obligations
$
970,282

 
$
1,025,981

 
$
1,054,245

 
$
1,074,240

 
$
3,083,656

 
$
21,490,485

 
$
28,698,889

____________________  
(a)
The following items are in addition to the obligations disclosed in the above table:
We have a legal obligation to perform certain asset retirement activities, including requirements upon lease and easement terminations to remove wireless infrastructure or remediate the land upon which our wireless infrastructure resides. The cash obligations disclosed in the above table, as of December 31, 2012, are exclusive of estimated undiscounted future cash outlays for asset retirement obligations of approximately $1.0 billion. As of December 31, 2012, the net present value of these asset retirement obligations was approximately $95 million.
In the normal course of business, we post letters of credit and surety bonds pursuant to certain performance related obligations. We are contractually obligated under letters of credit to various landlords, insurers and other parties in connection with certain contingent retirement obligations under various wireless infrastructure land interest leases and certain other contractual obligations. The letters of credit were issued through one of CCUSA's lenders in amounts aggregating $12.6 million and expire on various dates through December 2013.
We are contractually obligated to pay or reimburse others for property taxes related to our wireless infrastructure. See note 14 to our consolidated financial statements.
(b)
The impact of principal payments that will commence following the anticipated repayment dates of our tower revenue notes are not considered. The January 2010 Tower Revenue Notes consist of three series of notes with principal amounts of $300.0 million, $350.0 million and $1.3 billion, having anticipated repayment dates in 2015, 2017 and 2020, respectively. The August 2010 Tower Revenue Notes consist of three series of notes with principal amounts of $250.0 million, $300.0 million and $1.0 billion, having anticipated repayment dates in 2015, 2017, and 2020, respectively. If the tower revenue notes are not repaid in full by the applicable anticipated repayment dates, the applicable interest rate increases by approximately 5% per annum and monthly principal payments commence using the Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the tower revenue notes. The tower revenue notes are presented based on their contractual maturity dates ranging from 2035 to 2040 and include the impact of an assumed 5% increase in interest rate that would occur following the anticipated repayment dates but exclude the impact of monthly principal payments that would commence using Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the tower revenue notes. The full year 2012 Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the tower revenue notes was approximately $482 million. The anticipated repayment date is 2015 for each class of the WCP securitized notes. We currently expect to refinance these notes on or prior to the respective anticipated repayment dates.
(c)
If the WCP securitized notes with a current face value of $296.0 million are not repaid in full by their anticipated repayment dates, the applicable interest rate increases by an additional approximately 5% per annum. If the WCP securitized notes are not repaid in full by their rapid amortization date of 2017, monthly principal payments commence using the Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the WCP securitized notes. The WCP securitized notes are presented based on their contractual maturity dates in 2040. The full year 2012 Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the WCP securitized notes was approximately $17 million. We currently expect to refinance these notes on or prior to the respective anticipated repayment dates.
(d)
Interest payments on the floating rate debt are based on estimated rates currently in effect.

28


(e)
Amounts relate primarily to lease obligations for the land interests on which our wireless infrastructure resides, and are based on the assumption that payments will be made through the end of the period for which we hold renewal rights. See table below summarizing remaining terms to expiration.
The following table summarizes our rights to the land interests under our towers, including renewal terms at our option, as of December 31, 2012. As of December 31, 2012, the leases for land interests under our towers had an average remaining life of approximately 30 years, weighted based on site rental gross margin. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors." 
Remaining Term, In Years(c)
  
Percent of Total Towers
 
Percent of Total Site Rental
Gross Margins(a)(b)
Owned in fee or perpetual or long-term easements
 
23
%
 
38
%
20+ years
  
41
%
 
39
%
10 years to less than 20 years
  
23
%
 
14
%
5 years to less than 10 years
  
9
%
 
7
%
1 year to less than 5 years
  
3
%
 
2
%
0 to less than 1 year
  
1
%
 
%
Total
  
100
%
 
100
%
    
(a)
For the year ended December 31, 2012.
(b)
Without consideration of the term of the customer contract agreement.
(c)
Inclusive of renewal terms at our option.
Debt Covenants
Our debt obligations contain certain financial covenants with which CCIC or our subsidiaries must maintain compliance in order to avoid the imposition of certain restrictions. Various of our debt obligations also place other restrictions on CCIC or our subsidiaries, which may include the ability to incur debt and liens, purchase our securities, make capital expenditures, dispose of assets, undertake transactions with affiliates, make other investments and pay dividends. We are permitted to issue additional indebtedness at CCIC and at our operating subsidiaries subject to compliance with the covenants governing our debt (including the below mentioned restrictive covenants) and meeting certain other requirements, which may include obtaining rating agency confirmations. See note 6 to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of our debt covenants.
Factors that are likely to determine our subsidiaries' ability to comply with their current and future debt covenants include their (1) financial performance, (2) levels of indebtedness, and (3) debt service requirements. Given the current level of indebtedness and debt services requirements of our subsidiaries, the primary risk of a debt covenant violation would be from a deterioration of a subsidiary's financial performance. Should a covenant violation occur in the future as a result of a shortfall in financial performance (or for any other reason), we might be required to make principal payments earlier than currently scheduled and may not have access to additional borrowings under these debt instruments as long as the covenant violation continues. If we fail to comply with the debt restrictions, we will be in default under those instruments, which could cause the maturity of a substantial portion of our long-term indebtedness to be accelerated. If our operating subsidiaries were to default on the debt, the trustee could seek to pursue the collateral securing the debt, in which case we could lose the wireless infrastructure and the future revenues associated with such wireless infrastructure. We currently have no financial covenant violations; and based upon our current expectations, we believe our operating results will be sufficient to comply with our debt covenants over the near and long-term. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors."

29


The following are the ratios applicable to the financial maintenance, restrictive and cash trap reserve covenants under our debt agreements, after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements.

 
Type
 
Debt
 
Current
Covenant
Requirement
 
As of
December 31,
2012
 
Latest Issuance Date
CCIC:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leverage ratio
Restrictive
(f) 
7.125% Senior Notes
 
≤7.00
 
6.5
 
6.3
Leverage ratio
Restrictive
(f) 
5.25% Senior Notes
 
≤7.00
 
6.5
 
6.5
CCOC:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net leverage ratio(a)
Maintenance
(g) 
Credit Agreement
 
≤6.0
 
5.1
 
4.8
Net leverage ratio(a)
Restrictive
(i) 
Credit Agreement
 
≤5.5
 
5.1
 
4.8
Interest coverage ratio(b)
Maintenance
(g) 
Credit Agreement
 
≥2.5
 
4.6
 
3.9
Tower and third party land interest companies:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Debt service coverage ratio(c)(d)
Cash Trap
(h) 
2010 Tower Revenue Notes
 
≥1.75
 
3.7
 
3.1
Debt service coverage ratio(c)(d)
Cash Trap
(h) 
2009 Securitized Notes
 
≥1.30
 
3.4
 
2.4
Debt service coverage ratio(e)
Cash Trap
(h) 
WCP Securitized Notes
 
≥1.30
 
1.5
 
N/A
____________________
(a)
The Total Net Leverage Ratio for CCOC is calculated as the ratio of (1) Total Indebtedness (excluding debt held by CCIC) less Unrestricted Cash (both as defined in the credit agreement and calculated in accordance with GAAP) to (2) Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the credit agreement) for the most recently completed quarter multiplied by four. In March 2014, the covenant requirement decreases to a maximum Total Net Leverage Ratio of 5.50 to 1.00. Consolidated EBITDA is calculated in substantially the same manner as Adjusted EBITDA used in our segment reporting, which is discussed further in "Item 7. MD&A—Accounting and Reporting Matters—Non-GAAP Financial Measures" and note 16 to our consolidated financial statements.
(b)
The Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio for CCOC is calculated as the ratio of (1) Consolidated EBITDA for the most recently completed quarter multiplied by four to (2) Consolidated Pro forma Debt Service (as defined in the credit agreement).
(c)
The 2009 securitized notes and 2010 tower revenue notes also have amortization coverage thresholds of 1.15 and 1.45, respectively, which could result in applying current and future cash in the reserve account to prepay the debt with applicable prepayment consideration. See note (d) below for a discussion of the calculation of the Debt Service Coverage Ratio and Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio.
(d)
The Debt Service Coverage Ratio is calculated as site rental revenue (calculated in accordance with GAAP), less: (1) cost of operations (calculated in accordance with GAAP), (2) straight-line rental revenues, (3) straight-line ground lease expenses, (4) management fees, and (5) sustaining capital expenditures, using the results for the previous 12 months then ended to the amount of interest to be paid over the succeeding 12 months per the terms of the respective agreement.
(e)
The Debt Service Coverage Ratio on the WCP securitized notes is calculated as Net Cash Flow (as defined in the indenture) less: (1) the Series 2010-1 Class A Targeted Amortization Amounts (as defined in the indenture) for the immediately succeeding 12 payment dates and (2) the Unpaid Series 2010-1 Class A Monthly Amortization Amount (as defined in the indenture) to the payments of interest that the issuers of such debt will be required to pay on the succeeding 12 payment dates on the principal balance of the WCP securitized notes. The WCP securitized notes also have an amortization threshold of 1.15, which could result in applying all Excess Cash Flow (as defined in the indenture) to prepay principal amounts with applicable prepayment consideration. In addition, if the Non-Performing Wireless Site Contract Ratio (as defined in the indenture) on the WCP securitized notes is greater than 10%, it could result in applying all Excess Cash Flow to prepay principal amounts with applicable prepayment consideration.
(f)
The 7.125% senior notes and 5.25% senior notes contain restrictive covenants with which CCIC and our restricted subsidiaries must comply, subject to a number of exceptions and qualifications, including restrictions on our ability to incur incremental debt, issue preferred stock, guarantee debt, pay dividends, repurchase our capital stock, use assets as security in other transactions, sell assets or merge with or into other companies, and make certain investments. Certain of these covenants are not applicable if there is no event of default and if the ratio of our Debt (as defined in the senior notes indenture) to our Adjusted Consolidated Cash Flows (as defined in the senior notes indenture) is less than 7.0 to 1.
(g)
Failure to comply with the ratios applicable to the financial maintenance would, absent a waiver, result in default under our credit agreement.
(h)
Failure to comply with the cash trap reserve covenants would require the cash flows generated by the issuers and their subsidiaries to be deposited in a reserve account for debt service and not released to us.
(i)
The credit agreement contains a restrictive covenant relating to CCOC and its restricted subsidiaries' ability to make restricted payments (as defined in the credit agreement), including dividends. As of December 31, 2012, after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements, CCOC and its restricted subsidiaries could (1) borrow an additional $681.0 million of debt and remain in compliance with this restrictive covenant, assuming no change in Consolidated EBITDA and (2) decrease Consolidated EBITDA by $123.8 million and remain in compliance with this restrictive covenant, assuming no change in their indebtedness.
Off-balance Sheet Arrangements
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K.


30


Accounting and Reporting Matters
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The following is a discussion of the accounting policies and estimates that we believe (1) are most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and (2) require our most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. The critical accounting policies and estimates for 2012 are not intended to be a comprehensive list of our accounting policies and estimates. See note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for a summary of our significant accounting policies. In many cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by GAAP, with no need for management's judgment. In other cases, management is required to exercise judgment in the application of accounting principles with respect to particular transactions.
Revenue Recognition. Over 87% of our total revenue for 2012 consists of site rental revenues, which are recognized on a monthly basis over the fixed, non-cancelable term of the relevant contract (generally ranging from five to 15 years), regardless of whether the payments from the customer are received in equal monthly amounts. If the payment terms call for fixed escalations (as in fixed dollar or fixed percentage increases), prepaid rent or rent free periods, the revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the fixed, non-cancelable term of the contract. When calculating our straight-line rental revenues, we consider all fixed elements of tenant contractual escalation provisions, even if such escalation provisions contain a variable element (such as an escalator tied to an inflation-based index) in addition to a minimum. Any up-front billings to customers for their negotiated share of the cost of wireless infrastructure modifications required to accommodate the installation of customer equipment or the cost of the construction of small cells are initially deferred and recognized over the term of the applicable site rental contract. To the extent we acquire below-market tenant leases for contractual interests with tenants on the acquired wireless infrastructure (for example with respect to small cells) we record deferred credits and amortize such deferred credits to site rental revenues over their estimated lease term. Since we recognize revenue on a straight-line basis, a portion of the site rental revenue in a given period represents cash collected or contractually collectible in other periods. We record a deferred site rental receivable for the difference between the straight-lined amount and the rent billed. We record an allowance for uncollectible deferred site rental revenues for which increases or reversals of this allowance impact our site rental revenues. See note 2 to our consolidated financial statements.
We provide network services relating to our wireless infrastructure, which represent less than 13% of our total revenues for 2012. Network services and other revenue relate to installation services, as well as the following additional site development services relating to existing and new antenna installations on our wireless infrastructure: site acquisition, architectural and engineering, zoning and permitting, fiber installations, other construction and other services related to network development. Network services revenues are recognized after completion of the applicable service. We account for network services separately from the customer's site rental.
See "Item 1. Business—CCUSA" for a further discussion of our business.
Accounting for Acquisitions — General. As described in "Item 1. Business," much of our wireless infrastructure has been acquired in various transactions from the four largest wireless carriers (or their predecessors) through transactions consummated since 1999. We evaluate each of our acquisitions to determine if it should be accounted for as a business combination or as an acquisition of assets. For our business combinations, we allocate the purchase price to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair value at the date of acquisition. Any purchase price in excess of the net fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed is allocated to goodwill. See "Accounting for Acquisitions - Valuation" below.
The determination of the final purchase price allocation could extend over several quarters resulting in the use of preliminary estimates that are subject to adjustment until finalized. Such changes could have a significant impact on our financial statements and could result in retrospective changes in results reported for the acquired business in prior periods in accordance with GAAP. As of December 31, 2012, the purchase price allocation for the T-Mobile acquisition is preliminary and subject to change, including as result of the finalization of the valuation of certain tangible and intangible assets and certain liabilities.
Accounting for Acquisitions — Valuation. As of December 31, 2012, our largest asset was property and equipment, which primarily consists of wireless infrastructure, followed by intangible assets and goodwill (approximately $2.9 billion and $3.1 billion in net book value, respectively). Approximately $2.7 billion net book value at December 31, 2012 of our identifiable intangibles relate to the site rental contracts and customer relationships intangible assets. See note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for further information regarding the nature and composition of the site rental contracts and customer relationships intangible assets.

31


The fair value of the vast majority of our assets and liabilities is determined by using either:
(1)
estimates of replacement costs (for tangible fixed assets such as towers) or
(2)
discounted cash flow valuation methods (for estimating identifiable intangibles such as site rental contracts and customer relationships and above-market and below-market leases).
The purchase price allocation requires subjective estimates that, if incorrectly estimated, could be material to our consolidated financial statements, including the amount of depreciation, amortization and accretion expense. The most important estimates for measurement of tangible fixed assets are (1) the cost to replace the asset with a new asset and (2) the economic useful life after giving effect to age, quality and condition. The most important estimates for measurement of intangible assets are (1) discount rates and (2) timing and amount of cash flows including estimates regarding customer renewals and cancellations. The most important estimates for measurement of above and below-market leases is the determination of (1) favorablility or unfavorability to the current market terms, and (2) applicable lease term, including whether renewals or extensions should be measured. With respect to business combinations that include towers that we lease and operate, such as the T-Mobile towers and the Sprint towers, we evaluate such agreements to determine treatment as capital or operating leases and identification of any bargain purchase options.
We record the fair value of obligations to perform certain asset retirement activities, including requirements, pursuant to our ground leases and easements, to remove wireless infrastructure or remediate the land upon which our wireless infrastructure resides. In determining the fair value of these asset retirement obligations we must make several subjective and highly judgmental estimates such as those related to: (1) timing of cash flows, (2) future costs, (3) discount rates and (4) the probability of enforcement to remove the wireless infrastructure or remediate the land. See note 2 to our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting for Long-Lived Assets — Useful Lives. We are required to make subjective assessments as to the useful lives of our tangible and intangible assets for purposes of determining depreciation, amortization and accretion expense that, if incorrectly estimated, could be material to our consolidated financial statements. Depreciation expense for our property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of our various classes of tangible assets. The substantial portion of our property and equipment represents the cost of our wireless infrastructure which is depreciated with an estimated useful life equal to the shorter of (1) 20 years or (2) the term of the lease (including optional renewals) for the land interests under the wireless infrastructure.
The useful life of our intangible assets are estimated based on the period over which the intangible asset is expected to benefit us and gives consideration to the expected useful life of other assets to which the useful life may relate. Amortization expense for intangible assets is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of each of the intangible assets. The useful life of the site rental contracts and customer relationships intangible assets is limited by the maximum depreciable life of the wireless infrastructure (20 years), as a result of the interdependency of the wireless infrastructure and site rental contracts and customer relationships. In contrast, the site rental contracts and customer relationships are estimated to provide economic benefits for several decades because of the low rate of customer cancellations and high rate of renewals experienced to date. Thus, while site rental contracts and customer relationships are valued based upon the fair value of the site rental contracts and customer relationships which includes assumptions regarding both (1) customers' exercise of optional renewals contained in the acquired contracts and (2) renewals of the acquired contracts past the contractual term including exercisable options, the site rental contracts are amortized over a period not to exceed 20 years as a result of the useful life being limited by the depreciable life of the wireless infrastructure.
Accounting for Long-Lived Assets — Impairment Evaluation — Intangibles. We review the carrying values of property and equipment, intangible assets and other long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. We utilize the following dual grouping policy for purposes of determining the unit of account for testing impairment of the site rental contracts and customer relationships:
(1)
we pool site rental contracts and customer relationships intangible assets and property and equipment into portfolio groups and
(2)
we separately pool site rental contracts and customer relationships by significant customer or by customer grouping for individually insignificant customers, as appropriate.
We first pool site rental contracts and customer relationships intangible assets and property and equipment into portfolio groups for purposes of determining the unit of account for impairment testing, because we view wireless infrastructure as portfolios and wireless infrastructure in a given portfolio and its related customer contracts are not largely independent of the other wireless infrastructure in the portfolio. We re-evaluate the appropriateness of the pooled groups at least annually. This use of grouping is based in part on (1) our limitations regarding disposal of wireless infrastructure, (2) the interdependencies of wireless infrastructure portfolios and (3) the manner in which wireless infrastructure is traded in the marketplace. The vast majority of our site rental

32


contracts and customer relationships intangible assets and property and equipment are pooled into the U.S. owned wireless infrastructure group. Secondly, and separately, we pool site rental contracts and customer relationships by significant customer or by customer grouping for individually insignificant customers, as appropriate, for purposes of determining the unit of account for impairment testing because we associate the value ascribed to site rental contracts and customer relationships intangible assets to the underlying contracts and related customer relationships acquired.
Our determination that an adverse event or change in circumstance has occurred that indicates that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable will generally involve (1) a deterioration in an asset's financial performance compared to historical results, (2) a shortfall in an asset's financial performance compared to forecasted results, or (3) changes affecting the utility and estimated future demands for the asset. When considering the utility of our assets, we consider events that would meaningfully impact (1) our wireless infrastructure or (2) our customer relationships. For example, consideration would be given to events that impact (1) the structural integrity and longevity of our wireless infrastructure or (2) our ability to derive benefit from our existing customer relationships, including events such as bankruptcy or insolvency or loss of a significant customer. During 2012, there were no events or circumstances that caused us to review the carrying value of our intangible assets and property and equipment due in part to our assets performing consistently with or better than our expectations.
If the sum of the estimated future cash flows (undiscounted) from an asset, or portfolio group, significant customer or customer group (for individually insignificant customers), as applicable, is less than its carrying amount, an impairment loss may be recognized. If the carrying value were to exceed the undiscounted cash flows, measurement of an impairment loss would be based on the fair value of the asset, which is based on an estimate of discounted future cash flows. The most important estimates for such calculations of undiscounted cash flows are (1) the expected additions of new tenants and equipment on our wireless infrastructure and (2) estimates regarding customer cancellations and renewals of contracts. We could record impairments in the future if changes in long-term market conditions, expected future operating results or the utility of the assets results in changes for our impairment test calculations which negatively impact the fair value of our property and equipment and intangible assets, or if we changed our unit of account in the future.
When grouping assets into pools for purposes of impairment evaluation, we also consider individual towers, nodes and third party land interests within a grouping for which we currently have no tenants. Approximately 3% of our total towers currently have no tenants. We continue to pay operating expenses on these towers in anticipation of obtaining tenants on these towers in the future, primarily because of the individual tower site demographics. We estimate, based on current visibility, potential tenants on over half of these towers. To the extent we do not believe there are long-term prospects of obtaining tenants on an individual tower, node or third party land interest and all other possible avenues for recovering the carrying value has been exhausted, including sale of the asset, we appropriately reduce the carrying value of such assets to fair value.
Accounting for Long-Lived Assets — Impairment Evaluation — Goodwill. Nearly all of our goodwill is recorded at CCUSA. We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, regardless of whether adverse events or changes in circumstances have occurred. The annual test begins with goodwill and all intangible assets being allocated to applicable reporting units. We then perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is "more likely than not" that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If it is concluded that it is "more likely than not" that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. Otherwise the two-step goodwill impairment test is not required. Our reporting units are the operating segments (CCUSA and CCAL) since segment management operates their respective wireless infrastructure portfolios as a single network.
We performed our most recent annual goodwill impairment test as of October 1, 2012, which resulted in no impairments. This assessment included consideration of our market capitalization which exceeded over seven times the aggregate carrying amount of the reporting units as of December 31, 2012.
Deferred Income Taxes. We record deferred income tax assets and liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet related to events that impact our financial statements and tax returns in different periods. In order to compute these deferred tax balances, we first analyze the differences between the book basis and tax basis of our assets and liabilities (referred to as "temporary differences"). These temporary differences are then multiplied by current tax rates to arrive at the balances for the deferred income tax assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is provided on deferred tax assets that do not meet the "more likely than not" realization threshold. We recognize a tax position if it is more likely than not it will be sustained upon examination. The tax position is measured at the largest amount that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
If our expectations about the future tax consequences of past events should prove to be inaccurate, the balances of our deferred income tax assets and liabilities could require significant adjustments in future periods. Our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards is dependent, in part, upon our having sufficient future earnings to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards before they expire. If market conditions change materially and we determine that we will be unable to generate

33


sufficient taxable income in the future to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards, we would be required to record an additional valuation allowance, which would reduce our earnings. Such adjustments could cause a material effect on our results of operations for the period of the adjustment. The change in our valuation allowance has no effect on our cash flows.
See "Item 7. MD&A—Results of Operations—Comparison of Operating Segments" for a discussion of our benefit (provision) for income taxes during 2012, 2011 and 2010. During 2012, we reversed the valuation allowance at CCUSA and CCAL related to our determination that we are more likely than not to realize these deferred tax assets as a result of our recent historical trends of taxable income and anticipated future taxable income for the respective jurisdictions. The evaluation of the amount of our valuation allowance and the timing of any such adjustments requires significant judgment. See note 9 of our consolidated financial statements for further discussion of our valuation allowance.
Impact of Accounting Standards Issued But Not Yet Adopted and Those Adopted in 2012
None.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Our measurement of profit or loss currently used to evaluate the operating performance of our operating segments is earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization and accretion, as adjusted, or Adjusted EBITDA. Our definition of Adjusted EBITDA is set forth in "Item 7. MD&A—Results of Operations—Comparison of Operating Segments." Our measure of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies, including companies in the tower sector and other similar providers of wireless infrastructure, and is not a measure of performance calculated in accordance with GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for operating income or loss, net income or loss, net cash provided by (used for) operating, investing and financing activities or other income statement or cash flow statement data prepared in accordance with GAAP.
We believe Adjusted EBITDA is useful to an investor in evaluating our operating performance because:
it is the primary measure used by our management to evaluate the economic productivity of our operations, including the efficiency of our employees and the profitability associated with their performance, the realization of contract revenue under our long-term contracts, our ability to obtain and maintain our customers and our ability to operate our wireless infrastructure effectively;
it is the primary measure of profit and loss used by management for purposes of making decisions about allocating resources to, and assessing the performance of, our operating segments;
it is similar to the measure of current financial performance generally used in our debt covenant calculations;
although specific definitions may vary, it is widely used in the tower sector and other similar providers of wireless infrastructure to measure operating performance without regard to items such as depreciation, amortization and accretion, which can vary depending upon accounting methods and the book value of assets; and
we believe it helps investors meaningfully evaluate and compare the results of our operations from (1) period to period and (2) to our competitors by removing the impact of our capital structure (primarily interest charges from our outstanding debt) and asset base (primarily depreciation, amortization and accretion) from our operating results.
Our management uses Adjusted EBITDA:
with respect to compliance with our debt covenants, which require us to maintain certain financial ratios including, or similar to, Adjusted EBITDA;
as the primary measure of profit and loss for purposes of making decisions about allocating resources to, and assessing the performance of, our operating segments;
as a performance goal in employee annual incentive compensation;
as a measurement of operating performance because it assists us in comparing our operating performance on a consistent basis as it removes the impact of our capital structure (primarily interest charges from our outstanding debt) and asset base (primarily depreciation, amortization and accretion) from our operating results;
in presentations to our board of directors to enable it to have the same measurement of operating performance used by management;
for planning purposes, including preparation of our annual operating budget;
as a valuation measure in strategic analyses in connection with the purchase and sale of assets; and
in determining self-imposed limits on our debt levels, including the evaluation of our leverage ratio and interest coverage ratio.

34


There are material limitations to using a measure such as Adjusted EBITDA, including the difficulty associated with comparing results among more than one company, including our competitors, and the inability to analyze certain significant items, including depreciation and interest expense, that directly affect our net income or loss. Management compensates for these limitations by considering the economic effect of the excluded expense items independently as well as in connection with their analysis of net income (loss).

Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Our primary exposures to market risks are related to changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates which may adversely affect our results of operations and financial position. We seek to manage exposure to changes in interest rates where economically prudent to do so by utilizing fixed rate debt. We do not currently hedge against foreign currency exchange risks.
Interest Rate Risk
Our interest rate risk relates primarily to the impact of interest rate movements on the following:
the potential refinancing of our existing debt ($11.6 billion and $6.9 billion of debt outstanding at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively);
our $3.3 billion of floating rate debt representing approximately 29% of total debt compared to 13% in the prior year; and
potential future borrowings of incremental debt.
Potential Refinancing of Existing Debt
Over the next 12 months we have no debt maturities other than principal payments on amortizing debt. We do not anticipate the need to access the capital markets to refinance our existing debt until at least 2015, which reflects the impact of refinancings that extended our debt maturities. As of December 31, 2012, we have no interest rate swaps hedging any refinancings. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Overview."
Floating Rate Debt
We manage our exposure to market interest rates on our existing debt by controlling the mix of fixed and floating rate debt. As of December 31, 2012, we had $3.3 billion of floating rate debt, which included $1.6 billion of debt with a LIBOR floor of 1% per annum. As a result, a hypothetical unfavorable fluctuation in market interest rates on our existing debt of 1/8 of a percent point over a 12 month period would increase our interest expense by approximately $2 million when giving effect to our LIBOR floor and would increase our interest expense by approximately $4 million exclusive of the impact of the LIBOR floor.
Potential Future Borrowings of Incremental Debt
We typically do not hedge our exposure to interest rates on potential future borrowings of incremental debt for a substantial period prior to issuance. See "Item 7. MD&A—Liquidity and Capital Resources" regarding our short-term liquidity strategy.


35


The following table provides information about our market risk related to changes in interest rates. The future principal payments and weighted-average interest rates are presented as of December 31, 2012 after giving effect to the January 2013 Debt Retirements. These debt maturities reflect contractual maturity dates, and do not consider the impact of the principal payments that will commence following the anticipated repayment dates of certain notes (see footnote (c)). See note 6 to our consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our debt.
 
Future Principal Payments and Interest Rates by the Debt Instruments' Contractual Year of Maturity
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
Thereafter
 
Total
 
Fair Value(a)
 
(Dollars in thousands)
Fixed rate debt(c)
$
47,183

 
$
48,726

 
$
48,562

 
$
46,782

 
$
545,893

 
$
6,948,061

(c) 
$
7,685,207

(c) 
$
8,471,610

Average interest rate(b)(c)
4.9
%
 
5.0
%
 
5.0
%
 
7.1
%
 
2.8
%
 
7.8
%
(c) 
7.4
%
(c) 
 
Variable rate debt
$
41,000

 
$
50,375

  
$
62,875

 
$
66,000

 
$
1,594,000

 
$
1,504,000

 
$
3,318,250

 
$
3,321,010

Average interest rate
3.2
%
 
3.1
%
 
3.0
%
 
3.0
%
 
2.7
%
 
4.0
%
 
3.3
%
 
 
 ____________________
(a)
The fair value of our debt is based on indicative quotes (that is, non-binding quotes) from brokers that require judgment to interpret market information, including implied credit spreads for similar borrowings on recent trades or bid/ask offers. These fair values are not necessarily indicative of the amount, which could be realized in a current market exchange.
(b)
The average interest rate represents the weighted-average stated coupon rate (see footnote (c)).
(c)
The impact of principal payments that will commence following the anticipated repayment dates are not considered. The January 2010 Tower Revenue Notes consist of three series of notes with principal amounts of $300 million, $350.0 million and $1.3 billion, having anticipated repayment dates in 2015, 2017 and 2020, respectively. The August 2010 Tower Revenue Notes consist of three series of notes with principal amounts of $250.0 million, $300.0 million and $1.0 billion, having anticipated repayment dates in 2015, 2017, and 2020, respectively. If the tower revenue notes are not repaid in full by the applicable anticipated repayment dates, the applicable interest rate increases by approximately 5% per annum and monthly principal payments commence using the Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the tower revenue notes. The tower revenue notes are presented based on their contractual maturity dates ranging from 2035 to 2040 and include the impact of an assumed 5% increase in interest rate that would occur following the anticipated repayment dates but exclude the impact of monthly principal payments that would commence using Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the tower revenue notes. The full year 2012 Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the tower revenue notes was approximately $482 million. If the WCP securitized notes with a current face value of $296.0 million are not repaid in full by their anticipated repayment dates in 2015, the applicable interest rate increases by an additional approximately 5% per annum. If the WCP securitized notes are not repaid in full by their rapid amortization date of 2017, monthly principal payments commence using the Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the WCP securitized notes. The WCP securitized notes are presented based on their contractual maturity dates in 2040. The full year 2012 Excess Cash Flow of the issuers of the WCP securitized notes was approximately $17 million.





36


Foreign Currency Risk
The vast majority of our foreign currency risk is related to the Australian dollar which is the functional currency of CCAL. CCAL represented 6% of our consolidated revenues and 4% of our consolidated operating income for 2012. As of December 31, 2012, the Australian dollar exchange rate had strengthened compared to the U.S. dollar by approximately 1% from the average rate for 2011. See "Item 7. MD&A—Results of Operations—Comparison of Operating Segments."
Foreign exchange markets have recently been volatile, and we expect foreign exchange markets to continue to be volatile over the near term. We believe the risk related to our financial instruments (exclusive of inter-company financing deemed a long-term investment) denominated in Australian dollars is not significant to our financial condition. A hypothetical increase or decrease of 25% in Australian dollar exchange rate would increase or decrease the fair value of our financial instruments by approximately $12 million.

Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Crown Castle International Corp. and Subsidiaries
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
 


37


REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM




To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of
Crown Castle International Corp.:

In our opinion, the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2012 and 2011 and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), of redeemable convertible preferred stock and equity and of cash flows for the years then ended present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Crown Castle International Corp. and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2012 and 2011, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2012 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2012, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company's management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management's Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
February 12, 2013



38



REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM


The Board of Directors and Stockholders
Crown Castle International Corp.:
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), cash flows, and redeemable convertible preferred stock and equity for the year ended December 31, 2010 of Crown Castle International Corp. and subsidiaries (the Company). In connection with our audit of the consolidated financial statements, we also have audited the 2010 information in financial statement schedule II. These consolidated financial statements and the financial statement schedule are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements and the financial statement schedule based on our audit.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the results of operations and cash flows of Crown Castle International Corp. and subsidiaries for the year ended December 31, 2010, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic consolidated financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.
/s/ KPMG LLP
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
February 15, 2011

39


CROWN CASTLE INTERNATIONAL CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
(In thousands of dollars, except share amounts)
 
December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
441,364

 
$
80,120

Restricted cash
575,938

 
252,368

Receivables net of allowance of $7,726 and $5,891, respectively
192,833

 
77,258

Prepaid expenses
103,808

 
80,529

Deferred income tax assets
193,420

 
85,385

Other current assets
73,961

 
23,492

Total current assets
1,581,324

 
599,152

Deferred site rental receivables, net
864,819

 
621,103

Property and equipment, net
6,917,531

 
4,861,227

Goodwill
3,119,957

 
2,035,390

Site rental contracts and customer relationships, net
2,652,560

 
2,074,982

Other intangible assets, net
289,136

 
103,200

Deferred income tax assets
33,914

 

Long-term prepaid rent, deferred financing costs and other assets, net
629,468

 
250,042

Total assets
$
16,088,709

 
$
10,545,096

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
115,999

 
$
32,055

Accrued interest
52,592

 
65,392

Deferred revenues
241,127

 
167,238

Other accrued liabilities
140,084

 
104,904

Current maturities of debt and other obligations
688,056

 
32,517

Total current liabilities
1,237,858

 
402,106

Debt and other long-term obligations
10,923,186

 
6,853,182

Deferred income tax liabilities
65,830

 
97,562

Below-market tenant leases, deferred ground lease payable and other liabilities
910,571

 
500,350

Total liabilities
13,137,445

 
7,853,200

Commitments and contingencies (note 14)

 

Redeemable convertible preferred stock, $0.1 par value; 20,000,000 shares authorized; shares issued and outstanding: December 31, 2012—0 and December 31, 2011—6,111,000; stated net of unamortized issue costs; mandatory redemption and aggregate liquidation value: December 31, 2012—$0 and December 31, 2011—$305,550

 
305,032

CCIC stockholders' equity:
 
 
 
Common stock, $.01 par value; 600,000,000 shares authorized; shares issued and outstanding: December 31, 2012—293,164,786 and December 31, 2011—284,449,372
2,932

 
2,844

Additional paid-in capital
5,623,595

 
5,312,342

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
(61,791
)
 
(116,996
)
Accumulated deficit
(2,625,990
)
 
(2,811,945
)
Total CCIC stockholders' equity
2,938,746

 
2,386,245

Noncontrolling interest
12,518

 
619

Total equity
2,951,264

 
2,386,864

Total liabilities and equity
$
16,088,709

 
$
10,545,096


See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

40


CROWN CASTLE INTERNATIONAL CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands of dollars, except per share amounts)
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
Net revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Site rental
$
2,124,190

 
$
1,853,550

 
$
1,700,761

Network services and other
308,490

 
179,179

 
177,897

 
2,432,680

 
2,032,729

 
1,878,658

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Costs of operations(a):
 
 
 
 
 
Site rental
539,239

 
481,398

 
467,136

Network services and other
189,750

 
106,987

 
114,241

General and administrative
212,572

 
173,493

 
165,356

Asset write-down charges
15,548

 
22,285

 
13,687

Acquisition and integration costs
18,298

 
3,310

 
2,102

Depreciation, amortization and accretion
622,592

 
552,951

 
540,771

Total operating expenses
1,597,999

 
1,340,424

 
1,303,293

Operating income (loss)
834,681

 
692,305

 
575,365

Interest expense and amortization of deferred financing costs
(601,044
)
 
(507,587
)
 
(490,269
)
Gains (losses) on retirement of long-term obligations
(131,974
)
 

 
(138,367
)
Net gain (loss) on interest rate swaps

 

 
(286,435
)
Interest income
4,556

 
666

 
2,204

Other income (expense)
(5,392
)
 
(5,577
)
 
(603
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
100,827

 
179,807

 
(338,105
)
Benefit (provision) for income taxes
100,061

 
(8,347
)
 
26,846

Net income (loss)
200,888

 
171,460

 
(311,259
)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to the noncontrolling interest
12,304

 
383

 
(319
)
Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders
188,584

 
171,077

 
(310,940
)
Dividends on preferred stock and losses on purchases of preferred stock
(2,629
)
 
(22,940
)
 
(20,806
)
Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders after deduction of dividends on preferred stock and losses on purchases of preferred stock
$
185,955

 
$
148,137

 
$
(331,746
)
Net income (loss)
$
200,888

 
$
171,460

 
$
(311,259
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
Available-for-sale securities, net of taxes of $0, $0, and $0:
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gains (losses), net of taxes

 
(7,537
)
 
738

Derivative instruments, net of taxes of $17,115, $0, and $(14,997):
 
 
 
 
 
Net change in fair value of cash flow hedging instruments, net of taxes

 
(973
)
 
(140,194
)
Amounts reclassified into results of operations, net of taxes
48,124

 
71,707

 
56,890

Foreign currency translation adjustments
6,308

 
(848
)
 
27,908

Total other comprehensive income (loss)
54,432

 
62,349

 
(54,658
)
Comprehensive income (loss)
255,320

 
233,809

 
(365,917
)
Less: Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to the noncontrolling interest
11,531

 
750

 
(223
)
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to CCIC stockholders
$
243,789

 
$
233,059

 
$
(365,694
)
Net income (loss) attributable to CCIC common stockholders, after deduction of dividends on preferred stock and losses of purchases of preferred stock, per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
0.64

 
0.52

 
(1.16
)
Diluted
0.64

 
0.52

 
(1.16
)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding (in thousands):
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
289,285

 
283,821

 
286,764

Diluted
291,270

 
285,947

 
286,764

____________________
(a)
Exclusive of depreciation, amortization and accretion shown separately.
 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

41


CROWN CASTLE INTERNATIONAL CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands of dollars)
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2012
 
2011
 
2010
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
200,888

 
$
171,460

 
$
(311,259
)
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used for) operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Depreciation, amortization and accretion
622,592

 
552,951

 
540,771

Gains (losses) on retirement of long-term obligations
131,974

 

 
138,367

Amortization of deferred financing costs and other non-cash interest
109,350

 
102,943

 
85,454

Stock-based compensation expense
41,944

 
32,610

 
36,540

Asset write-down charges
15,548

 
22,285

 
13,687