10-K 1 f71542e10vk.htm 10-K e10vk
Table of Contents

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
 
Commission File Number: 000-53330
 
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Freddie Mac
 
             
Federally chartered corporation
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  8200 Jones Branch Drive
McLean, Virginia 22102-3110
(Address of principal executive
offices, including zip code)
  52-0904874
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
  (703) 903-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number,
including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
 
Voting Common Stock, no par value per share (OTC: FMCC)
Variable Rate, Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCI)
5% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCKK)
Variable Rate, Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCG)
5.1% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCH)
5.79% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCK)
Variable Rate, Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCL)
Variable Rate, Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCM)
Variable Rate, Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCN)
5.81% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCO)
6% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCP)
Variable Rate, Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCJ)
5.7% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCKP)
Variable Rate, Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCS)
6.42% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCCT)
5.9% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCKO)
5.57% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCKM)
5.66% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCKN)
6.02% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCKL)
6.55% Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCKI)
Fixed-to-Floating Rate Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $1.00 per share (OTC: FMCKJ)
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes o   No x
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o   No x
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x   No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  o Yes  o No
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer x   Non-accelerated filer (Do not check if a smaller reporting company) o   Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes o   No x
 
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold on June 30, 2010 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $266.2 million.
 
As of February 11, 2011, there were 649,182,461 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE: None
 
            


Table of Contents

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
             
      1  
      38  
      62  
      62  
      62  
      62  
      63  
      65  
      66  
        66  
        69  
        89  
   
       Risk Management
    107  
        146  
        153  
        158  
   
       Contractual Obligations
    159  
        160  
        164  
      165  
      171  
      287  
      287  
      288  
      290  
      298  
      324  
      326  
      330  
      332  
    333  
    334  
    E-1  
 
            i Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
         
    Page
 
    172  
    174  
    175  
    176  
    177  
    178  
    190  
    195  
    201  
    206  
    211  
    214  
    215  
    223  
    227  
    229  
    231  
    235  
    239  
    242  
    247  
    248  
    255  
    257  
    265  
    279  
    283  
    284  
    286  
 
            ii Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

 
PART I
 
This Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements that are based on current expectations and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this Form 10-K and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Form 10-K. Actual results might differ significantly from those described in or implied by such statements due to various factors and uncertainties, including those described in “BUSINESS — Forward-Looking Statements,” and “RISK FACTORS” in this Form 10-K. Throughout this Form 10-K, we use certain acronyms and terms which are defined in the Glossary.
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
 
Conservatorship
 
We continue to operate under the direction of FHFA as our Conservator. We are also subject to certain constraints on our business activities by Treasury due to the terms of, and Treasury’s rights under, the Purchase Agreement. Our ability to access funds from Treasury under the Purchase Agreement is critical to keeping us solvent. The conservatorship and related matters have had a wide-ranging impact on us, including our regulatory supervision, management, business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
As our Conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Freddie Mac, and of any stockholder, officer or director thereof, with respect to the company and its assets. FHFA, as Conservator, has directed and will continue to direct certain of our business activities and strategies. FHFA has delegated certain authority to our Board of Directors to oversee, and management to conduct, day-to-day operations. The directors serve on behalf of, and exercise authority as directed by, the Conservator.
 
There is significant uncertainty as to whether or when we will emerge from conservatorship, as it has no specified termination date, and as to what changes may occur to our business structure during or following our conservatorship, including whether we will continue to exist. Our future structure and role are currently being considered by the Obama Administration and Congress. We have no ability to predict the outcome of these deliberations. While we are not aware of any current plans of our Conservator to significantly change our business model or capital structure in the near-term, there are likely to be significant changes beyond the near-term that we expect to be decided by the Obama Administration and Congress.
 
On February 11, 2011, the Obama Administration delivered a report to Congress that lays out the Administration’s plan to reform the U.S. housing finance market, including options for structuring the government’s long-term role in a housing finance system in which the private sector is the dominant provider of mortgage credit. The report recommends winding down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, stating that the Obama Administration will work with FHFA to determine the best way to responsibly reduce the role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae in the market and ultimately wind down both institutions. The report states that these efforts must be undertaken at a deliberate pace, which takes into account the impact that these changes will have on borrowers and the housing market.
 
The report states that the government is committed to ensuring that Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae have sufficient capital to perform under any guarantees issued now or in the future and the ability to meet any of their debt obligations, and further states that the Obama Administration will not pursue policies or reforms in a way that would impair the ability of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to honor their obligations. The report states the Obama Administration’s belief that under the companies’ senior preferred stock purchase agreements with Treasury, there is sufficient funding to ensure the orderly and deliberate wind down of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, as described in the Administration’s plan.
 
For more information, see “Executive Summary — Long-Term Financial Sustainability and Future Status.”
 
Our business objectives and strategies have in some cases been altered since we were placed into conservatorship, and may continue to change. Based on our charter, public statements from Treasury and FHFA officials and guidance from our Conservator, we have a variety of different, and potentially competing, objectives. Certain changes to our business objectives and strategies are designed to provide support for the mortgage market in a manner that serves our public mission and other non-financial objectives. However, these changes to our business objectives and strategies may not contribute to our profitability. Some of these changes increase our expenses, while others require us to forego revenue opportunities in the near-term. In addition, the objectives set forth for us under our charter and by our Conservator, as well as the restrictions on our business under the Purchase Agreement, may adversely impact our financial results, including our segment results. For example, our current business objectives reflect, in part, direction given to us by the Conservator. These efforts are expected to help homeowners and the mortgage market and may help to mitigate future credit losses. However, some of our activities are expected to have an adverse impact on our near- and long-term financial results. The Conservator and Treasury also did not authorize us to engage in certain business activities and transactions, including the sale of certain assets, which we
 
            1 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

believe may have had a beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition, if executed. Our inability to execute such transactions may adversely affect our profitability, and thus contribute to our need to draw additional funds under the Purchase Agreement.
 
In a letter to the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the Congressional Banking and Financial Services Committees dated February 2, 2010, the Acting Director of FHFA stated that the focus of the conservatorship is on conserving assets, minimizing corporate losses, ensuring Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae continue to serve their mission, overseeing remediation of identified weaknesses in corporate operations and risk management, and ensuring that sound corporate governance principles are followed. Specifically, the Acting Director of FHFA stated that minimizing our credit losses is our central goal and that we will be limited to continuing our existing core business activities and taking actions necessary to advance the goals of the conservatorship. The Acting Director stated that permitting us to engage in the development of new products is inconsistent with the goals of the conservatorship. This directive could have an adverse effect on our business and profitability in future periods.
 
We had a net worth deficit of $401 million as of December 31, 2010, and, as a result, FHFA, as Conservator, will submit a draw request, on our behalf, to Treasury under the Purchase Agreement in the amount of $500 million. As a result of draws under the Purchase Agreement, the aggregate liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock increased from $1.0 billion as of September 8, 2008 to $64.2 billion as of December 31, 2010. Under the Purchase Agreement, our ability to repay the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock is limited and we may not be able to do so for the foreseeable future, if at all. The aggregate liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock and our related dividend obligations will increase further if we receive additional draws under the Purchase Agreement or if any dividends or quarterly commitment fees payable under the Purchase Agreement are not paid in cash. The amounts we are obligated to pay in dividends on the senior preferred stock are substantial and will have an adverse impact on our financial position and net worth. We expect to make additional draws under the Purchase Agreement in future periods.
 
Our annual dividend obligation on the senior preferred stock, based on the current liquidation preference, is $6.4 billion, which is in excess of our annual historical earnings in all but one period. Continued cash payment of senior preferred dividends, combined with potentially substantial quarterly commitment fees payable to Treasury under the Purchase Agreement, will have an adverse impact on our future financial condition and net worth. The payment of dividends on our senior preferred stock in cash reduces our net worth. For periods in which our earnings and other changes in equity do not result in positive net worth, draws under the Purchase Agreement effectively fund the cash payment of senior preferred dividends to Treasury.
 
For more information on our current business objectives, see “Executive Summary — Our Primary Business Objectives.” For more information on the conservatorship and government support for our business see “Executive Summary — Government Support for Our Business” and “Conservatorship and Related Matters.”
 
Executive Summary
 
You should read this Executive Summary in conjunction with our MD&A and consolidated financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
Overview
 
Freddie Mac is a GSE chartered by Congress in 1970 with a public mission to provide liquidity, stability, and affordability to the U.S. housing market. We have maintained a consistent market presence since our inception, providing mortgage liquidity in a wide range of economic environments. During the worst housing and financial crisis since the Great Depression, we are working to support the recovery of the housing market and the nation’s economy by providing essential liquidity to the mortgage market and helping to stem the rate of foreclosures. Taken together, we believe our actions are helping communities across the country by providing America’s families with access to mortgage funding at low rates while helping distressed borrowers keep their homes and avoid foreclosure.
 
Summary of Financial Results
 
Our financial performance in 2010, including our net loss, continued to be impacted by the ongoing weakness in the economy, including the mortgage market. Our total comprehensive income (loss) was $1.2 billion and $282 million for the fourth quarter and full year of 2010, respectively, consisting of: (a) a net loss of $113 million and $14.0 billion, respectively, reflecting significant provisions for credit losses; and (b) $1.3 billion and $14.3 billion of changes in other comprehensive income (loss), respectively, primarily resulting from improved fair values on available-for-sale securities recorded in AOCI.
 
Our total equity (deficit) was $(401) million at December 31, 2010 due to several contributing factors, including our dividend payments on our senior preferred stock, which exceeded total comprehensive income (loss) for the fourth quarter of 2010. To address our deficit in net worth, FHFA, as Conservator, will submit a draw request on our behalf to Treasury under the Purchase Agreement for $500 million.
 
            2 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

During 2010, we paid cash dividends to Treasury of $5.7 billion on our senior preferred stock. We received cash proceeds of $12.5 billion from draws under Treasury’s funding commitment during 2010. These draws were driven in large part by changes in accounting principles adopted on January 1, 2010, which resulted in a net decrease to total equity (deficit) of $11.7 billion. As a result of these draws from Treasury under the Purchase Agreement during 2010, the aggregate liquidation preference of Treasury’s senior preferred stock increased to $64.2 billion at December 31, 2010. See “ — Changes in Accounting Standards Related to Accounting for Transfers of Financial Assets and Consolidation of VIEs” for additional information related to our changes in accounting principles.
 
Our Primary Business Objectives
 
Under conservatorship, we are focused on: (a) meeting the needs of the U.S. residential mortgage market by making home ownership and rental housing more affordable by providing liquidity to mortgage originators and, indirectly, to mortgage borrowers; (b) working to reduce the number of foreclosures and helping to keep families in their homes, including through our role in the MHA Program initiatives, including HAMP, and our relief refinance mortgage initiative; (c) minimizing our credit losses; and (d) maintaining the credit quality of the loans we purchase and guarantee. These objectives reflect, in part, direction we have received from the Conservator. We also have a variety of different, and potentially competing, objectives based on our charter, public statements from Treasury and FHFA officials, and other guidance from our Conservator. For more information, see “Conservatorship and Related Developments — Impact of Conservatorship and Related Actions on Our Business.”
 
Providing Mortgage Liquidity and Conforming Loan Availability
 
We provide liquidity and support to the U.S. mortgage market in a number of important ways:
 
  •  Our support enables borrowers to have access to a variety of conforming mortgage products, including the prepayable 30-year fixed-rate mortgage which represents the foundation of the mortgage market.
 
  •  Our support provides lenders with a constant source of liquidity. We estimate that we, Fannie Mae, and Ginnie Mae collectively guaranteed approximately 89% of the single-family conforming mortgages originated during 2010.
 
  •  Our consistent market presence provides assurance to our customers that there will be a buyer for their conforming loans that meet our credit standards. We believe this provides market stability in difficult environments.
 
  •  We are an important counter-cyclical influence as we stay in the market even when other sources of capital have pulled out, as evidenced by the events of the last three years.
 
During 2010, we guaranteed $384.6 billion in UPB of single-family conforming mortgage loans representing 1.8 million families who purchased homes or refinanced their mortgages. Relief refinance mortgages with LTV ratios of 80% and above represented approximately 12% of our total single-family credit guarantee portfolio purchases in 2010. These mortgages comprised approximately 4% of our total single-family credit guarantee portfolio at December 31, 2010.
 
Borrowers typically pay a lower interest rate on loans acquired or guaranteed by Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, or Ginnie Mae. Mortgage originators are generally able to offer homebuyers lower mortgage rates on conforming loan products, including ours, in part because of the value investors place on GSE-guaranteed mortgage-related securities. Prior to 2007, mortgage markets were less volatile, home values were stable or rising, and there were many sources of mortgage funds. We estimate that prior to 2007 the average effective interest rates on conforming single-family mortgage loans were about 30 basis points lower than on non-conforming loans. Since 2007, there have been fewer sources of mortgage funds, and we estimate that interest rates on conforming loans, excluding conforming jumbo loans, have been lower than those on non-conforming loans by as much as 184 basis points. In December 2010, we estimate that borrowers were paying an average of 68 basis points less on these conforming loans than on non-conforming loans. These estimates are based on data provided by HSH Associates, a third-party provider of mortgage market data.
 
            3 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Reducing Foreclosures and Keeping Families in Homes
 
During the current housing crisis, we are focused on reducing the number of foreclosures and helping to keep families in their homes. In addition to our participation in HAMP, we introduced several new initiatives to help eligible borrowers during this crisis, including our relief refinance mortgage initiative. In 2010, we helped more than 275,000 borrowers either stay in their homes or sell their properties and avoid foreclosure through our various workout programs, including HAMP. Table 1 presents our recent single-family loan workout activities.
 
Table 1 — Total Single-Family Loan Workout Volumes(1)
 
                                         
    For the Three Months Ended  
    12/31/2010     09/30/2010     06/30/2010     03/31/2010     12/31/2009  
    (number of loans)  
 
Loan modifications
    37,203       39,284       49,562       44,228       15,805  
Repayment plans
    7,964       7,030       7,455       8,761       8,129  
Forbearance agreements(2)
    5,945       6,976       12,815       8,858       8,780  
Short sales and deed-in-lieu transactions
    12,097       10,472       9,542       7,064       6,533  
                                         
Total single-family loan workouts
    63,209       63,762       79,374       68,911       39,247  
                                         
(1)  Based on actions completed with borrowers for loans within our single-family credit guarantee portfolio. Excludes those modification, repayment, and forbearance activities for which the borrower has started the required process, but the actions have not been made permanent, or effective, such as loans in the trial period under HAMP. Also excludes certain loan workouts where our single-family seller/servicers have executed agreements in the current or prior periods, but these have not been incorporated into certain of our operational systems, due to delays in processing. These categories are not mutually exclusive and a loan in one category may also be included within another category in the same period.
(2)  Excludes loans with long-term forbearance under a completed loan modification. Many borrowers complete a short-term forbearance agreement before another loan workout is pursued or completed. We only report forbearance activity for a single loan once during each quarterly period; however, a single loan may be included under separate forbearance agreements in separate periods.
 
We continue to execute a high volume of loan workouts. Recent highlights include the following:
 
  •  We completed 275,256 single-family loan workouts during 2010, including 170,277 loan modifications and 39,175 short sales and deed-in-lieu transactions.
 
  •  Based on information provided by the MHA Program administrator, our servicers had completed 107,073 loan modifications under HAMP from the introduction of the initiative in 2009 through December 31, 2010 and, as of December 31, 2010, 22,352 loans were in HAMP trial periods (this figure only includes borrowers who made at least their first payment under the trial period).
 
In addition to these efforts, we continue to focus on assisting consumers through outreach and other efforts. These efforts included: (a) meeting with borrowers nationwide in foreclosure prevention workshops; (b) launching the Borrower Help Network to provide distressed borrowers with free one-on-one counseling; (c) opening Borrower Help Centers in several cities nationwide to provide free counseling to distressed borrowers; and (d) in instances where foreclosure has occurred, allowing affected families who qualify to rent back their homes for a limited period of time. We have also increased our efforts to directly assist our servicers by increasing our servicing staff and placing on-site specialists at many of our mortgage servicer locations.
 
For more information about HAMP, other loan workout programs, and our relief refinance mortgage initiative, and other options to help eligible borrowers, see “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Mortgage Credit Risk — Portfolio Management Activities — MHA Program” and “— Loan Workout Activities.”
 
Minimizing Credit Losses
 
To help minimize the credit losses related to our guarantee activities, we are focused on:
 
  •  pursuing a variety of loan workouts, including foreclosure alternatives, in an effort to reduce the severity of losses we incur;
 
  •  managing foreclosure timelines;
 
  •  managing our inventory of foreclosed properties to reduce costs and maximize proceeds; and
 
  •  pursuing contractual remedies against originators, lenders, servicers, and credit enhancement providers, as appropriate.
 
We establish guidelines for our servicers and provide them with software tools to determine which loan workout solution would be expected to provide the best opportunity for minimizing our credit losses based on each borrower’s qualifications. For example, if a borrower qualifies for a loan modification, this often provides us a better opportunity to minimize credit losses than a foreclosure. We rely on our servicers to pursue the best alternative available based on our guidelines and software tools.
 
Our servicers pursue repayment plans and loan modifications for borrowers facing financial or other hardships since the level of recovery (if a loan reperforms) may often be much higher than with foreclosure or foreclosure alternatives. In cases where this alternative is not possible or successful, a short sale transaction typically provides us with a comparable or higher level of recovery than what we would receive through property sales from our REO inventory. In large part, the benefit of
 
            4 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

short sales arises from the avoidance of costs we would otherwise incur to complete the foreclosure and dispose of the property, including maintenance and other property expenses associated with holding REO property, legal fees, commissions, and other selling expenses of traditional real estate transactions. The foreclosure process is a lengthy one in many jurisdictions with significant associated costs to complete, including, in times of home value decline, foregone recovery we might receive from an earlier sale. The nationwide average for completion of a foreclosure (as measured from the date of the last scheduled payment made by the borrower) on our single-family delinquent loans, excluding those underlying our Other Guarantee Transactions, was 448 days for the foreclosures we completed during 2010 and varied widely among jurisdictions. We expect that the growth in short sales will continue, in part due to our recent initiatives, including offering incentives to servicers to complete short sales instead of foreclosures as well as our implementation of HAFA.
 
We have contractual arrangements with our seller/servicers under which they agree to provide us with mortgage loans that have been originated under specified underwriting standards. If we subsequently discover that contractual standards were not followed, we can exercise certain contractual remedies to mitigate our credit losses. These contractual remedies include the ability to require the seller/servicer to repurchase the loan at its current UPB or make us whole for any credit losses realized with respect to the loan. As of December 31, 2010, the UPB of loans subject to repurchase requests issued to our single-family seller/servicers was approximately $3.8 billion, and approximately 34% of these requests were outstanding for more than four months since issuance of our repurchase request. The actual amount we expect to collect on these requests is significantly less than their UPB amounts primarily because many of these requests are satisfied by reimbursement of our realized losses by seller/servicers, or may be rescinded in the course of the contractual appeals process. During 2010 and 2009, we entered into agreements with certain seller/servicers to release certain loans in their portfolio from repurchase obligations in exchange for one-time cash payments. We may enter into similar agreements or seek other remedies in the future. See “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Institutional Credit Risk — Mortgage Seller/Servicers” for further information on our agreements with our seller/servicers.
 
Historically, our credit loss exposure has also been partially mitigated by mortgage insurance, which is a form of credit enhancement. Primary mortgage insurance is required to be purchased, at the borrower’s expense, for certain mortgages with higher LTV ratios. We received payments under primary and other mortgage insurance of $1.8 billion and $952 million in the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively, to help mitigate our credit losses.
 
Maintaining the Credit Quality of New Loan Purchases and Guarantees
 
We continue to focus on maintaining underwriting standards that allow us to purchase and guarantee loans made to qualified borrowers that we believe will provide management and guarantee fee income, over the long-term, that exceeds our anticipated credit-related and administrative expenses on the underlying loans.
 
As of December 31, 2010, more than one-third of our single-family credit guarantee portfolio consisted of mortgage loans originated in 2009 and 2010. The substantial majority of the single-family mortgages we purchased in 2010 were 30-year and 15-year fixed-rate mortgages. We believe the credit quality of the single-family loans we acquired in 2009 and 2010 (excluding relief refinance mortgages) is better than that of loans we acquired from 2005 through 2008 as measured by original LTV ratios, FICO scores, and income documentation standards. These newer loans have also experienced significantly better serious delinquency trends at this stage in their lifecycle than loans acquired from 2006 through 2008. Early serious delinquency performance and home price declines have historically been indicators of long-term credit performance.
 
We believe the improvement in credit quality we are experiencing is primarily the result of the combination of: (a) changes in our underwriting guidelines implemented during 2009 and 2010; (b) fewer purchases in 2009 and 2010 of loans with higher-risk characteristics; (c) changes in mortgage insurers’ and lenders’ underwriting practices; and (d) an increase in the relative amount of refinance mortgages versus new purchase mortgages we acquired in 2009 and 2010. Approximately 80% of our purchases for the single-family credit guarantee portfolio in both 2010 and 2009 were refinance mortgages. Refinance mortgages typically lower the borrower’s monthly mortgage payment, and thereby reduce the risk that the borrower will default.
 
Table 2 presents the composition, loan characteristics, and serious delinquency rates of loans in our single-family credit guarantee portfolio, by year of origination at December 31, 2010.
 
            5 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Table 2 — Single-Family Credit Guarantee Portfolio Data by Year of Origination
 
                                 
    At December 31, 2010  
                      Serious
 
    % of
    Average
    Current
    Delinquency
 
    Portfolio(1)     Credit Score(2)     LTV Ratio(3)     Rate(4)  
 
Year of Origination
                               
2010
    18 %     755       70 %     0.05 %
2009
    21       755       70       0.26  
2008
    9       728       86       4.89  
2007
    11       707       104       11.63  
2006
    9       712       104       10.46  
2005
    10       719       91       6.04  
2004 and prior
    22       722       58       2.46  
                                 
Total
    100 %     733       78       3.84  
                                 
(1)  Based on the UPB of the single-family credit guarantee portfolio.
(2)  Based on FICO credit score of the borrower as of the date of loan origination.
(3)  Current market values are estimated by adjusting the value of the property at origination based on changes in the market value of homes since origination.
(4)  See “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Mortgage Credit Risk — Credit Performance — Delinquencies” for further information about our reported serious delinquency rates.
 
During 2010, the guarantee-related revenue from the mortgage loans originated in 2009 and 2010 exceeded the credit-related and administrative expenses associated with these loans. Credit-related expenses consist of our provision for credit losses and REO operations expense. These new vintages are replacing the older vintages that have a higher composition of mortgages with higher-risk characteristics. We currently expect that, over time, this should positively impact the serious delinquency rates and credit expenses of our single-family credit guarantee portfolio. See “Table 19 — Segment Earnings Composition — Single-Family Guarantee Segment” for an analysis of the contribution to Segment Earnings by loan origination year.
 
Single-Family Credit Guarantee Portfolio
 
Since the beginning of 2008, on an aggregate basis, we recorded provision for credit losses associated with single-family loans of approximately $62.3 billion, and an additional $4.7 billion in losses on loans purchased from our PCs, net of recoveries. The majority of these losses are associated with loans originated in 2005 through 2008. While loans we acquired in 2005 through 2008 will give rise to additional credit losses that we have not yet provisioned for, we believe, as of December 31, 2010, that we have reserved for or charged-off the majority of the total expected credit losses for these loans. Nevertheless, various factors, including continued high unemployment rates or further declines in home prices, could require us to provide for losses on these loans beyond our current expectations.
 
Table 3 provides certain credit statistics for our single-family credit guarantee portfolio. The UPB of our single-family credit guarantee portfolio decreased 5% during 2010 to $1.81 trillion at December 31, 2010 from $1.90 trillion at
 
            6 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

December 31, 2009. Liquidations have significantly exceeded our new guarantee activity during 2010, which drove the decline in UPB of this portfolio.
 
Table 3 — Credit Statistics, Single-Family Credit Guarantee Portfolio
 
                                         
    As of
    12/31/2010   09/30/2010   06/30/2010   03/31/2010   12/31/2009
 
Payment status —
                                       
One month past due
    2.07 %     2.11 %     2.02 %     1.89 %     2.24 %
Two months past due
    0.78 %     0.80 %     0.77 %     0.79 %     0.95 %
Seriously delinquent(1)
    3.84 %     3.80 %     3.96 %     4.13 %     3.98 %
Non-performing loans (in millions)(2)
  $ 115,478     $ 112,746     $ 111,758     $ 110,079     $ 98,689  
Single-family loan loss reserve (in millions)(3)
  $ 39,098     $ 37,665     $ 37,384     $ 35,969     $ 33,026  
REO inventory (in units)
    72,079       74,897       62,178       53,831       45,047  
REO assets, net carrying value (in millions)
  $ 6,961     $ 7,420     $ 6,228     $ 5,411     $ 4,661  
                                         
                                         
    For the Three Months Ended
    12/31/2010   09/30/2010   06/30/2010   03/31/2010   12/31/2009
    (in units, unless noted)
 
Seriously delinquent loan additions(1)
    113,235       115,359       123,175       150,941       166,459  
Loan modifications(4)
    37,203       39,284       49,562       44,228       15,805  
Foreclosure starts ratio(5)
    0.73 %     0.75 %     0.61 %     0.64 %     0.57 %
REO acquisitions(6)
    23,771       39,053       34,662       29,412       24,749  
REO disposition severity ratio:(7)
                                       
California
    43.9 %     41.9 %     42.0 %     43.9 %     44.4 %
Florida
    53.0 %     54.9 %     53.8 %     56.2 %     54.3 %
Arizona
    49.5 %     46.6 %     44.3 %     45.3 %     43.9 %
Nevada
    53.1 %     51.6 %     49.4 %     50.7 %     50.4 %
Michigan
    49.7 %     49.2 %     47.2 %     47.6 %     48.9 %
Total U.S.
    41.3 %     41.5 %     39.2 %     40.5 %     40.1 %
Single-family credit losses (in millions)(6)
  $ 3,086     $ 4,216     $ 3,851     $ 2,907     $ 2,498  
(1)  See “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Mortgage Credit Risk — Credit Performance — Delinquencies” for further information about our reported serious delinquency rates.
(2)  Consists of the UPB of loans in our single-family credit guarantee portfolio that have undergone a TDR or that are seriously delinquent.
(3)  Consists of the combination of: (a) our allowance for loan losses on mortgage loans held for investment; and (b) our reserve for guarantee losses associated with non-consolidated single-family mortgage securitization trusts and other guarantee commitments.
(4)  Represents the number of completed modifications under agreement with the borrower during the quarter. Excludes forbearance agreements, repayment plans, and loans in the trial period under HAMP.
(5)  Represents the ratio of the number of loans that entered the foreclosure process during the respective quarter divided by the number of loans in the portfolio at the end of the quarter. Excludes Other Guarantee Transactions and mortgages covered under other guarantee commitments.
(6)  Our REO acquisition volume temporarily slowed in the fourth quarter of 2010 due to delays in the foreclosure process, including delays related to concerns about deficiencies in foreclosure documentation practices, and reducing our credit losses for the period.
(7)  Calculated as the amount of our losses recorded on disposition of REO properties during the respective quarterly period, excluding those subject to repurchase requests made to our seller/servicers, divided by the aggregate UPB of the related loans. The amount of losses recognized on disposition of the properties is equal to the amount by which the UPB of the loans exceeds the amount of sales proceeds from disposition of the properties. Excludes sales commissions and other expenses, such as property maintenance and costs, as well as related recoveries from credit enhancements, such as mortgage insurance.
 
Our REO disposition severity ratio was impacted in the fourth quarter of 2010, particularly in the state of Florida, by temporary suspensions of REO sales by us and our seller/servicers related to concerns about deficiencies in foreclosure documentation practices. We believe that these suspensions caused our REO disposition severity ratio in Florida to decline in the fourth quarter of 2010, as compared to the third quarter of 2010, while most other states experienced an increase in this ratio for the same periods.
 
As shown in Table 3 above, the number of seriously delinquent loan additions declined in each quarter of 2010. However, our single-family credit guarantee portfolio continued to experience a high level of serious delinquencies and foreclosure starts, as compared to periods before 2009. The credit losses of our single-family credit guarantee portfolio increased in 2010, compared to 2009, due in part to the ongoing weakness in the U.S. economy. Other factors affecting credit losses during the year include:
 
  •  Losses associated with an increase in the volume of foreclosures and foreclosure alternatives. These actions related to efforts to resolve our significant inventory of seriously delinquent loans. This inventory accumulated in prior periods, primarily during 2009, due to the lengthening in the foreclosure and modification timelines caused by various suspensions of foreclosure transfers, process requirements for the implementation of HAMP, and constraints in servicers’ capabilities to process large volumes of problem loans. Due to the length of time necessary for servicers either to complete the foreclosure process or pursue foreclosure alternatives on seriously delinquent loans still in our portfolio, we expect our credit losses will continue to rise even as the volume of new serious delinquencies declines.
 
            7 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

  •  The impact of certain loan groups within the single-family credit guarantee portfolio, such as those underwritten with certain lower documentation standards and interest-only loans, as well as other 2005 through 2008 vintage loans. These groups continue to be large contributors to our credit losses.
 
  •  Continued declines in home prices in many geographic areas, based on our own index, which resulted in continued high loss severity ratios on our dispositions of REO inventory.
 
Some of our loss mitigation activities create fluctuations in our delinquency statistics. For example, loans that we report as seriously delinquent before they enter the HAMP trial period continue to be reported as seriously delinquent until the modifications become effective and the loans are removed from delinquent status by our servicers. See “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Mortgage Credit Risk — Credit Performance — Delinquencies” for further information about factors affecting our reported delinquency rates during 2010 and 2009.
 
Government Support for our Business
 
We are dependent upon the continued support of Treasury and FHFA in order to continue operating our business. Our ability to access funds from Treasury under the Purchase Agreement is critical to keeping us solvent and avoiding the appointment of a receiver by FHFA under statutory mandatory receivership provisions. While the conservatorship has benefited us, we are subject to certain constraints on our business activities imposed by Treasury due to the terms of, and Treasury’s rights under, the Purchase Agreement and by FHFA, as our Conservator.
 
Under the Purchase Agreement, Treasury made a commitment to provide funding, under certain conditions, to eliminate deficits in our net worth. The $200 billion cap on the funding commitment from Treasury will increase as necessary to eliminate any net worth deficits during 2010, 2011, and 2012. We believe that the support provided by Treasury pursuant to the Purchase Agreement currently enables us to maintain our access to the debt markets and to have adequate liquidity to conduct our normal business activities, although the costs of our debt funding could vary.
 
On December 30, 2010, we received $100 million in funding from Treasury under the Purchase Agreement relating to our net worth deficit as of September 30, 2010. The draws received during 2010 increased the aggregate liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock to $64.2 billion at December 31, 2010 from $51.7 billion at December 31, 2009. To address our net worth deficit of $401 million as of December 31, 2010, FHFA, as Conservator, will submit a draw request, on our behalf, to Treasury under the Purchase Agreement in the amount of $500 million. Upon funding of the draw request: (a) our aggregate funding received from Treasury under the Purchase Agreement will increase to $63.7 billion; and (b) the aggregate liquidation preference on the senior preferred stock owned by Treasury will increase from $64.2 billion to $64.7 billion and the corresponding annual cash dividend owed to Treasury will increase to $6.47 billion. We have paid cash dividends to Treasury of $10.0 billion to date, an amount equal to 16% of our aggregate draws under the Purchase Agreement. As of December 31, 2010, our annual cash dividend obligation to Treasury on the senior preferred stock exceeded our annual historical earnings in all but one period. As a result, we expect to make additional draws in future periods.
 
Neither the U.S. government nor any other agency or instrumentality of the U.S. government is obligated to fund our mortgage purchase or financing activities or to guarantee our securities or other obligations.
 
For more information on the Purchase Agreement, see “Conservatorship and Related Matters.”
 
Long-Term Financial Sustainability and Future Status
 
It is unlikely that we will generate net income or comprehensive income in excess of our annual dividends payable to Treasury over the long term, although we may experience period-to-period variability in earnings and comprehensive income. As a result, there is uncertainty as to our long-term financial sustainability.
 
We expect to request additional draws under the Purchase Agreement in future periods. Over time, our dividend obligation to Treasury will increasingly drive future draws. In addition, we are required under the Purchase Agreement to pay a quarterly commitment fee to Treasury, which could also contribute to future draws if the fee is not waived in the future. Treasury waived the fee for the first quarter of 2011, but it has indicated that it remains committed to protecting taxpayers and ensuring that our future positive earnings are returned to taxpayers as compensation for their investment. The amount of the quarterly commitment fee has not yet been established and could be substantial.
 
In addition, continued high levels of unemployment, adverse changes in home prices, interest rates, mortgage security prices and spreads and other factors could lead to additional draws. For additional discussion of other factors that could result in additional draws, see “MD&A — LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES — Capital Resources.”
 
On February 11, 2011, the Obama Administration delivered a report to Congress that lays out the Administration’s plan to reform the U.S. housing finance market, including options for structuring the government’s long-term role in a housing finance system in which the private sector is the dominant provider of mortgage credit. The report recommends winding down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, stating that the Obama Administration will work with FHFA to determine the best way
 
            8 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

to responsibly reduce the role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae in the market and ultimately wind down both institutions. The report states that these efforts must be undertaken at a deliberate pace, which takes into account the impact that these changes will have on borrowers and the housing market.
 
The report states that the government is committed to ensuring that Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae have sufficient capital to perform under any guarantees issued now or in the future and the ability to meet any of their debt obligations, and further states that the Obama Administration will not pursue policies or reforms in a way that would impair the ability of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to honor their obligations. The report states the Obama Administration’s belief that under the companies’ senior preferred stock purchase agreements with Treasury, there is sufficient funding to ensure the orderly and deliberate wind down of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, as described in the Administration’s plan.
 
The report identifies a number of policy levers that could be used to wind down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, shrink the government’s footprint in housing finance, and help bring private capital back to the mortgage market, including increasing guarantee fees, phasing in a 10% down payment requirement, reducing conforming loan limits, and winding down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae’s investment portfolios, consistent with the senior preferred stock purchase agreements.
 
These recommendations, if implemented, would have a material impact on our business volumes, market share, results of operations and financial condition. We cannot predict the extent to which these recommendations will be implemented or when any actions to implement them may be taken. However, we are not aware of any current plans of our Conservator to significantly change our business model or capital structure in the near-term.
 
Changes in Accounting Standards Related to Accounting for Transfers of Financial Assets and Consolidation of VIEs
 
In June 2009, the FASB issued two new accounting standards that amended the guidance applicable to the accounting for transfers of financial assets and the consolidation of VIEs. Effective January 1, 2010, we adopted these new accounting standards prospectively for all existing VIEs. The adoption of these two standards had a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements and other financial disclosures beginning in the first quarter of 2010. As a result of our adoption of these standards, our consolidated balance sheets reflect the consolidation of our single-family PC trusts and certain of our Other Guarantee Transactions. This consolidation resulted in an increase to our assets and liabilities of $1.5 trillion and a net decrease to total equity (deficit) as of January 1, 2010 of $11.7 billion.
 
Because our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2010 (on both a GAAP and Segment Earnings basis) include the activities of the consolidated VIEs, they are not directly comparable with the results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, which reflect the accounting policies in effect during that time (i.e., when the majority of the securitization entities were accounted for off-balance sheet).
 
See “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES” for more information regarding the new accounting standards and the impact to our financial statements.
 
Consolidated Results — 2010 versus 2009
 
Net loss was $14.0 billion and $21.6 billion for 2010 and 2009, respectively. Key highlights of our financial results for 2010 include:
 
  •  Net interest income for 2010 decreased slightly to $16.9 billion from $17.1 billion in 2009, mainly due to a decrease in the average balance of mortgage-related securities, partially offset by lower funding costs.
 
  •  Provision for credit losses for 2010 decreased to $17.2 billion from $29.5 billion for 2009. The provision for credit losses in 2010 primarily reflects a substantial slowdown in the rate of growth of our non-performing single-family loans. The provision for credit losses in 2009 reflected significant increases in non-performing loans and serious delinquency rates in that period.
 
  •  Non-interest income (loss) was $(11.6) billion for 2010, compared to $(2.7) billion for 2009. This decline was primarily due to higher derivative losses, lower gains on investment securities, and a decrease in other income in 2010. Other income declined primarily due to a significant decrease in income recognized on our guarantee activities, which was substantially eliminated as a result of our adoption of the new accounting standards for consolidation of VIEs on January 1, 2010. These declines were partially offset by reduced impairments of available-for-sale securities in 2010, compared to 2009.
 
  •  Non-interest expense declined to $2.9 billion in 2010, compared to $7.2 billion in 2009, primarily due to lower losses on loans purchased, which was substantially eliminated as a result of our adoption of the new accounting standards for consolidation of VIEs on January 1, 2010.
 
  •  Total comprehensive income (loss) was $282 million for 2010 compared to $(2.9) billion for 2009. Total comprehensive income for 2010 reflects the net result of the $14.0 billion net loss for 2010, and an increase of $14.3 billion in AOCI primarily resulting from fair value improvements on available-for-sale securities.
 
            9 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Our Business
 
We conduct business in the U.S. residential mortgage market and the global securities market under the direction of our Conservator, FHFA, and under regulatory supervision of FHFA, the SEC, HUD, and Treasury. The size of the U.S. residential mortgage market is affected by many factors, including changes in interest rates, home ownership rates, home prices, the supply of housing and lender preferences regarding credit risk and borrower preferences regarding mortgage debt. The amount of residential mortgage debt available for us to purchase and the mix of available loan products are also affected by several factors, including the volume of mortgages meeting the requirements of our charter (which is affected by changes in the conforming loan limit by FHFA), our own preference for credit risk reflected in our purchase standards and the mortgage purchase and securitization activity of other financial institutions. We conduct our operations solely in the U.S. and its territories, and do not generate any revenue from or have assets in geographic locations outside of the U.S. and its territories.
 
Our charter forms the framework for our business activities, the initiatives we bring to market and the services we provide to the nation’s residential housing and mortgage industries. Our charter also determines the types of mortgage loans that we are permitted to purchase. Our statutory mission as defined in our charter is to:
 
  •  provide stability in the secondary market for residential mortgages;
 
  •  respond appropriately to the private capital market;
 
  •  provide ongoing assistance to the secondary market for residential mortgages (including activities relating to mortgages for low- and moderate-income families, involving a reasonable economic return that may be less than the return earned on other activities); and
 
  •  promote access to mortgage credit throughout the U.S. (including central cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas).
 
Our charter does not permit us to originate mortgage loans or lend money directly to consumers in the primary mortgage market. We provide liquidity, stability and affordability to the U.S. housing market primarily by providing our credit guarantee for residential mortgages originated by mortgage lenders and investing in mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities. We use mortgage securitization as an integral part of our activities. Mortgage securitization is a process by which we purchase mortgage loans that lenders originate, and pool these loans into guaranteed mortgage securities that are sold in global capital markets, generating proceeds that support future loan origination activity by lenders. The primary Freddie Mac guaranteed mortgage-related security is the single-class PC. We also aggregate and resecuritize mortgage-related securities that are issued by us, other GSEs, HFAs, or private (non-agency) entities, and issue other single-class and multiclass mortgage-related securities to third-party investors. We also enter into other guarantee commitments for multifamily mortgage loans, certain HFA bonds under the HFA initiative, and housing revenue bonds held by third parties.
 
Our charter limits our purchases of single-family loans to the conforming loan market. The conforming loan market is defined by loans originated with UPBs at or below limits determined annually based on changes in FHFA’s housing price index, a method established and maintained by FHFA for determining the national average single-family home price. Since 2006, the base conforming loan limit for a one-family residence has been set at $417,000 with higher limits in certain “high-cost” areas. Higher limits also apply to two- to four-family residences. The conforming loan limits are 50% higher for mortgages secured by properties in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
 
Our charter generally prohibits us from purchasing first-lien single-family mortgages if the outstanding UPB of the mortgage at the time of our purchase exceeds 80% of the value of the property securing the mortgage unless we have one of the following credit protections:
 
  •  mortgage insurance from a mortgage insurer that we determine is qualified on the portion of the UPB of the mortgage that exceeds 80%;
 
  •  a seller’s agreement to repurchase or replace any mortgage that has defaulted; or
 
  •  retention by the seller of at least a 10% participation interest in the mortgage.
 
Under our charter, our mortgage purchase operations are confined, so far as practicable, to mortgages which we deem to be of such quality, type and class as to meet generally the purchase standards of other private institutional mortgage investors. This is a general marketability standard.
 
Our charter requirement for credit protection on mortgages with LTV ratios greater than 80% does not apply to multifamily mortgages or to mortgages that have the benefit of any guarantee, insurance or other obligation by the U.S. or any of its agencies or instrumentalities (e.g., the FHA, the VA or the USDA Rural Development).
 
Until June 2011, as part of the MHA Program, we may purchase single-family mortgages that refinance borrowers whose mortgages we currently own or guarantee without obtaining additional credit enhancement in excess of that already in
 
            10 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

place for any such loan, provided that the current LTV ratio of the loan at the time of refinance does not exceed 125%. The relief refinance mortgage initiative is our implementation of this refinance program.
 
We also focus on maintaining underwriting standards that allow us to purchase and guarantee loans made to qualified borrowers that we believe will provide management and guarantee fee income, over the long-term, that exceeds our anticipated credit-related and administrative expenses on the underlying loans.
 
Our Business Segments
 
Our operations consist of three reportable segments, which are based on the type of business activities each performs — Single-family Guarantee, Investments, and Multifamily. Certain activities that are not part of a reportable segment are included in the All Other category.
 
We evaluate segment performance and allocate resources based on a Segment Earnings approach. Beginning January 1, 2010, we revised our method for presenting Segment Earnings to reflect changes in how management measures and assesses the financial performance of each segment and the company as a whole. For more information on our segments, including financial information, see “MD&A — CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — Segment Earnings” and “NOTE 17: SEGMENT REPORTING.”
 
Single-Family Guarantee Segment
 
The Single-family Guarantee segment reflects results from our single-family credit guarantee activities. In our Single-family Guarantee segment, we purchase single-family mortgage loans originated by our seller/servicers in the primary mortgage market. In most instances, we use the mortgage securitization process to package the purchased mortgage loans into guaranteed mortgage-related securities. We guarantee the payment of principal and interest on the mortgage-related security in exchange for management and guarantee fees.
 
Our Customers
 
Our customers are predominantly lenders in the primary mortgage market that originate mortgages for homeowners. These lenders include mortgage banking companies, commercial banks, savings banks, community banks, credit unions, HFAs, and savings and loan associations.
 
We acquire a significant portion of our mortgages from several large lenders. These lenders are among the largest mortgage loan originators in the U.S. Due to the mortgage and financial market crisis during 2008 and 2009, a number of larger mortgage originators failed or were acquired and, as a result, mortgage origination volume during 2010 was concentrated in a smaller number of institutions. See “RISK FACTORS — Competitive and Market Risks” for further information. During 2010, three mortgage lenders (Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., Bank of America, N.A. and Chase Home Finance LLC) each accounted for more than 10% of our single-family mortgage purchase volume and collectively accounted for approximately 50% of our single-family mortgage purchase volume. Our top ten lenders accounted for approximately 78% of our single-family mortgage purchase volume during 2010.
 
Our Competition
 
Historically, our principal competitors have been Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae and FHA, and other financial institutions that retain or securitize mortgages, such as commercial and investment banks, dealers, and thrift institutions. Since 2008, most of our competitors, other than Fannie Mae and Ginnie Mae, have ceased their activities in the residential mortgage securitization business or severely curtailed these activities relative to their previous levels. We compete on the basis of price, products, the structure of our securities, and service.
 
Ginnie Mae, which has become a more significant competitor since 2008, guarantees the timely payment of principal and interest on mortgage-related securities backed by federally insured or guaranteed loans, primarily those insured by FHA or guaranteed by VA. Ginnie Mae increased its share of the securitization market in 2010, in large part due to favorable pricing of loans insured by FHA, the increase in the FHA loan limit and the availability, through FHA, of a mortgage product for borrowers seeking greater than 80% financing who could not otherwise qualify for a conventional mortgage.
 
The conservatorship, including direction provided to us by our Conservator, and the restrictions on our activities under the Purchase Agreement may affect our ability to compete in the business of securitizing mortgages. On a number of occasions, FHFA has directed us and Fannie Mae to confer and consider uniform approaches to particular issues and problems, and FHFA has in a few cases directed the two GSEs to adopt common approaches. For example, in January 2011, FHFA announced that it has directed Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to work on a joint initiative, in coordination with HUD, to consider alternatives for future mortgage servicing structures and servicing compensation, including the possibility of reducing or eliminating the minimum servicing fee for performing loans, or other structures. FHFA has also directed Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to discuss with FHFA and with each other, and wherever feasible to develop consistent requirements, policies and processes for, the servicing of non-performing mortgages, and to discuss joint standards for the evaluation of the servicing performance of servicers. It is possible that FHFA could require us and Fannie Mae to take a common approach
 
            11 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

that, because of differences in our respective businesses, could place Freddie Mac at a competitive disadvantage to Fannie Mae.
 
Overview of the Mortgage Securitization Process
 
Mortgage securitization is a process by which we purchase mortgage loans that lenders originate, and pool these loans into mortgage securities that are sold in global capital markets, generating proceeds that support future purchases from lenders. The following diagram illustrates how we support mortgage market liquidity when we create PCs through mortgage securitizations. These PCs can be sold to investors or held by us:
 
(Mortgage Securitizations GRAPHIC)
 
The U.S. residential mortgage market consists of a primary mortgage market that links homebuyers and lenders and a secondary mortgage market that links lenders and investors. We participate in the secondary mortgage market by purchasing mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities for investment and by issuing guaranteed mortgage-related securities. In the Single-family Guarantee segment, we purchase and securitize “single-family mortgages,” which are mortgages that are secured by one- to four-family properties.
 
In general, the securitization and Freddie Mac guarantee process works as follows: 1) a lender originates a mortgage loan to a borrower purchasing a home or refinancing an existing mortgage loan, 2) we purchase the loan from the lender and place it with other mortgages that are “pooled” into a security that can be sold to investors, 3) the lender may then use the proceeds from the sale to originate another mortgage loan, 4) we provide a credit guarantee, for a fee (generally a small portion of the interest collected on the mortgage loan), to those who invest in the security, 5) the borrower’s monthly payment of mortgage principal and interest is passed through to the investors in the security, and 6) if the borrower stops making monthly payments — because a family member loses a job, for example — we step in and make the applicable payments to investors in the security. In the event a borrower defaults on the mortgage, our servicer works with the borrower to find a solution to help them stay in the home, if possible, through our many different workout options, or we ultimately foreclose and sell the home.
 
The terms of single-family mortgages that we purchase or guarantee allow borrowers to prepay these loans, thereby allowing borrowers to refinance their loans when mortgage rates decline. Because of the nature of long-term, fixed-rate mortgages, borrowers are protected against rising interest rates, but are able to take advantage of declining rates through refinancing. When a borrower prepays a mortgage that we have securitized, the outstanding balance of the security owned by
 
            12 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

investors is reduced by the amount of the prepayment. Unscheduled reductions in loan principal, regardless of whether they are voluntary or involuntary (e.g. foreclosure), result in prepayments of security balances. Consequently, the owners of our guaranteed securities are subject to prepayment risk on the related mortgage loans, which is principally that the investor will receive an unscheduled return of the principal, and therefore may not earn the rate of return originally expected on the investment.
 
We guarantee these mortgage-related securities in exchange for compensation, which consists primarily of a combination of management and guarantee fees paid on a monthly basis as a percentage of the UPB of the underlying loans and initial upfront payments referred to as delivery fees. We may also make upfront payments to buy-up the monthly management and guarantee fee rate, or receive upfront payments to buy-down the monthly management and guarantee fee rate. These fees are paid in conjunction with the formation of a PC to provide for a uniform coupon rate for the mortgage pool underlying the issued PC.
 
We enter into mortgage purchase volume commitments with many of our larger customers in order to have a supply of loans for our guarantee business. These commitments provide for the lenders to deliver us a specified dollar amount of mortgages during a specified period of time. Some commitments may also provide for the lender to deliver to us a minimum percentage of their total sales of conforming loans. The purchase and securitization of mortgage loans from customers under these longer-term contracts have pricing schedules for our management and guarantee fees that are negotiated at the outset of the contract with initial terms that may range from one month to one year. We call these transactions “flow” activity and they represent the majority of our purchase volumes. The remainder of our purchases and securitizations of mortgage loans occurs in cash, or “bulk,” transactions for which purchase prices and management and guarantee fees are negotiated on an individual transaction basis. Mortgage purchase volumes from individual customers can fluctuate significantly. If a mortgage lender fails to meet its contractual commitment, we have a variety of contractual remedies, which may include the right to assess certain fees. Our mortgage purchase contracts contain no penalty or liquidated damages clauses based on our inability to take delivery of presented mortgage loans. However, if we were to fail to meet our contractual commitment, we could be deemed to be in breach of our contract and could be liable for damages in a lawsuit.
 
We seek to issue guarantees on our PCs with fee terms that we believe will, over the long-term, provide management and guarantee fee income that exceeds our anticipated credit-related and administrative expenses on the underlying loans. Our Single-family Guarantee segment is responsible for determining prices of our guarantee and delivery fees based on our assessment of credit risk and loss mitigation related to single-family loans, including single-family loans underlying our guaranteed mortgage-related securities. We vary our guarantee and delivery fee pricing for different mortgage products and mortgage or borrower underwriting characteristics. We implemented several increases in delivery fees that became effective in 2009 applicable to mortgages with certain higher-risk loan characteristics. We announced additional delivery fee increases in the fourth quarter of 2010 that become effective March 1, 2011 (or later, as outstanding contracts permit) for loans with higher LTV ratios. Given the uncertainty of the housing market in 2009 and 2010, we entered into arrangements with certain existing customers at their renewal dates that allow us to change credit and pricing terms more quickly than in the past.
 
For information on how we account for our securitization activities, see “NOTE 1: SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES” and “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES.”
 
Securitization Activities
 
The types of mortgage-related securities we issue and guarantee include the following:
 
  •  PCs;
 
  •  REMICs and Other Structured Securities; and
 
  •  Other Guarantee Transactions.
 
PCs
 
Our PCs are pass-through securities that represent undivided beneficial interests in trusts that hold pools of mortgages we have purchased. Holding single-family loans in the form of PCs rather than as unsecuritized loans gives us greater flexibility in managing the composition of our mortgage portfolio, as it is generally easier to purchase and sell PCs than unsecuritized mortgage loans, and allows more cost effective interest-rate risk management. For our fixed-rate PCs, we guarantee the timely payment of principal and interest. For our ARM PCs, we guarantee the timely payment of the weighted average coupon interest rate for the underlying mortgage loans. We also guarantee the full and final payment of principal for ARM PCs; however, we do not guarantee the timely payment of principal on ARM PCs. We issue most of
 
            13 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

our PCs in transactions in which our customers exchange mortgage loans for PCs. We refer to these transactions as guarantor swaps. The following diagram illustrates a guarantor swap transaction:
 
Guarantor Swap
 
(Guarantor Swap FLOW CHART)
 
We also issue PCs in exchange for cash. The following diagram illustrates an exchange for cash in a “cash auction” of PCs:
 
Cash Auction of PCs
 
(Cash Auction of PCs FLOW CHART)
 
Institutional and other fixed-income investors, including pension funds, insurance companies, securities dealers, money managers, commercial banks and foreign central banks, purchase our PCs. Treasury and the Federal Reserve have also purchased mortgage-related securities issued by us, Fannie Mae and Ginnie Mae under their purchase programs. Treasury’s purchase program ended in December 2009. The Federal Reserve’s purchase program ended in March 2010.
 
PCs differ from U.S. Treasury securities and other fixed-income investments in two ways. First, they can be prepaid at any time. Homeowners have the right to prepay their mortgage at any time (known as the prepayment option), and homeowner mortgage payments are passed through to the PC holder. Consequently, our securities implicitly have a call option that significantly reduces the average life of the security from the contractual loan maturity. As a result, our PCs generally provide a higher nominal yield than certain other fixed-income products. Second, PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, as are U.S. Treasury securities.
 
In addition, we seek to support the liquidity of the market for our PCs through a variety of activities, including educating dealers and investors about the merits of PCs, and enhancing disclosures related to the collateral underlying our securities.
 
REMICs and Other Structured Securities
 
We issue single-class and multiclass securities. Single-class securities involve the straight pass-through of all of the cash flows of the underlying collateral to holders of the beneficial interests. Our principal multiclass securities qualify for tax treatment as REMICs. Multiclass securities divide all of the cash flows of the underlying mortgage-related assets into two or
 
            14 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

more classes designed to meet the investment criteria and portfolio needs of different investors by creating classes of securities with varying maturities, payment priorities and coupons, each of which represents a beneficial ownership interest in a separate portion of the cash flows of the underlying collateral. Usually, the cash flows are divided to modify the relative exposure of different classes to interest-rate risk, or to create various coupon structures. The simplest division of cash flows is into principal-only and interest-only classes. Other securities we issue can involve the creation of sequential payment and planned or targeted amortization classes. In a sequential payment class structure, one or more classes receive all or a disproportionate percentage of the principal payments on the underlying mortgage assets for a period of time until that class or classes is retired, following which the principal payments are directed to other classes. Planned or targeted amortization classes involve the creation of classes that have relatively more predictable amortization schedules across different prepayment scenarios, thus reducing prepayment risk, extension risk, or both.
 
Our REMICs and Other Structured Securities represent beneficial interests in pools of PCs and/or certain other types of mortgage-related assets. We create these securities primarily by using PCs or previously issued REMICs and Other Structured Securities as the underlying collateral. Similar to our PCs, we guarantee the payment of principal and interest to the holders of tranches of our REMICs and Other Structured Securities. We do not charge a management and guarantee fee for these securities if the underlying collateral is already guaranteed by us since no additional credit risk is introduced. Because the collateral underlying nearly all of our single-family REMICs and Other Structured Securities consists of other mortgage-related securities that we guarantee, there are no concentrations of credit risk in any of the classes of these securities that are issued, and there are no economic residual interests in the related securitization trust. The following diagram provides a general example of how we create REMICs and Other Structured Securities.
 
REMICs and Other Structured Securities
 
(Structured Secutity FLOW CHART)
 
We issue many of our REMICs and Other Structured Securities in transactions in which securities dealers or investors sell us mortgage-related assets or we use our own mortgage-related assets (e.g., PCs and REMICs and Other Structured Securities) in exchange for the REMICs and Other Structured Securities. Since the creation of REMICs and Other Structured Securities allows for setting differing terms for specific classes of investors, our issuance of these securities can expand the range of investors in our mortgage-related securities to include those seeking specific security attributes. For REMICs and Other Structured Securities that we issue to third parties, we typically receive a transaction, or resecuritization, fee. This transaction fee is compensation for facilitating the transaction, as well as future administrative responsibilities.
 
            15 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Other Guarantee Transactions
 
We also issue mortgage-related securities to third parties in exchange for non-Freddie Mac mortgage-related securities. We refer to these as Other Guarantee Transactions. The non-Freddie Mac mortgage-related securities are transferred to trusts that were specifically created for the purpose of issuing securities, or certificates, in the Other Guarantee Transactions. The following diagram illustrates an example of an Other Guarantee Transaction:
 
Other Guarantee Transaction
 
(Structured Transactions FLOW CHART)
 
Other Guarantee Transactions can generally be segregated into two different types. In one type, we purchase only senior tranches from a non-Freddie Mac senior-subordinated securitization, place the senior tranches into securitization trusts, and issue Other Guarantee Transaction certificates guaranteeing the principal and interest payments on those certificates. In this type of transaction, our credit risk is reduced by the credit protections from the related subordinated tranches, which we neither purchase nor guarantee. In the second type, we purchase single-class pass-through securities, place them in securitization trusts and issue Other Guarantee Transaction certificates guaranteeing the principal and interest payments on those certificates. Our single-family Other Guarantee Transactions backed by single-class pass-through securities do not benefit from structural or other credit enhancement protections.
 
Although Other Guarantee Transactions generally have underlying mortgage loans with varying risk characteristics, we do not issue tranches that have concentrations of credit risk beyond those embedded in the underlying assets, as all cash flows of the underlying collateral are passed through to the holders of the securities and there are no economic residual interests in the securitization trusts. Additionally, there may be other credit enhancements and structural features retained by the seller, such as excess interest or overcollateralization, that provide credit protection to our interests, and reduce the likelihood that we will have to perform under our guarantee of the senior tranches. In exchange for providing our guarantee, we may receive a management and guarantee fee or other delivery fees, if the underlying collateral is not already guaranteed by us.
 
In 2010 and 2009, we entered into transactions under Treasury’s NIBP with HFAs, for the partial guarantee of certain single-family and multifamily HFA bonds, which were Other Guarantee Transactions with significant credit enhancement provided by Treasury. The securities issued by us pursuant to the NIBP were purchased by Treasury. See “NOTE 3: CONSERVATORSHIP AND RELATED MATTERS” for further information.
 
            16 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

For information about the amount of mortgage-related securities we have issued, see “Table 34 — Freddie Mac Mortgage-Related Securities.” For information about the relative performance of mortgages underlying these securities, refer to our “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk” section.
 
PC Trust Documents
 
We establish trusts for all of our issued PCs pursuant to our PC master trust agreement. In accordance with the terms of our PC trust documents, we have the option, and in some instances the requirement, to purchase specified mortgage loans from the trust. We purchase these mortgages at an amount equal to the current UPB, less any outstanding advances of principal on the mortgage that have been distributed to PC holders. From time to time, we reevaluate our delinquent loan purchase practices and alter them if circumstances warrant. Our practice is to purchase mortgages that are 120 days or more delinquent from pools underlying our PCs when:
 
  •  the mortgages have been modified;
 
  •  foreclosure sales occur;
 
  •  the mortgages are delinquent for 24 months; or
 
  •  the cost of guarantee payments to PC holders, including advances of interest at the PC coupon rate, exceeds the expected cost of holding the nonperforming loans.
 
On February 10, 2010, we announced that we would purchase substantially all single-family mortgage loans that are 120 days or more delinquent underlying our issued PCs. This change in practice was made based on a determination that the cost of guarantee payments to the security holders will exceed the cost of holding unsecuritized non-performing loans on our consolidated balance sheets. The cost of holding unsecuritized non-performing loans on our consolidated balance sheets was significantly affected by our January 1, 2010 adoption of amendments to certain accounting standards and changing economics pursuant to which the recognized cost of purchasing most delinquent loans from PC trusts was less than the recognized cost of continued guarantee payments to security holders. See “Executive Summary — Changes in Accounting Standards Related to Accounting for Transfers of Financial Assets and Consolidation of VIEs” for additional information.
 
In accordance with the terms of our PC trust documents, we are required to purchase a mortgage loan (or, in some cases, substitute a comparable mortgage loan) from a PC trust in the following situations:
 
  •  if a court of competent jurisdiction or a federal government agency, duly authorized to oversee or regulate our mortgage purchase business, determines that our purchase of the mortgage was unauthorized and a cure is not practicable without unreasonable effort or expense, or if such a court or government agency requires us to repurchase the mortgage;
 
  •  if a borrower exercises its option to convert the interest rate from an adjustable-rate to a fixed-rate on a convertible ARM; and
 
  •  in the case of balloon-reset loans, shortly before the mortgage reaches its scheduled balloon-reset date.
 
The To Be Announced Market
 
Because our fixed-rate PCs are homogeneous, issued in high volume and highly liquid, they trade on a “generic” basis by PC coupon rate, also referred to as trading in the TBA market. A TBA trade in Freddie Mac securities represents a contract for the purchase or sale of PCs to be delivered at a future date; however, the specific PCs that will be delivered to fulfill the trade obligation, and thus the specific characteristics of the mortgages underlying those PCs, are not known (i.e., “announced”) at the time of the trade, but only shortly before the trade is settled. The use of the TBA market increases the liquidity of mortgage investments and improves the distribution of investment capital available for residential mortgage financing, thereby helping us to accomplish our statutory mission. The Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association publishes guidelines pertaining to the types of mortgages that are eligible for TBA trades.
 
Underwriting Requirements and Quality Control Standards
 
We use a process of delegated underwriting for the single-family mortgages we purchase or securitize. In this process, our contracts with seller/servicers describe mortgage underwriting standards and the seller/servicers represent and warrant to us that the mortgages sold to us meet these standards. In our contracts with individual seller/servicers, we sometimes waive or modify selected underwriting standards. Through our delegated underwriting process, mortgage loans and the borrowers’ ability to repay the loans are evaluated using several critical risk characteristics, including but not limited to, the borrower’s credit score and credit history, the borrower’s monthly income relative to debt payments, the original LTV ratio, the type of mortgage product and the occupancy type of the loan. We subsequently review a sample of these loans and, if we determine that any loan is not in compliance with our contractual standards, we may require the seller/servicer to repurchase that mortgage. In lieu of a repurchase, we may agree to allow a seller/servicer to indemnify us against loss in the event of a default by the borrower or enter into some other remedy. During the year ended December 31, 2010, we reviewed a
 
            17 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

significant number of loans that defaulted in order to assess the sellers’ compliance with our purchase contracts. For more information on our seller/servicers’ repurchase obligations, including recent performance under those obligations, see “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Institutional Credit Risk — Mortgage Seller/Servicers.”
 
The majority of our single-family mortgage purchase volume is evaluated using automated underwriting software tools, either our tool (Loan Prospector), the seller/servicers’ own tools, or Fannie Mae’s tool. The percentage of our single-family mortgage purchase flow activity volume evaluated by the loan originator using Loan Prospector prior to being purchased by us was 39%, 45%, and 42% during 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively. Since 2008, we have added a number of additional credit standards for loans evaluated by other underwriting tools to improve the quality of loans we purchase that are evaluated using these other tools. Consequently, we do not believe the use of a tool other than Loan Prospector significantly increases our loan performance risk.
 
As discussed above, our charter requires that single-family mortgages with LTV ratios above 80% at the time of purchase be covered by specified credit enhancements or participation interests. In addition, we employ other types of credit enhancements to further manage certain credit risk, including pool insurance, indemnification agreements, collateral pledged by lenders and subordinated security structures.
 
Loss Mitigation and Loan Workout Activities
 
Loan workout activities are a key component of our loss mitigation strategy for managing and resolving troubled assets and lowering credit losses. Our single-family loss mitigation strategy emphasizes early intervention in seriously delinquent mortgages and provides alternatives to foreclosure. Other single-family loss mitigation activities include providing our single-family servicers with default management tools designed to help them manage non-performing loans more effectively and to assist borrowers in retaining home ownership where possible, or facilitate foreclosure alternatives when continued homeownership is not an option. Loan workouts are intended to reduce the number of seriously delinquent mortgages that proceed to foreclosure and, ultimately, mitigate our total credit losses by reducing or eliminating a portion of the costs related to foreclosed properties and avoiding the additional credit losses that we would likely incur in a REO sale.
 
Our loan workouts include:
 
  •  Repayment plans, which are contractual plans to make up past due amounts. They mitigate our credit losses because they assist borrowers in returning to compliance with the original terms of their mortgages.
 
  •  Loan modifications, which may involve changing the terms of the loan, or adding outstanding indebtedness, such as delinquent interest, to the UPB of the loan, or a combination of both. We require our servicers to examine the borrower’s capacity to make payments under the new terms by reviewing the borrower’s qualifications, including income. Loan modifications either: (a) result in a concession to the borrower, such as a reduction in interest rate; or (b) do not result in a concession to the borrower, such as those which add the past due amounts to the balance of the loan, extend the term or a combination of both. Loan modifications that result in a concession to the borrower are situations in which we do not expect to recover the full original principal or interest due under the original loan terms. Such modifications are accounted for as TDRs. During 2010, we granted principal forbearance but did not utilize principal forgiveness for our loan modifications.
 
  •  Forbearance agreements, where reduced payments or no payments are required during a defined period. They provide additional time for the borrower to return to compliance with the original terms of the mortgage or to implement another loan workout.
 
  •  Short sales, in which the borrower, working with the servicer, sells the home and pays off part of the outstanding loan, accrued interest and other expenses from the sale proceeds, in satisfaction of the full amount of the loan.
 
For more information regarding credit risk, see “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk,” “NOTE 5: MORTGAGE LOANS AND LOAN LOSS RESERVES,” and “NOTE 6: INDIVIDUALLY IMPAIRED AND NON-PERFORMING LOANS.”
 
Investments Segment
 
The Investments segment reflects results from our investment, funding and hedging activities. In our Investments segment, we invest principally in mortgage assets funded by debt issuances and hedged using derivatives. We are not currently a substantial buyer or seller of mortgage assets, except for purchases of delinquent mortgages out of PC pools.
 
Our Customers
 
Our customers for our debt securities predominantly include insurance companies, money managers, central banks, depository institutions, and pension funds. Within the Investments segment, we buy securities through various market sources. We also invest in performing single-family mortgage loans, a significant portion of which is from several large lenders, as discussed in “Single-Family Guarantee Segment — Our Customers.”
 
            18 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Our Competition
 
Historically, our principal competitors have been Fannie Mae and other financial institutions that invest in mortgage-related securities and mortgage loans, such as commercial and investment banks, dealers, thrift institutions, and insurance companies. The conservatorship, including direction provided to us by our Conservator, and the restrictions on our activities under the Purchase Agreement has affected and will continue to affect our ability to compete in the business of investing in mortgage-related securities and mortgage loans.
 
We compete for low-cost debt funding with Fannie Mae, the FHLBs and other institutions. Competition for debt funding from these entities can vary with changes in economic, financial market and regulatory environments.
 
Assets
 
Historically, we have primarily been a buy-and-hold investor in mortgage-related securities and single-family mortgage loans. We may sell assets to reduce risk, provide liquidity, and improve our returns. However, due to limitations under the Purchase Agreement and those imposed by FHFA, our ability to acquire and sell mortgage assets is significantly constrained. For more information, see “Conservatorship and Related Matters” and “MD&A — CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — Segment Earnings — Segment Earnings-Results — Investments.
 
We may purchase assets for a variety of reasons, including to improve investment returns. We estimate our expected investment returns using an OAS approach, which is an estimate of the yield spread between a given financial instrument and a benchmark (LIBOR, agency or Treasury) yield curve. In this approach, we consider potential variability in the instrument’s cash flows resulting from any options embedded in the instrument, such as the prepayment option. Additionally, in this segment we maintain a cash and other investments portfolio, comprised primarily of cash and cash equivalents, non-mortgage-related securities, federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell, to help manage our liquidity needs.
 
Debt Financing
 
We fund our investment activities by issuing short-term and long-term debt. The conservatorship, and the resulting support we receive from Treasury, has enabled us to access debt funding on terms sufficient for our needs. The support we received from the Federal Reserve through its debt purchase program, which was completed in March 2010, also contributed to our ability to access debt funding. While we believe that the support provided by Treasury pursuant to the Purchase Agreement currently enables us to maintain our access to the debt markets and to have adequate liquidity to conduct our normal business activities, the costs of our debt funding could vary due to the uncertainty about the future of the GSEs and potential investor concerns about the adequacy of funding available under the Purchase Agreement after 2012. Additionally, the Purchase Agreement limits the amount of indebtedness we can incur.
 
For more information, see “Conservatorship and Related Matters” and “MD&A — LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES — Liquidity.”
 
Risk Management
 
Our Investments segment has responsibility for managing our interest rate risk and liquidity risk. Derivatives are an important part of our strategy to manage certain risks. We use derivatives primarily to: (a) regularly adjust or rebalance our funding mix in order to more closely match changes in the interest rate characteristics of our mortgage-related assets; (b) hedge forecasted issuances of debt; (c) synthetically create callable and non-callable funding; and (d) hedge foreign-currency exposure. For more information regarding our use of derivatives, see “QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK” and “NOTE 12: DERIVATIVES.” For information regarding our liquidity management, see “MD&A — LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES.”
 
PC Support Activities
 
Our PCs are an integral part of our mortgage purchase program. Our Single-family Guarantee segment purchases many of our mortgages by issuing PCs in exchange for those mortgage loans in guarantor swap transactions. We also issue PCs backed by mortgage loans that we purchased for cash. Our competitiveness in purchasing single-family mortgages from our seller/servicers, and thus the volume and profitability of new single-family business, can be directly affected by the relative price performance of our PCs and comparable Fannie Mae securities. We seek to support the price performance of our PCs through a variety of strategies, including the purchase and sale of PCs and other agency securities, as well as through the issuance of REMICs and Other Structured Securities. Our purchases and sales of mortgage-related securities influence the relative supply and demand for these securities, and the issuance of REMICs and Other Structured Securities helps support the price performance of our PCs. Depending upon market conditions, including the relative prices, supply of and demand for PCs and comparable Fannie Mae securities, as well as other factors, there may be substantial variability in any period in the total amount of securities we purchase or sell, and in the success of our efforts to support the liquidity and price performance of our PCs. We may increase, reduce or discontinue these or other related activities at any time, which could
 
            19 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

affect the liquidity of the market for PCs. For more information, see “RISK FACTORS — Competitive and Market Risks — Any decline in the price performance of or demand for our PCs could have an adverse effect on the volume and profitability of our new single-family guarantee business.”
 
Multifamily Segment
 
The Multifamily segment reflects results from our investments and guarantee activities in multifamily mortgage loans and securities. Our new purchases of multifamily mortgage loans are primarily made for purposes of aggregation and then securitization, which supports the availability of financing for multifamily properties. Our Multifamily segment does not issue REMIC securities but does issue Other Structured Securities, Other Guarantee Transactions, and other guarantee commitments. We also purchase non-agency CMBS for investment; however we have not purchased significant amounts of non-agency CMBS for investment since 2008.
 
Prior to 2008, we principally purchased and held multifamily loans for investment purposes. Beginning in 2008, we also began purchasing certain multifamily mortgages for securitization purposes. In 2010, we purchased $10.3 billion of loans as part of our CME initiative and subsequently issued $6.4 billion of Other Guarantee Transaction certificates. Subject to market conditions, we expect to continue purchasing multifamily loans as part of our further expansion of the multifamily securitization business in 2011. We may also sell multifamily loans from time to time.
 
The multifamily property market is affected by general economic factors, such as employment rates, construction cycles, and relative affordability of single-family home prices, all of which influence the supply and demand for multifamily properties and pricing for apartment rentals. Our multifamily loan volume is largely sourced through established institutional channels where we are generally providing post-construction financing to larger apartment project operators with established performance records. Our lending decisions are primarily based on an assessment of the property’s ability to generate sufficient operating cash flows to support payment of debt service obligations as measured by the expected DSCR.
 
Prior to 2010, our Multifamily segment also included investments in LIHTC partnerships formed for the purpose of providing equity funding for affordable multifamily rental properties. In these investments, we provided equity contributions to partnerships designed to sponsor the development and ongoing operations for low- and moderate-income multifamily apartments. We planned to realize a return on our investment through reductions in income tax expense that result from federal income tax credits and the deductibility of operating losses generated by the partnerships. However, we no longer invest in these partnerships because we do not expect to be able to use the underlying federal income tax credits or the operating losses generated from the partnerships as a reduction to our taxable income because of our inability to generate sufficient taxable income or to sell these interests to third parties. See “NOTE 4: VARIABLE INTEREST ENTITIES” for additional information.
 
Our Customers
 
We acquire a significant portion of our multifamily mortgage loans from several large seller/servicers. Our top three multifamily lenders, CBRE Capital Markets, Inc., Wells Fargo Multifamily Capital and Berkadia Commercial Mortgage LLC, each accounted for more than 10%, and collectively represented approximately 44% of our multifamily purchase volume during 2010.
 
We also enter into other guarantee commitments for multifamily mortgage loans, HFA bonds, and housing revenue bonds held by third parties. By engaging in these activities, we provide liquidity to this sector of the mortgage market.
 
Our Competition
 
Historically, our principal competitors have been Fannie Mae, FHA, and other financial institutions that retain or securitize multifamily mortgages, such as commercial and investment banks, dealers, thrift institutions, and insurance companies. Since 2008, most of our competitors, other than Fannie Mae and FHA, have ceased their activities in the multifamily mortgage business or severely curtailed these activities relative to their previous levels. Some market participants began to re-enter the market on a limited basis in 2010. We compete on the basis of price, products, structure and service.
 
Underwriting Requirements and Quality Control Standards
 
For our purchase or guarantee of multifamily mortgage loans, we rely significantly on pre-purchase underwriting, which includes third-party appraisals and cash flow analysis. The underwriting standards we provide to our seller/servicers focus on loan quality measurement based, in part, on the LTV ratio and DSCR at origination. The DSCR is one indicator of future credit performance. The DSCR estimates a multifamily borrower’s ability to service its mortgage obligation using the secured property’s cash flow, after deducting non-mortgage expenses from income. The higher the DSCR, the more likely a multifamily borrower will be able to continue servicing its mortgage obligation. Our standards for multifamily loans specify maximum original LTV ratio and minimum DSCR that vary based on the loan characteristics, such as loan type (new acquisition or supplemental financing), loan term (intermediate or longer-term), and loan features (interest-only or amortizing, fixed- or variable-rate). Since the beginning of 2009, our multifamily loans are generally underwritten with
 
            20 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

requirements for a maximum original LTV ratio of 80% and a DSCR of greater than 1.25. In certain circumstances, our standards for multifamily loans allow for certain types of loans to have an original LTV ratio over 80% and/or a DSCR of less than 1.25, typically where this will serve our mission and contribute to achieving our affordable housing goals. In cases where we commit to purchase or guarantee a permanent loan upon completion of construction or rehabilitation, we generally require additional credit enhancements, since underwriting for these loans typically requires estimates of future cash flows for calculating the DSCR that is expected after construction or rehabilitation is completed. We previously allowed delegated underwriting of multifamily loans in limited circumstances for approved lenders that deliver loans meeting targeted affordable housing goals criteria. Loans outside of certain criteria were subject to our underwriting review prior to closing and all loans we acquired with delegated underwriting were reviewed after closing for compliance with our underwriting guidelines. In addition, we required loss sharing or credit enhancement on loans we acquired with delegated underwriting. In the fourth quarter of 2009, we announced that we would discontinue such delegated underwriting, except for mortgages already in approved lenders’ pipelines.
 
We generally require multifamily seller/servicers to service mortgage loans they have sold to us in order to mitigate potential losses. We do not oversee servicing with respect to multifamily loans underlying our Other Guarantee Transactions as that task is performed by subordinated bondholders. For loans over $1 million and where we have servicing oversight, servicers must generally submit an annual assessment of the mortgaged property to us based on the servicer’s analysis of financial and other information about the property. Because the activities of multifamily seller/servicers are an important part of our loss mitigation process, we rate their performance regularly and may conduct on-site reviews of their servicing operations in an effort to confirm compliance with our standards.
 
For loans for which we oversee servicing, if a borrower is in distress, we may offer a workout option to the borrower. For example, we may modify the terms of a multifamily mortgage loan, which gives the borrower an opportunity to bring the loan current and retain ownership of the property. These arrangements are made with the expectation that we will recover our initial investment or minimize our losses. We do not enter into these arrangements in situations where we believe we would experience a loss in the future that is greater than or equal to the loss we would experience if we foreclosed on the property at the time of the agreement.
 
Conservatorship and Related Matters
 
Overview
 
We have been operating under conservatorship, with FHFA acting as our conservator, since September 6, 2008. The conservatorship and related matters have had a wide-ranging impact on us, including our regulatory supervision, management, business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
On September 7, 2008, the then Secretary of the Treasury and the then Director of FHFA announced several actions taken by Treasury and FHFA regarding Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. At that time, FHFA set forth the purpose and goals of the conservatorship as follows: “The purpose of appointing the Conservator is to preserve and conserve the company’s assets and property and to put the company in a sound and solvent condition. The goals of the conservatorship are to help restore confidence in Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, enhance their capacity to fulfill their mission, and mitigate the systemic risk that has contributed directly to the instability in the current market.” These actions included the following:
 
  •  placing us and Fannie Mae in conservatorship;
 
  •  the execution of the Purchase Agreement, pursuant to which we issued to Treasury both senior preferred stock and a warrant to purchase common stock; and
 
  •  the establishment of a temporary secured lending credit facility that was available to us until December 31, 2009, which was effected through the execution of a lending agreement (this agreement expired on December 31, 2009).
 
We refer to the Purchase Agreement and the warrant as the “Treasury Agreements.”
 
Entry Into Conservatorship
 
Upon its appointment, FHFA, as Conservator, immediately succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Freddie Mac, and of any stockholder, officer or director of Freddie Mac with respect to Freddie Mac and its assets, and succeeded to the title to all books, records and assets of Freddie Mac held by any other legal custodian or third party. During the conservatorship, the Conservator delegated certain authority to the Board of Directors to oversee, and management to conduct, day-to-day operations so that the company can continue to operate in the ordinary course of business. The directors serve on behalf of, and exercise authority as directed by, the Conservator. We describe the terms of the conservatorship and the powers of our Conservator in detail below under “Supervision of our Business During Conservatorship” and “Powers of the Conservator.”
 
There is significant uncertainty as to whether or when we will emerge from conservatorship, as it has no specified termination date, and as to what changes may occur to our business structure during or following our conservatorship,
 
            21 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

including whether we will continue to exist. While we are not aware of any current plans of our Conservator to significantly change our business model or capital structure in the near-term, there are likely to be significant changes beyond the near-term that we expect to be decided by the Obama Administration and Congress. Our future structure and role will be determined by the Obama Administration and Congress. We have no ability to predict the outcome of these deliberations. On February 11, 2011, the Obama Administration delivered a report to Congress that lays out the Administration’s plan to reform the U.S. housing finance market. The report recommends winding down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. For more information, see “Executive Summary — Long-Term Financial Sustainability and Future Status.”
 
We receive substantial support from Treasury and FHFA, as our Conservator and regulator, and are dependent upon their continued support in order to continue operating our business. Our ability to access funds from Treasury under the Purchase Agreement is critical to: (a) keeping us solvent; (b) allowing us to focus on our primary business objectives under conservatorship; and (c) avoiding the appointment of a receiver by FHFA under statutory mandatory receivership provisions.
 
For a description of certain risks to our business relating to the conservatorship and Treasury Agreements, see “RISK FACTORS.”
 
Impact of Conservatorship and Related Actions on Our Business
 
We conduct our business under the direction of FHFA as our Conservator. While the conservatorship has benefited us through, for example, improved access to the debt markets because of the support we receive from Treasury, we are also subject to certain constraints on our business activities by Treasury due to the terms of, and Treasury’s rights under, the Purchase Agreement.
 
Our business objectives and strategies have in some cases been altered since we were placed into conservatorship, and may continue to change. Based on our charter, public statements from Treasury and FHFA officials and guidance from our Conservator, we have a variety of different, and potentially competing, objectives, including:
 
  •  providing liquidity, stability and affordability in the mortgage market;
 
  •  continuing to provide additional assistance to the struggling housing and mortgage markets;
 
  •  reducing the need to draw funds from Treasury pursuant to the Purchase Agreement;
 
  •  returning to long-term profitability; and
 
  •  protecting the interests of taxpayers.
 
These objectives create conflicts in strategic and day-to-day decision making that will likely lead to suboptimal outcomes for one or more, or possibly all, of these objectives. We regularly receive direction from our Conservator on how to pursue these objectives, including direction to focus our efforts on assisting homeowners in the housing and mortgage markets. Given the important role the Obama Administration and our Conservator have placed on Freddie Mac in addressing housing and mortgage market conditions and our public mission, we may be required to take additional actions that could have a negative impact on our business, operating results or financial condition. Because we expect many of these objectives and related initiatives to result in significant costs, there is significant uncertainty as to the ultimate impact these initiatives will have on our future capital or liquidity needs. Certain of these objectives are expected to help homeowners and the mortgage market and may help to mitigate future credit losses. However, some of our initiatives are expected to have an adverse impact on our near- and long-term financial results.
 
Certain changes to our business objectives and strategies are designed to provide support for the mortgage market in a manner that serves our public mission and other non-financial objectives, but may not contribute to profitability. Our efforts to help struggling homeowners and the mortgage market, in line with our mission, may help to mitigate credit losses, but in some cases may increase our expenses or require us to forego revenue opportunities in the near term. As a result, in some cases the objectives of reducing the need to draw funds from Treasury and returning to long-term profitability will be subordinated as we provide this assistance. There is significant uncertainty as to the ultimate impact that our efforts to aid the housing and mortgage markets will have on our future capital or liquidity needs and we cannot estimate whether, and the extent to which, costs we incur in the near term as a result of these efforts, which for the most part we are not reimbursed for, will be offset by the prevention or reduction of potential future costs.
 
In a letter to the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the Congressional Banking and Financial Services Committees dated February 2, 2010, the Acting Director of FHFA stated that the focus of the conservatorship is on conserving assets, minimizing corporate losses, ensuring Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae continue to serve their mission, overseeing remediation of identified weaknesses in corporate operations and risk management, and ensuring that sound corporate governance principles are followed. Specifically, the Acting Director of FHFA stated that minimizing our credit losses is our central goal and that we will be limited to continuing our existing core business activities and taking actions necessary to advance the goals of the conservatorship. The Acting Director stated that permitting us to engage in new products is inconsistent with the goals of the conservatorship. This could limit our ability to return to profitability in future periods.
 
            22 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

The conservatorship has also impacted our investment activity. FHFA has stated that we will not be a substantial buyer or seller of mortgages for our mortgage-related investments portfolio, except for purchases of delinquent mortgages out of PC pools. FHFA also stated that, given the size of our current mortgage-related investments portfolio and the potential volume of delinquent mortgages to be purchased out of PC pools, it expects that any net additions to our mortgage-related investments portfolio would be related to that activity.
 
The Conservator and Treasury also did not authorize us to engage in certain business activities and transactions, including the sale of certain assets, some of which we believe may have had a beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition, if executed. Our inability to execute such transactions may adversely affect our profitability, and thus contribute to our need to draw additional funds from Treasury. We believe that the support provided by Treasury pursuant to the Purchase Agreement currently enables us to maintain our access to the debt markets and to have adequate liquidity to conduct our normal business activities, although the costs of our debt funding could vary.
 
Management is continuing its efforts to identify and evaluate actions that could be taken to reduce the significant uncertainties surrounding our business, as well as the level of future draws under the Purchase Agreement; however, our ability to pursue such actions may be limited by market conditions and other factors. Any actions we take will likely require approval by FHFA and Treasury before they are implemented. In addition, FHFA, Treasury or Congress may have a different perspective than management and may direct us to focus our efforts on supporting the mortgage markets in ways that make it more difficult for us to implement any such actions.
 
These actions and objectives also create risks and uncertainties that we discuss in “RISK FACTORS.” For more information on the impact of conservatorship and our current business objectives, see “NOTE 3: CONSERVATORSHIP AND RELATED MATTERS” and “Executive Summary — Our Primary Business Objectives.”
 
Limits on Mortgage-Related Investments Portfolio Under the Purchase Agreement and by FHFA
 
Under the terms of the Purchase Agreement and FHFA regulation, our mortgage-related investments portfolio is subject to a cap that decreases by 10% each year until the portfolio reaches $250 billion. As a result, the UPB of our mortgage-related investments portfolio could not exceed $810 billion as of December 31, 2010 and may not exceed $729 billion as of December 31, 2011.
 
Table 4 presents the UPB of our mortgage-related investments portfolio, for purposes of the limit imposed by the Purchase Agreement and FHFA regulation. We disclose our mortgage assets on this basis monthly under the caption “Mortgage-Related Investments Portfolio — Ending Balance” in our Monthly Volume Summary reports, which are available on our website and in current reports on Form 8-K we file with the SEC.
 
The UPB of our mortgage-related investments portfolio declined from December 31, 2009 to December 31, 2010, primarily due to liquidations, partially offset by the purchase of $127.5 billion of seriously delinquent loans from PC trusts.
 
Table 4 — Mortgage-Related Investments Portfolio(1)
 
                 
    December 31, 2010     December 31, 2009  
    (in millions)  
 
Investments segment — Mortgage investments portfolio
  $ 481,677     $ 597,827  
Single-family Guarantee segment — Single-family unsecuritized mortgage loans(2)
    69,766       10,743  
Multifamily segment — Mortgage investments portfolio
    145,431       146,702  
                 
Total mortgage-related investments portfolio
  $ 696,874     $ 755,272  
                 
(1)  Based on UPB and excludes mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities traded, but not yet settled.
(2)  Represents unsecuritized non-performing single-family loans for which the Single-family Guarantee segment is actively pursuing a problem loan workout.
 
Supervision of our Business During Conservatorship
 
We experienced a change in control when we were placed into conservatorship on September 6, 2008. Under conservatorship, we have additional heightened supervision and direction from our regulator, FHFA, which is also acting as our Conservator. As Conservator, FHFA has succeeded to the powers of our Board of Directors and management, as well as the powers of our stockholders. During the conservatorship, the Conservator delegated certain authority to the Board of Directors to oversee, and management to conduct, day-to-day operations so that the company can continue to operate in the ordinary course of business. The Conservator retains the authority to withdraw or revise its delegations of authority at any time. The directors serve on behalf of, and exercise authority as directed by, the Conservator.
 
Because the Conservator succeeded to the powers, including voting rights, of our stockholders, who therefore do not currently have voting rights of their own, we do not expect to hold stockholders’ meetings during the conservatorship, nor will we prepare or provide proxy statements for the solicitation of proxies.
 
            23 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Our Board of Directors and Management During Conservatorship
 
While in conservatorship, we can, and have continued to, enter into and enforce contracts with third parties. The Conservator continues to work with the Board of Directors and management to address and determine the strategic direction for the company.
 
The Conservator instructed the Board of Directors that it should consult with and obtain the approval of the Conservator before taking action in the following areas:
 
  •  actions involving capital stock, dividends, the Purchase Agreement, increases in risk limits, material changes in accounting policy, and reasonably foreseeable material increases in operational risk;
 
  •  the creation of any subsidiary or affiliate or any substantial transaction between Freddie Mac and any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, except for transactions undertaken in the ordinary course (e.g., the creation of a REMIC, REIT, or similar vehicle);
 
  •  matters that relate to conservatorship, such as, but not limited to, the initiation and material actions in connection with significant litigation addressing the actions or authority of the Conservator, repudiation of contracts, qualified financial contracts in dispute due to our conservatorship, and counterparties attempting to nullify or amend contracts due to our conservatorship;
 
  •  actions involving hiring, compensation and termination benefits of directors and officers at the executive vice president level and above (including, regardless of title, executive positions with the functions of Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel, Chief Business Officer, Chief Investment Officer, Treasurer, Chief Compliance Officer, Chief Risk Officer and Chief/General/Internal Auditor);
 
  •  actions involving the retention and termination of external auditors and law firms serving as consultants to the Board of Directors;
 
  •  settlements in excess of $50 million of litigation, claims, regulatory proceedings or tax-related matters;
 
  •  any merger with or purchase or acquisition of a business involving consideration in excess of $50 million; and
 
  •  any action that in the reasonable business judgment of the Board of Directors at the time that the action is taken is likely to cause significant reputational risk.
 
Government Support for Our Business During Conservatorship
 
We receive substantial support from Treasury and FHFA, as our Conservator and regulator, and are dependent upon their continued support in order to continue operating our business. This support includes our ability to access funds from Treasury under the Purchase Agreement. Since being placed into conservatorship, we also received support from Treasury and the Federal Reserve under their programs to purchase mortgage-related securities and, in the case of the Federal Reserve, debt securities. Treasury’s program ended in December 2009 and the Federal Reserve’s program ended in March 2010.
 
Powers of the Conservator
 
Under the GSE Act, the conservatorship provisions applicable to Freddie Mac are based generally on federal banking law. As discussed below, FHFA has broad powers when acting as our conservator. For more information on the GSE Act, see “Regulation and Supervision.”
 
General Powers of the Conservator
 
Upon its appointment, the Conservator immediately succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of Freddie Mac, and of any stockholder, officer or director of Freddie Mac with respect to Freddie Mac and its assets. The Conservator also succeeded to the title to all books, records and assets of Freddie Mac held by any other legal custodian or third party.
 
Under the GSE Act, the Conservator may take any actions it determines are necessary and appropriate to carry on our business, support public mission objectives, and preserve and conserve our assets and property. The Conservator’s powers include the ability to transfer or sell any of our assets or liabilities (subject to certain limitations and post-transfer notice provisions for transfers of qualified financial contracts, as defined below under “Special Powers of the Conservator — Security Interests Protected; Exercise of Rights Under Qualified Financial Contracts”) without any approval, assignment of rights or consent of any party. The GSE Act, however, provides that mortgage loans and mortgage-related assets that have been transferred to a Freddie Mac securitization trust must be held for the beneficial owners of the trust and cannot be used to satisfy our general creditors.
 
Under the GSE Act, in connection with any sale or disposition of our assets, the Conservator must conduct its operations to maximize the NPV return from the sale or disposition of such assets, to minimize the amount of any loss realized, and to ensure adequate competition and fair and consistent treatment of offerors. The Conservator is required to maintain a full accounting of the conservatorship and make its reports available upon request to stockholders and members of the public.
 
            24 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

We remain liable for all of our obligations relating to our outstanding debt and mortgage-related securities. FHFA has stated that our obligations will be paid in the normal course of business during the conservatorship.
 
Special Powers of the Conservator
 
Disaffirmance and Repudiation of Contracts
 
Under the GSE Act, the Conservator may disaffirm or repudiate contracts (subject to certain limitations for qualified financial contracts) that we entered into prior to its appointment as Conservator if it determines, in its sole discretion, that performance of the contract is burdensome and that disaffirmance or repudiation of the contract promotes the orderly administration of our affairs. The GSE Act requires FHFA to exercise its right to disaffirm or repudiate most contracts within a reasonable period of time after its appointment as Conservator. The Conservator has advised us that it has no intention of repudiating any guarantee obligation relating to Freddie Mac’s mortgage-related securities because it views repudiation as incompatible with the goals of the conservatorship. We can, and have continued to, enter into, perform and enforce contracts with third parties.
 
Limitations on Enforcement of Contractual Rights by Counterparties
 
The GSE Act provides that the Conservator may enforce most contracts entered into by us, notwithstanding any provision of the contract that provides for termination, default, acceleration, or exercise of rights upon the appointment of, or the exercise of rights or powers by, a conservator.
 
Security Interests Protected; Exercise of Rights Under Qualified Financial Contracts
 
Notwithstanding the Conservator’s powers under the GSE Act described above, the Conservator must recognize legally enforceable or perfected security interests, except where such an interest is taken in contemplation of our insolvency or with the intent to hinder, delay or defraud us or our creditors. In addition, the GSE Act provides that no person will be stayed or prohibited from exercising specified rights in connection with qualified financial contracts, including termination or acceleration (other than solely by reason of, or incidental to, the appointment of the Conservator), rights of offset, and rights under any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement relating to such contract. The term qualified financial contract means any securities contract, commodity contract, forward contract, repurchase agreement, swap agreement, and any similar agreement as determined by FHFA by regulation, resolution or order.
 
Avoidance of Fraudulent Transfers
 
Under the GSE Act, the Conservator may avoid, or refuse to recognize, a transfer of any property interest of Freddie Mac or of any of our debtors, and also may avoid any obligation incurred by Freddie Mac or by any debtor of Freddie Mac, if the transfer or obligation was made: (a) within five years of September 6, 2008; and (b) with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud Freddie Mac, FHFA, the Conservator or, in the case of a transfer in connection with a qualified financial contract, our creditors. To the extent a transfer is avoided, the Conservator may recover, for our benefit, the property or, by court order, the value of that property from the initial or subsequent transferee, other than certain transfers that were made for value, including satisfaction or security of a present or antecedent debt, and in good faith. These rights are superior to any rights of a trustee or any other party, other than a federal agency, under the U.S. bankruptcy code.
 
Modification of Statutes of Limitations
 
Under the GSE Act, notwithstanding any provision of any contract, the statute of limitations with regard to any action brought by the Conservator is: (a) for claims relating to a contract, the longer of six years or the applicable period under state law; and (b) for tort claims, the longer of three years or the applicable period under state law, in each case, from the later of September 6, 2008 or the date on which the cause of action accrues. In addition, notwithstanding the state law statute of limitation for tort claims, the Conservator may bring an action for any tort claim that arises from fraud, intentional misconduct resulting in unjust enrichment, or intentional misconduct resulting in substantial loss to us, if the state’s statute of limitations expired not more than five years before September 6, 2008.
 
Suspension of Legal Actions
 
Under the GSE Act, in any judicial action or proceeding to which we are or become a party, the Conservator may request, and the applicable court must grant, a stay for a period not to exceed 45 days.
 
Treatment of Breach of Contract Claims
 
Under the GSE Act, any final and unappealable judgment for monetary damages against the Conservator for breach of an agreement executed or approved in writing by the Conservator will be paid as an administrative expense of the Conservator.
 
            25 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Attachment of Assets and Other Injunctive Relief
 
Under the GSE Act, the Conservator may seek to attach assets or obtain other injunctive relief without being required to show that any injury, loss or damage is irreparable and immediate.
 
Subpoena Power
 
The GSE Act provides the Conservator, with the approval of the Director of FHFA, with subpoena power for purposes of carrying out any power, authority or duty with respect to Freddie Mac.
 
Treasury Agreements
 
The Reform Act granted Treasury temporary authority (through December 31, 2009) to purchase any obligations and other securities issued by Freddie Mac on such terms and conditions and in such amounts as Treasury may determine, upon mutual agreement between Treasury and Freddie Mac. Pursuant to this authority, Treasury entered into several agreements with us, as described below.
 
Purchase Agreement and Related Issuance of Senior Preferred Stock and Common Stock Warrant
 
Purchase Agreement
 
On September 7, 2008, we, through FHFA, in its capacity as Conservator, and Treasury entered into the Purchase Agreement. The Purchase Agreement was subsequently amended and restated on September 26, 2008, and further amended on May 6, 2009 and December 24, 2009. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, on September 8, 2008 we issued to Treasury: (a) one million shares of Variable Liquidation Preference Senior Preferred Stock (with an initial liquidation preference of $1 billion), which we refer to as the senior preferred stock; and (b) a warrant to purchase, for a nominal price, shares of our common stock equal to 79.9% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis at the time the warrant is exercised, which we refer to as the warrant. The terms of the senior preferred stock and warrant are summarized in separate sections below. We did not receive any cash proceeds from Treasury as a result of issuing the senior preferred stock or the warrant. However, deficits in our net worth have made it necessary for us to make substantial draws on Treasury’s funding commitment under the Purchase Agreement. As a result, the aggregate liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock has increased from $1.0 billion as of September 8, 2008 to $64.2 billion at December 31, 2010 (this figure reflects the receipt of funds requested in the draw to address our net worth deficit as of September 30, 2010). Our dividend obligation on the senior preferred stock, based on that liquidation preference, is $6.42 billion, which exceeds our annual earnings in all but one period.
 
The senior preferred stock and warrant were issued to Treasury as an initial commitment fee in consideration of the initial commitment from Treasury to provide up to $100 billion (subsequently increased to $200 billion) in funds to us under the terms and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement. Under the Purchase Agreement, the $200 billion maximum amount of the commitment from Treasury will increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in our net worth during 2010, 2011 and 2012. If we do not have a capital surplus (i.e., positive net worth) at the end of 2012, then the amount of funding available after 2012 will be $149.3 billion ($200 billion funding commitment reduced by cumulative draws for net worth deficits through December 31, 2009). In the event we have a capital surplus at the end of 2012, then the amount of funding available after 2012 will depend on the size of that surplus relative to cumulative draws needed for deficits during 2010 to 2012, as follows:
 
  •  If the year-end 2012 surplus is lower than the cumulative draws needed for 2010 to 2012, then the amount of available funding is $149.3 billion less the surplus.
 
  •  If the year-end 2012 surplus exceeds the cumulative draws for 2010 to 2012, then the amount of available funding is $149.3 billion less the amount of those draws.
 
In addition to the issuance of the senior preferred stock and warrant, we are required under the Purchase Agreement to pay a quarterly commitment fee to Treasury. Under the Purchase Agreement, the fee is to be determined in an amount mutually agreed to by us and Treasury with reference to the market value of Treasury’s funding commitment as then in effect, and reset every five years. We may elect to pay the quarterly commitment fee in cash or add the amount of the fee to the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock. Treasury may waive the quarterly commitment fee for up to one year at a time, in its sole discretion, based on adverse conditions in the U.S. mortgage market. The fee was originally scheduled to commence on March 31, 2010, but was delayed until March 31, 2011 pursuant to an amendment to the Purchase Agreement. Treasury waived the fee for the first quarter of 2011, but has indicated that it remains committed to protecting taxpayers and ensuring that our future positive earnings are returned to taxpayers as compensation for their investment. Treasury stated that it would reevaluate whether the quarterly commitment fee should be set in the second quarter of 2011. Absent Treasury waiving the commitment fee in the second quarter of 2011, this quarterly commitment fee will begin accruing on April 1, 2011 and must be paid each quarter for as long as the Purchase Agreement is in effect. The amount of the fee has not yet been determined and could be substantial.
 
            26 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

The Purchase Agreement provides that, on a quarterly basis, we generally may draw funds up to the amount, if any, by which our total liabilities exceed our total assets, as reflected on our GAAP balance sheet for the applicable fiscal quarter (referred to as the deficiency amount), provided that the aggregate amount funded under the Purchase Agreement may not exceed Treasury’s commitment. The Purchase Agreement provides that the deficiency amount will be calculated differently if we become subject to receivership or other liquidation process. The deficiency amount may be increased above the otherwise applicable amount upon our mutual written agreement with Treasury. In addition, if the Director of FHFA determines that the Director will be mandated by law to appoint a receiver for us unless our capital is increased by receiving funds under the commitment in an amount up to the deficiency amount (subject to the maximum amount that may be funded under the agreement), then FHFA, in its capacity as our Conservator, may request that Treasury provide funds to us in such amount. The Purchase Agreement also provides that, if we have a deficiency amount as of the date of completion of the liquidation of our assets, we may request funds from Treasury in an amount up to the deficiency amount (subject to the maximum amount that may be funded under the agreement). Any amounts that we draw under the Purchase Agreement will be added to the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock. No additional shares of senior preferred stock are required to be issued under the Purchase Agreement. As a result, the expiration on December 31, 2009 of Treasury’s temporary authority to purchase obligations and other securities issued by Freddie Mac did not affect Treasury’s funding commitment under the Purchase Agreement.
 
Under the Purchase Agreement, our ability to repay the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock is limited and we may not be able to do so for the foreseeable future, if at all. The amounts payable for dividends on the senior preferred stock are substantial and will have an adverse impact on our financial position and net worth. The payment of dividends on our senior preferred stock in cash reduces our net worth. For periods in which our earnings and other changes in equity do not result in positive net worth, draws under the Purchase Agreement effectively fund the cash payment of senior preferred dividends to Treasury. It is unlikely that, over the long-term, we will generate net income or comprehensive income in excess of our annual dividends payable to Treasury, although we may experience period-to-period variability in earnings and comprehensive income. As a result, we expect to make additional draws in future periods.
 
The Purchase Agreement provides that the Treasury’s funding commitment will terminate under any of the following circumstances: (a) the completion of our liquidation and fulfillment of Treasury’s obligations under its funding commitment at that time; (b) the payment in full of, or reasonable provision for, all of our liabilities (whether or not contingent, including mortgage guarantee obligations); and (c) the funding by Treasury of the maximum amount of the commitment under the Purchase Agreement. In addition, Treasury may terminate its funding commitment and declare the Purchase Agreement null and void if a court vacates, modifies, amends, conditions, enjoins, stays or otherwise affects the appointment of the Conservator or otherwise curtails the Conservator’s powers. Treasury may not terminate its funding commitment under the Purchase Agreement solely by reason of our being in conservatorship, receivership or other insolvency proceeding, or due to our financial condition or any adverse change in our financial condition.
 
The Purchase Agreement provides that most provisions of the agreement may be waived or amended by mutual written agreement of the parties; however, no waiver or amendment of the agreement is permitted that would decrease Treasury’s aggregate funding commitment or add conditions to Treasury’s funding commitment if the waiver or amendment would adversely affect in any material respect the holders of our debt securities or Freddie Mac mortgage guarantee obligations.
 
In the event of our default on payments with respect to our debt securities or Freddie Mac mortgage guarantee obligations, if Treasury fails to perform its obligations under its funding commitment and if we and/or the Conservator are not diligently pursuing remedies in respect of that failure, the holders of these debt securities or Freddie Mac mortgage guarantee obligations may file a claim in the United States Court of Federal Claims for relief requiring Treasury to fund to us the lesser of: (a) the amount necessary to cure the payment defaults on our debt and Freddie Mac mortgage guarantee obligations; and (b) the lesser of: (i) the deficiency amount; and (ii) the maximum amount of the commitment less the aggregate amount of funding previously provided under the commitment. Any payment that Treasury makes under those circumstances will be treated for all purposes as a draw under the Purchase Agreement that will increase the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock.
 
The Purchase Agreement has an indefinite term and can terminate only in limited circumstances, which do not include the end of the conservatorship. The Purchase Agreement therefore could continue after the conservatorship ends.
 
Issuance of Senior Preferred Stock
 
Shares of the senior preferred stock have a par value of $1, and have a stated value and initial liquidation preference equal to $1,000 per share. The liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock is subject to adjustment. Dividends that are not paid in cash for any dividend period will accrue and be added to the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock. In addition, any amounts Treasury pays to us pursuant to its funding commitment under the Purchase Agreement and any quarterly commitment fees that are not paid in cash to Treasury nor waived by Treasury will be added to the liquidation
 
            27 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

preference of the senior preferred stock. As described below, we may make payments to reduce the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock in limited circumstances.
 
Treasury, as the holder of the senior preferred stock, is entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our Board of Directors, cumulative quarterly cash dividends at the annual rate of 10% per year on the then-current liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock. Through December 31, 2010, we have paid cash dividends of $10.0 billion at the direction of the Conservator. If at any time we fail to pay cash dividends in a timely manner, then immediately following such failure and for all dividend periods thereafter until the dividend period following the date on which we have paid in cash full cumulative dividends (including any unpaid dividends added to the liquidation preference), the dividend rate will be 12% per year.
 
The senior preferred stock is senior to our common stock and all other outstanding series of our preferred stock, as well as any capital stock we issue in the future, as to both dividends and rights upon liquidation. The senior preferred stock provides that we may not, at any time, declare or pay dividends on, make distributions with respect to, or redeem, purchase or acquire, or make a liquidation payment with respect to, any common stock or other securities ranking junior to the senior preferred stock unless: (a) full cumulative dividends on the outstanding senior preferred stock (including any unpaid dividends added to the liquidation preference) have been declared and paid in cash; and (b) all amounts required to be paid with the net proceeds of any issuance of capital stock for cash (as described in the following paragraph) have been paid in cash. Shares of the senior preferred stock are not convertible. Shares of the senior preferred stock have no general or special voting rights, other than those set forth in the certificate of designation for the senior preferred stock or otherwise required by law. The consent of holders of at least two-thirds of all outstanding shares of senior preferred stock is generally required to amend the terms of the senior preferred stock or to create any class or series of stock that ranks prior to or on parity with the senior preferred stock.
 
We are not permitted to redeem the senior preferred stock prior to the termination of Treasury’s funding commitment set forth in the Purchase Agreement; however, we are permitted to pay down the liquidation preference of the outstanding shares of senior preferred stock to the extent of: (a) accrued and unpaid dividends previously added to the liquidation preference and not previously paid down; and (b) quarterly commitment fees previously added to the liquidation preference and not previously paid down. In addition, if we issue any shares of capital stock for cash while the senior preferred stock is outstanding, the net proceeds of the issuance must be used to pay down the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock; however, the liquidation preference of each share of senior preferred stock may not be paid down below $1,000 per share prior to the termination of Treasury’s funding commitment. Following the termination of Treasury’s funding commitment, we may pay down the liquidation preference of all outstanding shares of senior preferred stock at any time, in whole or in part. If, after termination of Treasury’s funding commitment, we pay down the liquidation preference of each outstanding share of senior preferred stock in full, the shares will be deemed to have been redeemed as of the payment date.
 
Issuance of Common Stock Warrant
 
The warrant gives Treasury the right to purchase shares of our common stock equal to 79.9% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis on the date of exercise. The warrant may be exercised in whole or in part at any time on or before September 7, 2028, by delivery to us of: (a) a notice of exercise; (b) payment of the exercise price of $0.00001 per share; and (c) the warrant. If the market price of one share of our common stock is greater than the exercise price, then, instead of paying the exercise price, Treasury may elect to receive shares equal to the value of the warrant (or portion thereof being canceled) pursuant to the formula specified in the warrant. Upon exercise of the warrant, Treasury may assign the right to receive the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise to any other person.
 
As of February 24, 2011, Treasury has not exercised the warrant.
 
Covenants Under Treasury Agreements
 
The Purchase Agreement and warrant contain covenants that significantly restrict our business activities. For example, as a result of these covenants, we can no longer obtain additional equity financing (other than pursuant to the Purchase Agreement) and we are limited in the amount and type of debt financing we may obtain.
 
Purchase Agreement Covenants
 
The Purchase Agreement provides that, until the senior preferred stock is repaid or redeemed in full, we may not, without the prior written consent of Treasury:
 
  •  declare or pay any dividend (preferred or otherwise) or make any other distribution with respect to any Freddie Mac equity securities (other than with respect to the senior preferred stock or warrant);
 
  •  redeem, purchase, retire or otherwise acquire any Freddie Mac equity securities (other than the senior preferred stock or warrant);
 
            28 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

  •  sell or issue any Freddie Mac equity securities (other than the senior preferred stock, the warrant and the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrant and other than as required by the terms of any binding agreement in effect on the date of the Purchase Agreement);
 
  •  terminate the conservatorship (other than in connection with a receivership);
 
  •  sell, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of any assets, other than dispositions for fair market value: (a) to a limited life regulated entity (in the context of a receivership); (b) of assets and properties in the ordinary course of business, consistent with past practice; (c) in connection with our liquidation by a receiver; (d) of cash or cash equivalents for cash or cash equivalents; or (e) to the extent necessary to comply with the covenant described below relating to the reduction of our mortgage-related investments portfolio;
 
  •  issue any subordinated debt;
 
  •  enter into a corporate reorganization, recapitalization, merger, acquisition or similar event; or
 
  •  engage in transactions with affiliates unless the transaction is: (a) pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the senior preferred stock or the warrant; (b) upon arm’s length terms; or (c) a transaction undertaken in the ordinary course or pursuant to a contractual obligation or customary employment arrangement in existence on the date of the Purchase Agreement.
 
These covenants also apply to our subsidiaries.
 
The Purchase Agreement also provides that we may not own mortgage assets with UPB in excess of: (a) $900 billion on December 31, 2009; or (b) on December 31 of each year thereafter, 90% of the aggregate amount of mortgage assets we are permitted to own as of December 31 of the immediately preceding calendar year, provided that we are not required to own less than $250 billion in mortgage assets. Under the Purchase Agreement, we also may not incur indebtedness that would result in the par value of our aggregate indebtedness exceeding 120% of the amount of mortgage assets we are permitted to own on December 31 of the immediately preceding calendar year. The mortgage asset and indebtedness limitations are determined without giving effect to any change in the accounting standards related to transfers of financial assets and consolidation of VIEs or any similar accounting standard. Therefore, these limitations were not affected by our implementation of the changes to the accounting standards for transfers of financial assets and consolidation of VIEs, under which we consolidated our single-family PC trusts and certain of our Other Guarantee Transactions in our financial statements as of January 1, 2010.
 
In addition, the Purchase Agreement provides that we may not enter into any new compensation arrangements or increase amounts or benefits payable under existing compensation arrangements of any named executive officer or other executive officer (as such terms are defined by SEC rules) without the consent of the Director of FHFA, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury.
 
As of February 24, 2011, we believe we were in compliance with the covenants under the Purchase Agreement.
 
Warrant Covenants
 
The warrant we issued to Treasury includes, among others, the following covenants: (a) we may not permit any of our significant subsidiaries to issue capital stock or equity securities, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for such securities, or any stock appreciation rights or other profit participation rights; (b) we may not take any action to avoid the observance or performance of the terms of the warrant and we must take all actions necessary or appropriate to protect Treasury’s rights against impairment or dilution; and (c) we must provide Treasury with prior notice of specified actions relating to our common stock, such as setting a record date for a dividend payment, granting subscription or purchase rights, authorizing a recapitalization, reclassification, merger or similar transaction, commencing a liquidation of the company or any other action that would trigger an adjustment in the exercise price or number or amount of shares subject to the warrant.
 
As of February 24, 2011, we believe we were in compliance with the covenants under the warrant.
 
Effect of Conservatorship and Treasury Agreements on Existing Stockholders
 
The conservatorship, the Purchase Agreement and the senior preferred stock and warrant issued to Treasury have materially limited the rights of our common and preferred stockholders (other than Treasury as holder of the senior preferred stock) and had the following adverse effects on our common and preferred stockholders:
 
  •  the rights and powers of the stockholders are suspended during the conservatorship, and our common stockholders do not have the ability to elect directors or to vote on other matters;
 
  •  because we are in conservatorship, we are no longer managed with a strategy to maximize stockholder returns. In a letter to the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the Congressional Banking and Financial Services Committees dated February 2, 2010, the Acting Director of FHFA stated that the focus of the conservatorship is on conserving assets, minimizing corporate losses, ensuring Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae continue to serve their mission, overseeing
 
            29 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

  remediation of identified weaknesses in corporate operations and risk management, and ensuring that sound corporate governance principles are followed;
 
  •  the senior preferred stock ranks senior to the common stock and all other series of preferred stock as to both dividends and distributions upon dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the company;
 
  •  the Conservator has eliminated dividends on Freddie Mac common and preferred stock (other than dividends on the senior preferred stock) during conservatorship. In addition, the Purchase Agreement prohibits the payment of dividends on common or preferred stock (other than the senior preferred stock) without the prior written consent of Treasury; and
 
  •  the warrant provides Treasury with the right to purchase shares of our common stock equal to up to 79.9% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis on the date of exercise for a nominal price, thereby substantially diluting the ownership in Freddie Mac of our common stockholders at the time of exercise. Until Treasury exercises its rights under the warrant, or its right to exercise the warrant expires on September 7, 2028 without having been exercised, the holders of our common stock continue to have the risk that, as a group, they will own no more than 20.1% of the total voting power of the company. Under our charter, bylaws and applicable law, 20.1% is insufficient to control the outcome of any vote that is presented to the common stockholders. Accordingly, existing common stockholders have no assurance that, as a group, they will be able to control the election of our directors or the outcome of any other vote after the time, if any, that the conservatorship ends.
 
As described above, the conservatorship and Treasury Agreements also impact our business in ways that indirectly affect our common and preferred stockholders. By their terms, the Purchase Agreement, senior preferred stock and warrant will continue to exist even if we are released from the conservatorship. For a description of the risks to our business relating to the conservatorship and Treasury Agreements, see “RISK FACTORS.”
 
Regulation and Supervision
 
In addition to our oversight by FHFA as our Conservator, we are subject to regulation and oversight by FHFA under our charter and the GSE Act, which was modified substantially by the Reform Act. We are also subject to certain regulation by other government agencies.
 
Federal Housing Finance Agency
 
FHFA is an independent agency of the federal government responsible for oversight of the operations of Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae and the FHLBs. The Director of FHFA is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate for a five-year term, removable only for cause. In the discussion below, we refer to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae as the “enterprises.”
 
The Federal Housing Finance Oversight Board, or the Oversight Board, is responsible for advising the Director of FHFA with respect to overall strategies and policies. The Oversight Board consists of the Director of FHFA as Chairperson, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Chair of the SEC and the Secretary of HUD.
 
Under the GSE Act, FHFA has safety and soundness authority that is comparable to, and in some respects, broader than that of the federal banking agencies. The GSE Act also provides FHFA with powers that, even if we were not in conservatorship, include the authority to raise capital levels above statutory minimum levels, regulate the size and content of our mortgage-related investments portfolio, and approve new mortgage products.
 
FHFA is responsible for implementing the various provisions of the GSE Act that were added by the Reform Act. In general, we remain subject to existing regulations, orders and determinations until new ones are issued or made.
 
Receivership
 
Under the GSE Act, FHFA must place us into receivership if FHFA determines in writing that our assets are less than our obligations for a period of 60 days. FHFA has notified us that the measurement period for any mandatory receivership determination with respect to our assets and obligations would commence no earlier than the SEC public filing deadline for our quarterly or annual financial statements and would continue for 60 calendar days after that date. FHFA has also advised us that, if, during that 60-day period, we receive funds from Treasury in an amount at least equal to the deficiency amount under the Purchase Agreement, the Director of FHFA will not make a mandatory receivership determination.
 
In addition, we could be put into receivership at the discretion of the Director of FHFA at any time for other reasons, including conditions that FHFA has already asserted existed at the time the then Director of FHFA placed us into conservatorship. These include: (a) a substantial dissipation of assets or earnings due to unsafe or unsound practices; (b) the existence of an unsafe or unsound condition to transact business; (c) an inability to meet our obligations in the ordinary course of business; (d) a weakening of our condition due to unsafe or unsound practices or conditions; (e) critical undercapitalization; (f) the likelihood of losses that will deplete substantially all of our capital; or (g) by consent.
 
            30 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

On July 9, 2010, FHFA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule to codify certain terms of conservatorship and receivership operations for Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the FHLBs. FHFA noted that among the key issues addressed in the proposed rule are the status and priority of claims and the relationships among various classes of creditors and equity-holders under conservatorships or receiverships. The Acting Director of FHFA stated that publication of this rule for comment has no impact on the current conservatorship operations and is not a reflection of the condition of Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, or the FHLBs.
 
Capital Standards
 
FHFA has suspended capital classification of us during conservatorship in light of the Purchase Agreement. The existing statutory and FHFA-directed regulatory capital requirements are not binding during the conservatorship. We continue to provide submissions to FHFA on both minimum and risk-based capital. FHFA continues to publish relevant capital figures (minimum capital requirement, core capital, and GAAP net worth) but does not publish our critical capital, risk-based capital or subordinated debt levels during conservatorship.
 
On October 9, 2008, FHFA also announced that it will engage in rule-making to revise our minimum capital and risk-based capital requirements. The GSE Act provides that FHFA may increase minimum capital levels from the existing statutory percentages either by regulation or on a temporary basis by order. On February 8, 2010, FHFA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking setting forth procedures and standards for such a temporary increase in minimum capital levels. FHFA may also, by regulation or order, establish capital or reserve requirements with respect to any product or activity of an enterprise, as FHFA considers appropriate. In addition, under the GSE Act, FHFA must, by regulation, establish risk-based capital requirements to ensure the enterprises operate in a safe and sound manner, maintaining sufficient capital and reserves to support the risks that arise in their operations and management. In developing the new risk-based capital requirements, FHFA is not bound by the risk-based capital standards in effect prior to the amendment of the GSE Act by the Reform Act.
 
Our regulatory minimum capital is a leverage-based measure that is generally calculated based on GAAP and reflects a 2.50% capital requirement for on-balance sheet assets and 0.45% capital requirement for off-balance sheet obligations. Pursuant to regulatory guidance from FHFA, our minimum capital requirement was not automatically affected by our January 1, 2010 adoption of new accounting standards for transfers of financial assets and consolidation of VIEs. Specifically, upon adoption of these new accounting standards, FHFA directed us, for purposes of minimum capital, to continue reporting our PCs held by third parties and other aggregate off-balance sheet obligations using a 0.45% capital requirement. Notwithstanding this guidance, FHFA reserves the authority under the GSE Act to raise the minimum capital requirement for any of our assets or activities.
 
For additional information, see “MD&A — LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES — Capital Resources” and “NOTE 18: REGULATORY CAPITAL.” Also, see “RISK FACTORS — Legal and Regulatory Risks” for more information.
 
New Products
 
The GSE Act requires the enterprises to obtain the approval of FHFA before initially offering any product, subject to certain exceptions. The GSE Act provides for a public comment process on requests for approval of new products. FHFA may temporarily approve a product without soliciting public comment if delay would be contrary to the public interest. FHFA may condition approval of a product on specific terms, conditions and limitations. The GSE Act also requires the enterprises to provide FHFA with written notice of any new activity that we or Fannie Mae consider not to be a product.
 
On July 2, 2009, FHFA published an interim final rule on prior approval of new products, implementing the new product provisions for us and Fannie Mae in the GSE Act. The rule establishes a process for Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to provide prior notice to the Director of FHFA of a new activity and, if applicable, to obtain prior approval from the Director if the new activity is determined to be a new product. On August 31, 2009, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae filed joint public comments on the interim final rule with FHFA. FHFA has stated that permitting us to engage in new products is inconsistent with the goals of conservatorship and has instructed us not to submit such requests under the interim final rule. This could have an adverse effect on our business and profitability in future periods. We cannot currently predict when or if FHFA will permit us to engage in new products under the interim final rule, nor when the rule will be finalized.
 
Affordable Housing Goals
 
We are subject to annual affordable housing goals. In light of these housing goals, we may make adjustments to our mortgage loan sourcing and purchase strategies, which could further increase our credit losses. These strategies could include entering into some purchase and securitization transactions with lower expected economic returns than our typical transactions. Prior to 2010, we at times relaxed some of our underwriting criteria to obtain goal-qualifying mortgage loans and made additional investments in higher risk mortgage loan products that we believed were more likely to serve the borrowers targeted by the goals.
 
            31 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

If the Director of FHFA finds that we failed to meet a housing goal and that achievement of the housing goal was feasible, the GSE Act states that the Director may require the submission of a housing plan with respect to the housing goal for approval by the Director. The housing plan must describe the actions we would take to achieve the unmet goal in the future. FHFA has the authority to take actions against us, including issuing a cease and desist order or assessing civil money penalties, if we: (a) fail to submit a required housing plan or fail to make a good faith effort to comply with a plan approved by FHFA; or (b) fail to submit certain data relating to our mortgage purchases, information or reports as required by law. See “RISK FACTORS — Legal and Regulatory Risks.”
 
Affordable Housing Goals for 2010 and 2011
 
Effective beginning calendar year 2010, the Reform Act requires that FHFA establish, by regulation, four single-family housing goals, one multifamily special affordable housing goal and requirements relating to multifamily housing for very low-income families.
 
On September 14, 2010, FHFA published in the Federal Register a final rule establishing new affordable housing goals for Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae for 2010 and 2011. The final rule was effective on October 14, 2010. The rule establishes four goals and one subgoal for single-family owner-occupied housing, one multifamily special affordable housing goal, and one multifamily special affordable housing subgoal. Three of the single-family housing goals and the subgoal target purchase money mortgages for: (a) low-income families; (b) very low-income families; and/or (c) families that reside in low-income areas. The single-family housing goals also include one that targets refinancing mortgages for low-income families. The multifamily special affordable housing goal targets multifamily rental housing affordable to low-income families. The multifamily special affordable housing subgoal targets multifamily rental housing affordable to very low-income families. In addition, the rule states that Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must continue to report on their acquisition of mortgages involving low-income units in small (5- to 50-unit) multifamily properties.
 
Our housing goals for 2010 and 2011 are set forth in Table 5 below.
 
Table 5 — Affordable Housing Goals for 2010 and 2011
 
         
    Goals for 2010 and 2011
 
Single-family purchase money goals (benchmark levels):
       
Low-income
    27 %
Very low-income
    8 %
Low-income areas(1)
    24 %
Low-income areas subgoal
    13 %
Single-family refinance low-income goal (benchmark level)
    21 %
Multifamily low-income goal
    161,250 units  
Multifamily very low-income subgoal
    21,000 units  
(1)  FHFA will annually set the benchmark level for the low-income areas goal based on the benchmark level for the low-income areas subgoal, plus an adjustment factor reflecting the additional incremental share of mortgages for moderate-income families in designated disaster areas in the most recent year for which such data is available. For 2010, FHFA set the benchmark level for the low-income areas goal at 24%.
 
The single-family goals are expressed as a percentage of the total number of eligible mortgages underlying our total single-family mortgage purchases. The multifamily goals are expressed in terms of minimum numbers of units financed.
 
With respect to the single-family goals, the rule includes: (a) an assessment of performance as compared to the actual share of the market that meets the criteria for each goal; and (b) a benchmark level to measure performance. Where our performance on a single-family goal falls short of the benchmark for a goal, we still could achieve the goal if our performance meets or exceeds the actual share of the market that meets the criteria for the goal for that year. For example, if the actual market share of mortgages to low-income families relative to all mortgages originated to finance owner-occupied single-family properties is lower than the 27% benchmark rate, we would still satisfy this goal if we achieve that actual market percentage.
 
The rule makes a number of changes to the previous counting methods for goals credit, including prohibiting housing goals credit for purchases of private-label securities. However, the rule allows credit under the low-income refinance goal for permanent MHA Program loan modifications. The rule also states that FHFA does not intend for the enterprises to undertake economically adverse or high-risk activities in support of the goals, nor does it intend for the enterprises’ state of conservatorship to be a justification for withdrawing support from these important market segments.
 
In addition, as noted in the rule, FHFA expects to take future regulatory action to address the housing goals treatment of purchases of multifamily loans that aid the conversion of properties that have affordable rents to properties that have less affordable, market rate rents. FHFA also may solicit further comments on how the housing goals can further promote sustainable homeownership and how multifamily subordinate liens can be structured to benefit low-income residents.
 
We expect to report our performance with respect to the 2010 affordable housing goals in March 2011. At this time, based on preliminary information, we believe we did not achieve certain of the goals for 2010. We and FHFA are in discussions concerning whether achievement of such goals was infeasible under the terms of the GSE Act, due to market and
 
            32 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

economic conditions and our financial condition. For more information, see “EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION — Compensation Discussion and Analysis — Executive Management Compensation Program — Determination of the Performance-Based Portion of 2010 Deferred Base Salary.”
 
We anticipate that the difficult market conditions and our financial condition will continue to affect our affordable housing activities in 2011. See also “RISK FACTORS — Legal and Regulatory Risks.” However, we view the purchase of mortgage loans that are eligible to count toward our affordable housing goals to be a principal part of our mission and business and we are committed to facilitating the financing of affordable housing for low- and moderate-income families.
 
Duty to Serve Underserved Markets
 
The GSE Act establishes a duty for Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to serve three underserved markets (manufactured housing, affordable housing preservation and rural areas) by developing loan products and flexible underwriting guidelines to facilitate a secondary market for mortgages for very low-, low- and moderate-income families in those markets. Effective for 2010, FHFA is required to establish a manner for annually: (a) evaluating whether and to what extent Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae have complied with the duty to serve underserved markets; and (b) rating the extent of compliance.
 
On June 7, 2010, FHFA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule regarding the duty of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to serve the underserved markets. Comments were due on July 22, 2010. We provided comments on the proposed rule to FHFA, but we cannot predict the contents of any final rule that FHFA may release, or the impact that the final rule will have on our business or operations.
 
Affordable Housing Goals and Reported Results for 2009 and 2008
 
Prior to 2010, we were subject to affordable housing goals related to mortgages for low- and moderate-income families, low-income families living in low-income areas, very low-income families and families living in defined underserved areas. These goals were set as a percentage of the total number of dwelling units underlying our total mortgage purchases. The goal relating to low-income families living in low-income areas and very low-income families was referred to as the “special affordable” housing goal. This special affordable housing goal also included a multifamily annual minimum dollar volume target of qualifying multifamily mortgage purchases. In addition, from 2005 to 2009, we were subject to three subgoals that were expressed as percentages of the total number of mortgages we purchased that financed the purchase of single-family, owner-occupied properties located in metropolitan areas.
 
Our housing goals and results for 2009 and 2008 are set forth in Table 6 below.
 
Table 6 — Affordable Housing Goals and Reported Results for 2009 and 2008(1)
 
                                 
    Year Ended December 31,
    2009   2008
    Goal   Results   Goal   Results
 
Housing goals and actual results:
                               
Low- and moderate-income goal(2)
    43 %     44.7 %     56 %     51.5 %
Underserved areas goal(3)(4)
    32       26.8       39       37.7  
Special affordable goal(2)(5)
    18       17.8       27       23.1  
Multifamily special affordable volume target (in billions)(4)
  $ 4.60     $ 3.69     $ 3.92     $ 7.49  
Home purchase subgoals and actual results:
                               
Low- and moderate-income subgoal(2)
    40 %     48.4 %     47 %     39.3 %
Underserved areas subgoal(2)(5)
    30       27.9       34       30.3  
Special affordable subgoal(2)
    14       20.6       18       15.1  
(1)  An individual mortgage may qualify for more than one of the goals or subgoals. Each of the goal and subgoal percentages and each of our percentage results is determined independently and cannot be aggregated to determine a percentage of total purchases that qualifies for these goals or subgoals.
(2)  These 2008 goals and subgoals were determined to be infeasible.
(3)  FHFA concluded that achievement by us of this 2008 goal was feasible, but challenging. Accordingly, FHFA decided not to require us to submit a housing plan.
(4)  These 2009 goals were determined to be infeasible.
(5)  FHFA concluded that achievement by us of these 2009 goals and subgoals was feasible, but decided not to require us to submit a housing plan.
 
Affordable Housing Allocations
 
The GSE Act requires us to set aside in each fiscal year an amount equal to 4.2 basis points for each dollar of the UPB of total new business purchases, and allocate or transfer such amount to: (a) HUD to fund a Housing Trust Fund established and managed by HUD; and (b) a Capital Magnet Fund established and managed by Treasury. FHFA has the authority to suspend our allocation upon finding that the payment would contribute to our financial instability, cause us to be classified as undercapitalized or prevent us from successfully completing a capital restoration plan. In November 2008, FHFA advised us that it has suspended the requirement to set aside or allocate funds for the Housing Trust Fund and the Capital Magnet Fund until further notice.
 
            33 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Prudential Management and Operations Standards
 
The GSE Act requires FHFA to establish prudential standards, by regulation or by guideline, for a broad range of operations of the enterprises. These standards must address internal controls, information systems, independence and adequacy of internal audit systems, management of interest rate risk exposure, management of market risk, liquidity and reserves, management of asset and investment portfolio growth, overall risk management processes, investments and asset acquisitions, management of credit and counterparty risk, and recordkeeping. FHFA may also establish any additional operational and management standards the Director of FHFA determines appropriate.
 
Portfolio Activities
 
The GSE Act requires FHFA to establish, by regulation, criteria governing portfolio holdings to ensure the holdings are backed by sufficient capital and consistent with the enterprises’ mission and safe and sound operations. In establishing these criteria, FHFA must consider the ability of the enterprises to provide a liquid secondary market through securitization activities, the portfolio holdings in relation to the mortgage market and the enterprises’ compliance with the prudential management and operations standards prescribed by FHFA.
 
On December 28, 2010, FHFA issued a final rule adopting the portfolio holdings criteria established in the Purchase Agreement, as it may be amended from time to time, for so long as we remain subject to the Purchase Agreement.
 
See “NOTE 3: CONSERVATORSHIP AND RELATED MATTERS — Impact of the Purchase Agreement and FHFA Regulation on the Mortgage-Related Investments Portfolio” for additional information on restrictions to our portfolio activities.
 
Anti-Predatory Lending
 
Predatory lending practices are in direct opposition to our mission, our goals and our practices. We have instituted anti- predatory lending policies intended to prevent the purchase or assignment of mortgage loans with unacceptable terms or conditions or resulting from unacceptable practices. These policies include processes related to the delivery, validation and certification of loans sold to us. In addition to the purchase policies we have instituted, we promote consumer education and financial literacy efforts to help borrowers avoid abusive lending practices and we provide competitive mortgage products to reputable mortgage originators so that borrowers have a greater choice of financing options.
 
Subordinated Debt
 
FHFA directed us to continue to make interest and principal payments on our subordinated debt, even if we fail to maintain required capital levels. As a result, the terms of any of our subordinated debt that provide for us to defer payments of interest under certain circumstances, including our failure to maintain specified capital levels, are no longer applicable. In addition, the requirements in the agreement we entered into with FHFA in September 2005 with respect to issuance, maintenance, and reporting and disclosure of Freddie Mac subordinated debt have been suspended during the term of conservatorship and thereafter until directed otherwise. See “NOTE 18: REGULATORY CAPITAL — Subordinated Debt Commitment” for more information regarding subordinated debt.
 
Department of Housing and Urban Development
 
HUD has regulatory authority over Freddie Mac with respect to fair lending. Our mortgage purchase activities are subject to federal anti-discrimination laws. In addition, the GSE Act prohibits discriminatory practices in our mortgage purchase activities, requires us to submit data to HUD to assist in its fair lending investigations of primary market lenders with which we do business and requires us to undertake remedial actions against such lenders found to have engaged in discriminatory lending practices. In addition, HUD periodically reviews and comments on our underwriting and appraisal guidelines for consistency with the Fair Housing Act and the anti-discrimination provisions of the GSE Act.
 
Department of the Treasury
 
Treasury has significant rights and powers with respect to our company as a result of the Purchase Agreement. In addition, under our charter, the Secretary of the Treasury has approval authority over our issuances of notes, debentures and substantially identical types of unsecured debt obligations (including the interest rates and maturities of these securities), as well as new types of mortgage-related securities issued subsequent to the enactment of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989. The Secretary of the Treasury has performed this debt securities approval function by coordinating GSE debt offerings with Treasury funding activities. In addition, our charter authorizes Treasury to purchase Freddie Mac debt obligations not exceeding $2.25 billion in aggregate principal amount at any time.
 
The Reform Act granted the Secretary of the Treasury authority to purchase any obligations and securities issued by us and Fannie Mae until December 31, 2009 on such terms and conditions and in such amounts as the Secretary may determine, provided that the Secretary determined the purchases were necessary to provide stability to the financial markets, prevent
 
            34 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

disruptions in the availability of mortgage finance, and protect taxpayers. See “Conservatorship and Related Matters — Treasury Agreements.
 
Securities and Exchange Commission
 
We are subject to the financial reporting requirements applicable to registrants under the Exchange Act, including the requirement to file with the SEC annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K. Although our common stock is required to be registered under the Exchange Act, we continue to be exempt from certain federal securities law requirements, including the following:
 
  •  Securities we issue or guarantee are “exempted securities” under the Securities Act and may be sold without registration under the Securities Act;
 
  •  We are excluded from the definitions of “government securities broker” and “government securities dealer” under the Exchange Act;
 
  •  The Trust Indenture Act of 1939 does not apply to securities issued by us; and
 
  •  We are exempt from the Investment Company Act of 1940 and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as we are an “agency, authority or instrumentality” of the U.S. for purposes of such Acts.
 
Legislative and Regulatory Developments
 
Dodd-Frank Act
 
The Dodd-Frank Act, which was signed into law on July 21, 2010, significantly changed the regulation of the financial services industry, including by creating new standards related to regulatory oversight of systemically important financial companies, derivatives, capital requirements, asset-backed securitization, mortgage underwriting, and consumer financial protection. The Dodd-Frank Act will directly affect the business and operations of Freddie Mac by subjecting us to new and additional regulatory oversight and standards, including with respect to our activities and products. We may also be affected by provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and implementing regulations that affect the activities of banks, savings institutions, insurance companies, securities dealers, and other regulated entities that are our customers and counterparties.
 
At this time, it is difficult to assess fully the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on Freddie Mac and the financial services industry. Implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act is being accomplished through numerous rulemakings, many of which are still in process. The final effects of the legislation will not be known with certainty until these rulemakings are complete. The Dodd-Frank Act also mandates the preparation of studies on a wide range of issues, which could lead to additional legislation or regulatory changes.
 
Recently initiated rulemakings that may have an impact on Freddie Mac include the following:
 
  •  The Financial Stability Oversight Council has published a notice of proposed rulemaking inviting public comment on the criteria that will inform the Council’s designation of nonbank financial companies as subject to enhanced supervision and prudential standards pursuant to the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as the Council’s processes and procedures for such designation. If Freddie Mac is so designated, it would be subject to Federal Reserve supervision and to prudential standards that may include risk-based capital and leverage requirements, liquidity requirements, resolution plan and credit exposure reporting requirements, concentration limits, contingent capital requirements, enhanced public disclosures, short-term debt limits, and overall risk management requirements, as well as other requirements and restrictions.
 
  •  The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, or CFTC, and the SEC recently published a proposed rule regarding certain definitions in the Dodd-Frank Act, including the definitions of “swap dealer” and “major swap participant.” If Freddie Mac is deemed to be a major swap participant, FHFA, in consultation with the CFTC and the SEC, will be required to establish new rules with respect to our activities as a major swap participant regarding capital requirements, and margin requirements for certain derivatives transactions. In addition, Freddie Mac would be required to register with the CFTC and to comply with certain business conduct standards and reporting requirements. Even if we are not deemed a major swap participant, we could become subject to new rules related to clearing, trading, and reporting requirements for derivatives transactions.
 
We continue to review and assess the impact of these proposals. For more information, see “RISK FACTORS — Legal and Regulatory Risks — The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulation may adversely affect our business activities and financial results.”
 
SEC Regulation on Disclosure for Asset-Backed Securities
 
On January 20, 2011, the SEC adopted a rule requiring issuers of asset-backed securities to disclose specified information concerning fulfilled and unfulfilled repurchase requests relating to the assets backing such securities, including certain historical information. This disclosure will first be required to be reported by February 14, 2012 (containing
 
            35 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

information covering the three year period ended December 31, 2011), with subsequent filings due each quarter thereafter. While we are assessing the rule’s impact on us, we currently believe compliance with the disclosure requirements will likely present significant operational challenges for us.
 
Conforming Loan Limits
 
On September 30, 2010, Congress temporarily extended the current higher loan limits in certain high-cost areas through September 30, 2011. The higher loan limits in certain high-cost areas were set to expire on December 31, 2010. Actual conforming loan limits are established by FHFA for each county (or equivalent) and the loan limits for specific high-cost areas may be lower than the maximum amounts. For a further discussion of conforming loan limits, see “Our Business.”
 
Energy Loan Tax Assessment Programs
 
A number of states have enacted laws allowing localities to create energy loan assessment programs for the purpose of financing energy efficient home improvements. These programs are typically denominated as Property Assessed Clean Energy, or PACE, programs. While the specific terms may vary, these laws generally treat the new energy assessments like property tax assessments, which generally create a new lien to secure the assessment that is senior to any existing first mortgage lien. These laws could have a negative impact on Freddie Mac’s credit losses, to the extent a large number of borrowers obtain this type of financing.
 
On July 6, 2010, FHFA announced that it had determined that certain of these programs present significant safety and soundness concerns that must be addressed by the GSEs. FHFA directed Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to waive the uniform mortgage document prohibitions against senior liens for any homeowner who obtained a PACE or PACE-like loan with a first priority lien before July 6, 2010 and, in addressing PACE programs with first liens, to undertake actions that protect their safe and sound operation.
 
On August 31, 2010, we released a new directive to our seller/servicers in which we reinforced our long-standing requirement that mortgages sold to us must be and remain in the first-lien position, while also providing guidance on our requirements for refinancing loans that were originated with PACE obligations before July 6, 2010.
 
We are subject to lawsuits relating to PACE programs. See “NOTE 21: LEGAL CONTINGENCIES” for additional information. Legislation has been introduced in the Senate and the House of Representatives that would require Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to adopt standards that support PACE programs.
 
For more information regarding legislative and regulatory developments that could impact our business, see “RISK FACTORS — Legal and Regulatory Risks.”
 
Employees
 
At February 11, 2011, we had 5,231 full-time and 78 part-time employees. Our principal offices are located in McLean, Virginia.
 
Available Information
 
SEC Reports
 
We file reports and other information with the SEC. In view of the Conservator’s succession to all of the voting power of our stockholders, we do not expect to prepare or provide proxy statements for the solicitation of proxies from stockholders during the conservatorship. We make available free of charge through our website at www.freddiemac.com our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all other SEC reports and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, materials that we filed with the SEC are available for review and copying free of charge at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an internet site (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding companies that file electronically with the SEC.
 
We are providing our website addresses and the website address of the SEC here or elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K solely for your information. Information appearing on our website or on the SEC’s website is not incorporated into this annual report on Form 10-K.
 
Information about Certain Securities Issuances by Freddie Mac
 
Pursuant to SEC regulations, public companies are required to disclose certain information when they incur a material direct financial obligation or become directly or contingently liable for a material obligation under an off-balance sheet arrangement. The disclosure must be made in a current report on Form 8-K under Item 2.03 or, if the obligation is incurred in connection with certain types of securities offerings, in prospectuses for that offering that are filed with the SEC.
 
            36 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Freddie Mac’s securities offerings are exempted from SEC registration requirements. As a result, we are not required to and do not file registration statements or prospectuses with the SEC with respect to our securities offerings. To comply with the disclosure requirements of Form 8-K relating to the incurrence of material financial obligations, we report our incurrence of these types of obligations either in offering circulars (or supplements thereto) that we post on our website or in a current report on Form 8-K, in accordance with a “no-action” letter we received from the SEC staff. In cases where the information is disclosed in an offering circular posted on our website, the document will be posted on our website within the same time period that a prospectus for a non-exempt securities offering would be required to be filed with the SEC.
 
The website address for disclosure about our debt securities is www.freddiemac.com/debt. From this address, investors can access the offering circular and related supplements for debt securities offerings under Freddie Mac’s global debt facility, including pricing supplements for individual issuances of debt securities.
 
Disclosure about our off-balance sheet obligations pursuant to some of the mortgage-related securities we issue can be found at www.freddiemac.com/mbs. From this address, investors can access information and documents about our mortgage-related securities, including offering circulars and related offering circular supplements.
 
Forward-Looking Statements
 
We regularly communicate information concerning our business activities to investors, the news media, securities analysts and others as part of our normal operations. Some of these communications, including this Form 10-K, contain “forward-looking statements,” including statements pertaining to the conservatorship, our current expectations and objectives for our efforts under the MHA Program and other programs to assist the U.S. residential mortgage market, future business plans, liquidity, capital management, economic and market conditions and trends, market share, the effect of legislative and regulatory developments, implementation of new accounting standards, credit losses, internal control remediation efforts, and results of operations and financial condition on a GAAP, Segment Earnings, and fair value basis. Forward-looking statements are often accompanied by, and identified with, terms such as “objective,” “expect,” “trend,” “forecast,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “intend,” “could,” “future,” and similar phrases. These statements are not historical facts, but rather represent our expectations based on current information, plans, judgments, assumptions, estimates, and projections. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. Actual results may differ significantly from those described in or implied by such forward-looking statements due to various factors and uncertainties, including those described in the “RISK FACTORS” section of this Form 10-K and:
 
  •  the actions FHFA, Treasury, the Federal Reserve, the Obama Administration, Congress, and our management may take;
 
  •  the impact of the restrictions and other terms of the conservatorship, the Purchase Agreement, the senior preferred stock, and the warrant on our business, including our ability to pay the dividend on the senior preferred stock;
 
  •  our ability to maintain adequate liquidity to fund our operations, including following changes in any support provided to us by Treasury or FHFA;
 
  •  changes in our charter or applicable legislative or regulatory requirements, including any restructuring or reorganization in the form of our company, including whether we will remain a stockholder-owned company or continue to exist and whether we will be wound down or placed under receivership, regulations under the GSE Act, the Reform Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, changes to affordable housing goals regulation, reinstatement of regulatory capital requirements, or the exercise or assertion of additional regulatory or administrative authority;
 
  •  changes in the regulation of the mortgage and financial services industries, including changes caused by the Dodd-Frank Act, or any other legislative, regulatory, or judicial action at the federal or state level;
 
  •  the extent to which borrowers participate in the MHA Program and other initiatives designed to help in the housing recovery and the impact of such programs on our credit losses, expenses, and the size and composition of our mortgage-related investments portfolio;
 
  •  the impact of any deficiencies in foreclosure documentation practices and related delays in the foreclosure process;
 
  •  the ability of our financial, accounting, data processing, and other operating systems or infrastructure, and those of our vendors to process the complexity and volume of our transactions;
 
  •  changes in accounting or tax standards or in our accounting policies or estimates, and our ability to effectively implement any such changes in standards, policies, or estimates;
 
  •  changes in general regional, national, or international economic, business, or market conditions and competitive pressures, including changes in employment rates and interest rates, and changes in the federal government’s fiscal and monetary policy;
 
  •  changes in the U.S. residential mortgage market, including changes in the rate of growth in total outstanding U.S. residential mortgage debt, the size of the U.S. residential mortgage market, and home prices;
 
            37 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

 
  •  our ability to effectively implement our business strategies, including our efforts to improve the supply and liquidity of, and demand for, our products;
 
  •  our ability to recruit and retain executive officers and other key employees;
 
  •  our ability to effectively identify and manage credit, interest-rate, operational, and other risks in our business, including changes to the credit environment and the levels and volatilities of interest rates, as well as the shape and slope of the yield curves;
 
  •  the effects of internal control deficiencies and our ability to effectively identify, assess, evaluate, manage, mitigate, or remediate control deficiencies and risks, including material weaknesses and significant deficiencies, in our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures;
 
  •  incomplete or inaccurate information provided by customers and counterparties;
 
  •  consolidation among, or adverse changes in the financial condition of, our customers and counterparties;
 
  •  the failure of our customers and counterparties to fulfill their obligations to us, including the failure of seller/servicers to meet their obligations to repurchase loans sold to us in breach of their representations and warranties;
 
  •  changes in our judgments, assumptions, forecasts, or estimates regarding the volume of our business and spreads we expect to earn;
 
  •  the availability of options, interest-rate and currency swaps, and other derivative financial instruments of the types and quantities, on acceptable terms, and with acceptable counterparties needed for investment funding and risk management purposes;
 
  •  changes in pricing, valuation or other methodologies, models, assumptions, judgments, estimates and/or other measurement techniques, or their respective reliability;
 
  •  changes in mortgage-to-debt OAS;
 
  •  the potential impact on the market for our securities resulting from any future sales by the Federal Reserve or Treasury of Freddie Mac debt and mortgage-related securities they have purchased;
 
  •  adverse judgments or settlements in connection with legal proceedings, governmental investigations, and IRS examinations;
 
  •  volatility of reported results due to changes in the fair value of certain instruments or assets;
 
  •  the development of different types of mortgage servicing structures and servicing compensation;
 
  •  preferences of originators in selling into the secondary mortgage market;
 
  •  changes to our underwriting requirements or investment standards for mortgage-related products;
 
  •  investor preferences for mortgage loans and mortgage-related and debt securities compared to other investments;
 
  •  borrower preferences for fixed-rate mortgages or adjustable-rate mortgages;
 
  •  the occurrence of a major natural or other disaster in geographic areas in which our offices or portions of our total mortgage portfolio are concentrated;
 
  •  other factors and assumptions described in this Form 10-K, including in the “MD&A” section;
 
  •  our assumptions and estimates regarding the foregoing and our ability to anticipate the foregoing factors and their impacts; and
 
  •  market reactions to the foregoing.
 
We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements we make to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Form 10-K.
 
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
 
Before you invest in our securities, you should know that making such an investment involves risks, including the risks described below and in “BUSINESS,” “MD&A,” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. These risks and uncertainties could, directly or indirectly, adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, strategies and/or prospects.
 
Conservatorship and Related Matters
 
The future status and role of Freddie Mac could be materially adversely affected by legislative and regulatory action that alters the ownership, structure and mission of the company.
 
Future legislation will likely materially affect the role of the company, our business model, our structure and future results of operations. Some or all of our functions could be transferred to other institutions, and we could cease to exist as a stockholder-owned company or at all. If any of these events were to occur, our shares could further diminish in value, or
 
            38 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

cease to have any value, and there can be no assurance that our stockholders would receive any compensation for such loss in value.
 
On February 11, 2011, the Obama Administration delivered a report to Congress that lays out the Administration’s plan to reform the U.S. housing finance market, including options for structuring the government’s long-term role in a housing finance system in which the private sector is the dominant provider of mortgage credit. The report recommends winding down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, stating that the Obama Administration will work with FHFA to determine the best way to responsibly reduce the role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae in the market and ultimately wind down both institutions. The report identifies a number of policy levers that could be used to wind down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, shrink the government’s footprint in housing finance, and help bring private capital back to the mortgage market, including increasing guarantee fees, phasing in a 10% down payment requirement, reducing conforming loan limits, and winding down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae’s investment portfolios, consistent with the senior preferred stock purchase agreements. For more information, see “BUSINESS — Executive Summary — Long-Term Financial Sustainability and Future Status.
 
In addition to legislative actions, FHFA has expansive regulatory authority over us, and the manner in which FHFA will use its authority in the future is unclear. FHFA could take a number of regulatory actions that could materially adversely affect our company, such as changing or reinstating our current capital requirements, which are not binding during conservatorship.
 
The conservatorship is indefinite in duration and the timing, conditions and likelihood of our emerging from conservatorship are uncertain. Even if the conservatorship is terminated, we would remain subject to the Purchase Agreement, senior preferred stock and warrant.
 
FHFA has stated that there is no exact time frame as to when the conservatorship may end. Termination of the conservatorship (other than in connection with receivership) also requires Treasury’s consent under the Purchase Agreement. There can be no assurance as to when, and under what circumstances, Treasury would give such consent. There is also significant uncertainty as to what changes may occur to our business structure during or following our conservatorship, including whether we will continue to exist. It is possible that the conservatorship will end with us being placed into receivership.
 
As discussed above, on February 11, 2011, the Obama Administration delivered a report to Congress that lays out the Administration’s plan to reform the U.S. housing finance market. The report recommends winding down Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. For more information, see “BUSINESS — Executive Summary — Long-Term Financial Sustainability and Future Status.
 
In addition, Treasury has the ability to acquire almost 80% of our common stock for nominal consideration by exercising the warrant we issued to it pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. Consequently, the company could effectively remain under the control of the U.S. government even if the conservatorship was ended and the voting rights of common stockholders restored. The warrant held by Treasury, the restrictions on our business contained in the Purchase Agreement and the senior status of the senior preferred stock issued to Treasury under the Purchase Agreement, if the senior preferred stock has not been redeemed, also could adversely affect our ability to attract new private sector capital in the future should the company be in a position to seek such capital. Moreover, our draws under Treasury’s funding commitment, the senior preferred dividend obligation, and commitment fees paid to Treasury could permanently impair our ability to build independent sources of capital.
 
We expect to make additional draws under the Purchase Agreement in future periods, which will adversely affect our future results of operations and financial condition.
 
It is unlikely that we will generate net income or comprehensive income in excess of our annual dividends payable to Treasury over the long-term, which will lead us to require additional draws under the Purchase Agreement. A variety of factors could lead us to make additional draws under the Purchase Agreement in the future, including:
 
  •  dividend obligations on the senior preferred stock, which are cumulative and accrue at an annual rate of 10% (or 12% in any quarter in which dividends are not paid in cash) until all accrued dividends are paid in cash and which at their current level exceed our annual historical earnings in all but one period;
 
  •  future losses, driven by ongoing weak economic conditions, which could cause, among other things, continued high provision for credit losses, increased REO operations expense and additional unrealized losses on the non-agency mortgage-related securities we hold;
 
  •  required reductions in the size of our mortgage-related investments portfolio and other limitations on our investment activities that reduce the earnings capacity of our investment activities;
 
            39 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

  •  pursuit of public mission-oriented objectives that could produce suboptimal financial returns, such as our efforts under the MHA Program, the continued use or expansion of foreclosure suspensions, and other foreclosure prevention efforts, including any future requirements to reduce the principal amount of loans;
 
  •  adverse changes in interest rates, the yield curve, implied volatility or mortgage-to-debt OAS, which could reduce net interest income and increase realized and unrealized mark-to-fair-value losses recorded in earnings or AOCI;
 
  •  limitations in our access to the public debt markets, or increases in our debt funding costs;
 
  •  establishment of a valuation allowance for our remaining deferred tax asset;
 
  •  limitations on our ability to develop new products;
 
  •  changes in business practices and requirements resulting from legislative or regulatory developments;
 
  •  changes in accounting practices or standards; and
 
  •  the quarterly commitment fee we must pay to Treasury under the Purchase Agreement (Treasury has waived the fee for the first quarter of 2011). The amount of the fee has not yet been established and could be substantial. Treasury has indicated that it remains committed to protecting taxpayers and ensuring that our future positive earnings are returned to taxpayers as compensation for their investment.
 
Under the Purchase Agreement, the $200 billion cap on Treasury’s funding commitment will increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in our net worth during 2010, 2011 and 2012. Although additional draws under the Purchase Agreement will allow us to remain solvent and avoid mandatory receivership, they will also increase the liquidation preference of, and the dividends we owe on, the senior preferred stock. Based on the aggregate liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock of $64.2 billion as of December 31, 2010, Treasury is entitled to annual cash dividends of $6.42 billion, which exceeds our annual historical earnings in all but one period. Increases in the already substantial liquidation preference and senior preferred dividend obligation, along with limited flexibility to redeem the senior preferred stock, will adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and add to the significant uncertainty regarding our long-term financial sustainability.
 
Our business objectives and strategies have in some cases been significantly altered since we were placed into conservatorship, and may continue to change, in ways that negatively affect our future financial condition and results of operations.
 
FHFA, as Conservator, has directed the company to focus on managing to a positive stockholders’ equity. At the direction of the Conservator, we have made changes to certain business practices that are designed to provide support for the mortgage market in a manner that serves our public mission and other non-financial objectives but may not contribute to our goal of managing to a positive stockholders’ equity. Some of these changes have increased our expenses or caused us to forego revenue opportunities. For example, FHFA has directed that we implement various initiatives under the MHA Program. We expect to incur significant costs associated with the implementation of these initiatives and we cannot currently estimate whether, or the extent to which, costs incurred in the near term from these initiatives may be offset, if at all, by the prevention or reduction of potential future costs of serious delinquencies and foreclosures due to these initiatives. The Conservator and Treasury have also not authorized us to engage in certain business initiatives and transactions, including the purchase or sale of certain assets, which we believe may have had a beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition, if executed. Our inability to execute such initiatives and transactions may adversely affect our profitability. Other agencies of the U.S. government, as well as Congress, also have an interest in the conduct of our business. We do not know what actions they may request us to take.
 
In view of the conservatorship and the reasons stated by FHFA for its establishment, it is likely that our business model and strategic objectives will continue to change, possibly significantly, including in pursuit of our public mission and other non-financial objectives. Among other things, we could experience significant changes in the size, growth and characteristics of our guarantee and investment activities, and we could further change our operational objectives, including our pricing strategy in our core mortgage guarantee business. Accordingly, our strategic and operational focus may not always be consistent with the generation of net income. It is possible that we will make material changes to our capital strategy and to our accounting policies, methods, and estimates. It is also possible that the company could be restructured and its statutory mission revised. In addition, we may be directed to engage in initiatives that are operationally difficult or costly to implement.
 
In a letter to the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the Congressional Banking and Financial Services Committees dated February 2, 2010, the Acting Director of FHFA stated that minimizing our credit losses is our central goal and that we will be limited to continuing our existing core business activities and taking actions necessary to advance the goals of the conservatorship. The Acting Director stated that FHFA does not expect we will be a substantial buyer or seller of mortgages for our mortgage-related investments portfolio, except for purchases of delinquent mortgages out of PC pools. The Acting
 
            40 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Director also stated that permitting us to engage in new products is inconsistent with the goals of the conservatorship. These restrictions could also adversely affect our financial results in future periods.
 
As our Conservator, FHFA possesses all of the powers of our stockholders, officers and directors. During the conservatorship, the Conservator has delegated certain authority to the Board of Directors to oversee, and management to conduct, day-to-day operations so that the company can continue to operate in the ordinary course of business. FHFA has the ability to withdraw or revise its delegations of authority and override actions of our Board of Directors at any time. The directors serve on behalf of, and exercise authority as directed by, the Conservator. In addition, FHFA has the power to take actions without our knowledge that could be material to investors and could significantly affect our financial performance.
 
FHFA is also Conservator of Fannie Mae, our primary competitor, and FHFA’s actions as Conservator of both companies could affect competition between us and Fannie Mae. On a number of occasions, FHFA has directed us and Fannie Mae to confer and consider uniform approaches to particular issues and problems, and FHFA has in a few cases directed the two GSEs to adopt common approaches. For example, in January 2011, FHFA announced that it has directed Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to work on a joint initiative, in coordination with HUD, to consider alternatives for future mortgage servicing structures and servicing compensation, including the possibility of reducing or eliminating the minimum servicing fee for performing loans, or other structures. FHFA has also directed Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to discuss with FHFA and with each other, and wherever feasible to develop consistent requirements, policies and processes for, the servicing of non-performing mortgages, and to discuss joint standards for the evaluation of the servicing performance of servicers. We cannot predict the impact on our business of these actions or any similar actions FHFA may require us and Fannie Mae to take in the future. It is possible that FHFA could require us and Fannie Mae to take a common approach that, because of differences in our respective businesses, could place Freddie Mac at a competitive disadvantage to Fannie Mae.
 
These changes and other factors could have material adverse effects on, among other things, our portfolio growth, net worth, credit losses, net interest income, guarantee fee income, net deferred tax assets, and loan loss reserves, and could have a material adverse effect on our future results of operations and financial condition. In light of the significant uncertainty surrounding these changes, there can be no assurances regarding when, or if, we will return to profitability.
 
We are subject to significant limitations on our business under the Purchase Agreement that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
 
The Purchase Agreement includes significant restrictions on our ability to manage our business, including limitations on the amount of indebtedness we may incur, the size of our mortgage-related investments portfolio and the circumstances in which we may pay dividends, raise capital and pay down the liquidation preference on the senior preferred stock. In addition, the Purchase Agreement provides that we may not enter into any new compensation arrangements or increase amounts or benefits payable under existing compensation arrangements of any executive officers without the consent of the Director of FHFA, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury. In deciding whether or not to consent to any request for approval it receives from us under the Purchase Agreement, Treasury has the right to withhold its consent for any reason and is not required by the agreement to consider any particular factors, including whether or not management believes that the transaction would benefit the company. The limitations under the Purchase Agreement could have a material adverse effect on our future results of operations and financial condition.
 
Our regulator may, and in some cases must, place us into receivership, which would result in the liquidation of our assets and terminate all rights and claims that our stockholders and creditors may have against our assets or under our charter; if we are liquidated, there may not be sufficient funds to pay the secured and unsecured claims of the company, repay the liquidation preference of any series of our preferred stock or make any distribution to the holders of our common stock.
 
Under the GSE Act, FHFA must place us into receivership if FHFA determines in writing that our assets are less than our obligations for a period of 60 days. FHFA has notified us that the measurement period for any mandatory receivership determination with respect to our assets and obligations would commence no earlier than the SEC public filing deadline for our quarterly or annual financial statements and would continue for 60 calendar days after that date. FHFA has also advised us that, if, during that 60-day period, we receive funds from Treasury in an amount at least equal to the deficiency amount under the Purchase Agreement, the Director of FHFA will not make a mandatory receivership determination.
 
In addition, we could be put into receivership at the discretion of the Director of FHFA at any time for other reasons, including conditions that FHFA has already asserted existed at the time the then Director of FHFA placed us into conservatorship. These include: a substantial dissipation of assets or earnings due to unsafe or unsound practices; the existence of an unsafe or unsound condition to transact business; an inability to meet our obligations in the ordinary course of business; a weakening of our condition due to unsafe or unsound practices or conditions; critical undercapitalization; the likelihood of losses that will deplete substantially all of our capital; or by consent. A receivership would terminate the conservatorship. The appointment of FHFA (or any other entity) as our receiver would terminate all rights and claims that our stockholders and creditors may have against our assets or under our charter arising as a result of their status as
 
            41 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

stockholders or creditors, other than the potential ability to be paid upon our liquidation. Unlike a conservatorship, the purpose of which is to conserve our assets and return us to a sound and solvent condition, the purpose of a receivership is to liquidate our assets and resolve claims against us.
 
In the event of a liquidation of our assets, there can be no assurance that there would be sufficient proceeds to pay the secured and unsecured claims of the company, repay the liquidation preference of any series of our preferred stock or make any distribution to the holders of our common stock. To the extent that we are placed in receivership and do not or cannot fulfill our guarantee to the holders of our mortgage-related securities, such holders could become unsecured creditors of ours with respect to claims made under our guarantee. Only after paying the secured and unsecured claims of the company, the administrative expenses of the receiver and the liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock, which ranks senior to our common stock and all other series of preferred stock upon liquidation, would any liquidation proceeds be available to repay the liquidation preference on any other series of preferred stock. Finally, only after the liquidation preference on all series of preferred stock is repaid would any liquidation proceeds be available for distribution to the holders of our common stock. The aggregate liquidation preference on the senior preferred stock owned by Treasury was $64.2 billion as of December 31, 2010. The liquidation preference will increase further if we make additional draws under the Purchase Agreement, if we do not pay dividends owed on the senior preferred stock in cash or if we do not pay the quarterly commitment fee to Treasury under the Purchase Agreement.
 
We have a variety of different, and potentially competing, objectives that may adversely affect our financial results and our ability to maintain positive net worth.
 
Based on our charter, public statements from Treasury and FHFA officials and guidance from our Conservator, we have a variety of different, and potentially competing, objectives. These objectives include providing liquidity, stability and affordability in the mortgage market; continuing to provide additional assistance to the struggling housing and mortgage markets; reducing the need to draw funds from Treasury pursuant to the Purchase Agreement; returning to long-term profitability; and protecting the interests of the taxpayers. These objectives create conflicts in strategic and day-to-day decision making that will likely lead to suboptimal outcomes for one or more, or possibly all, of these objectives. Current portfolio investment and mortgage guarantee activities, liquidity support, and loan modification and foreclosure forbearance initiatives, including our efforts under the MHA Program, are intended to provide support for the mortgage market in a manner that serves our public mission and other non-financial objectives under conservatorship, but may negatively impact our financial results and net worth.
 
We have experienced significant management changes and internal reorganizations which could increase our control risks and have a material adverse effect on our ability to do business and our results of operations.
 
Since September 2008, we have had numerous changes in our senior management and governance structure, including FHFA becoming our Conservator, a reconstituted Board of Directors, three changes in our Chief Executive Officer, three changes in our Chief Financial Officer and a new Chief Operating Officer (who resigned in February 2011). We have recently experienced several significant internal reorganizations. The magnitude of these changes and the short time interval in which they have occurred, particularly during the ongoing housing and economic crisis, add to the risks of control failures, including a failure in the effective operation of our internal control over financial reporting or our disclosure controls and procedures. Control failures could result in material adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
This turnover of key management positions could further harm our financial performance and results of operations. Management attention may be diverted from regular business concerns by these and future reorganizations and the need to operate under the framework of conservatorship.
 
The conservatorship and uncertainty concerning our future may have an adverse effect on the retention and recruitment of management and other valuable employees.
 
Our ability to recruit, retain, and engage management and other valuable employees with the necessary skills to conduct our business may be adversely affected by the conservatorship, the uncertainty regarding its duration, the potential for future legislative or regulatory actions that could significantly affect our existence and our role in the secondary mortgage market, and the negative publicity concerning the GSEs. The actions taken by Treasury and the Conservator to date, or that may be taken by them or other government agencies in the future, may have an adverse effect on the retention and recruitment of senior executives, management, and other valuable employees. For example, we are subject to restrictions on the amount and type of compensation we may pay our executives under conservatorship. The Conservator has also directed us to maintain individual salaries and wage rates for all employees at 2010 levels for 2011 (except in the case of promotions or significant changes in responsibilities). In addition, statutory and regulatory requirements restricting executive compensation at institutions that have received federal financial assistance, even if not expressly applicable to us, may be interpreted by FHFA or Treasury as limiting the compensation that we are able to provide to our executive officers and other employees. Although we have established compensation programs designed to help retain key employees, we are not currently in a
 
            42 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

position to offer employees financial incentives that are equity-based and, as a result of this and other factors relating to the conservatorship that may affect our attractiveness as an employer, we may be at a competitive disadvantage compared to other potential employers. Uncertainty about the future of the GSEs affects all of our operations and heightens the risks related to retention of management and other valuable employees. A recovering economy is likely to put additional pressures on turnover in 2011, as other attractive opportunities may become available to people we want to retain. Accordingly, we may not be able to retain or replace executives or other employees with key skills, and may lose institutional knowledge, that could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business effectively. We may also face increased operational risk if key employees leave the company.
 
The conservatorship and investment by Treasury has had, and will continue to have, a material adverse effect on our common and preferred stockholders.
 
Prior to our entry into conservatorship, the market price for our common stock declined substantially. After our entry into conservatorship, the market price of our common stock continued to decline (to less than $1 per share for an extended period immediately following our entry into conservatorship, and again following the delisting of our common stock from the NYSE at the direction of FHFA). As a result, the investments of our common and preferred stockholders lost substantial value, which they may never recover. There is significant uncertainty as to what changes may occur to our business structure during or following our conservatorship, including whether we will continue to exist. Therefore, it is likely that our shares could further diminish in value, or cease to have any value.
 
The conservatorship and investment by Treasury has had, and will continue to have, other material adverse effects on our common and preferred stockholders, including the following:
 
  •  No voting rights during conservatorship.  The rights and powers of our stockholders are suspended during the conservatorship and our common stockholders do not have the ability to elect directors or to vote on other matters.
 
  •  No longer managed to maximize stockholder returns.  Because we are in conservatorship, we are no longer managed with a strategy to maximize stockholder returns. In a letter to the Chairmen and Ranking Members of the Congressional Banking and Financial Services Committees dated February 2, 2010, the Acting Director of FHFA stated that the focus of the conservatorship is on conserving assets, minimizing corporate losses, ensuring Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae continue to serve their mission, overseeing remediation of identified weaknesses in corporate operations and risk management, and ensuring that sound corporate governance principles are followed.
 
  •  Priority of Senior Preferred Stock.  The senior preferred stock ranks senior to the common stock and all other series of preferred stock as to both dividends and distributions upon dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the company.
 
  •  Dividends have been eliminated.  The Conservator has eliminated dividends on Freddie Mac common and preferred stock (other than dividends on the senior preferred stock) during the conservatorship. In addition, under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, dividends may not be paid to common or preferred stockholders (other than on the senior preferred stock) without the consent of Treasury, regardless of whether or not we are in conservatorship.
 
  •  Warrant may substantially dilute investment of current stockholders.  If Treasury exercises its warrant to purchase shares of our common stock equal to 79.9% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis, the ownership interest in the company of our then existing common stockholders will be substantially diluted. It is possible that stockholders, other than Treasury, will not own more than 20.1% of our total common stock for the duration of our existence. Under our charter, bylaws and applicable law, 20.1% is insufficient to control the outcome of any vote that is presented to the common stockholders. Accordingly, existing common stockholders have no assurance that, as a group, they will be able to control the election of our directors or the outcome of any other vote after the time, if any, that the conservatorship ends.
 
Competitive and Market Risks
 
Our investment activity is significantly limited under the Purchase Agreement and by FHFA, which will likely reduce our earnings from investment activities and result in greater reliance on our guarantee activities to generate revenue.
 
We are subject to significant limitations on our investment activity, which will adversely affect the earnings capacity of our mortgage-related investments portfolio. These limitations include: (a) a requirement to reduce the size of our mortgage-related investments portfolio; and (b) significant constraints on our ability to purchase or sell mortgage assets.
 
Under the terms of the Purchase Agreement and FHFA regulation, our mortgage-related investments portfolio is subject to a cap that decreases by 10% each year until the portfolio reaches $250 billion. As a result, the UPB of our mortgage-related investments portfolio could not exceed $810 billion as of December 31, 2010 and may not exceed $729 billion as of December 31, 2011. Treasury has stated it does not expect us to be an active buyer to increase the size of our mortgage-related investments portfolio, but also does not expect that active selling will be necessary to meet the required portfolio reduction targets. In addition, FHFA has stated that, given the size of our current mortgage-related investments portfolio and
 
            43 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

the potential volume of delinquent mortgages to be purchased out of PC pools, it expects that any net additions to our mortgage-related investments portfolio would be related to that activity. Therefore, our ability to take advantage of opportunities to purchase or sell mortgage assets at attractive prices has been, and likely will continue to be, limited. In addition, notwithstanding the expectations expressed by Treasury and FHFA regarding future selling activity, we can provide no assurance that the cap on our mortgage-related investments portfolio will not, over time, force us to sell mortgage assets at unattractive prices, particularly given the potential in coming periods for continued high volumes of loan modifications and purchases of seriously delinquent loans, both of which result in the purchase of mortgage loans from our PCs for our mortgage-related investments portfolio.
 
These limitations will reduce the earnings capacity of our mortgage-related investments portfolio business and require us to place greater emphasis on our guarantee activities to generate revenue. However, under conservatorship, our ability to generate revenue through guarantee activities may be limited, as we may be required to adopt business practices that provide support for the mortgage market in a manner that serves our public mission and other non-financial objectives, but that may negatively impact our future financial results. The combination of the restrictions on our business activities under the Purchase Agreement and FHFA regulation, combined with our potential inability to generate sufficient revenue through our guarantee activities to offset the effects of those restrictions, may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. There can be no assurance that the current profitability levels on our new single-family business would be sufficient to attract new private sector capital in the future, should the company be in a position to seek such capital.
 
We are subject to mortgage credit risks, including mortgage credit risk relating to off-balance sheet arrangements; increased credit costs related to these risks could adversely affect our financial condition and/or results of operations.
 
Mortgage credit risk is the risk that a borrower will fail to make timely payments on a mortgage we own or guarantee, exposing us to the risk of credit losses and credit-related expenses. We are primarily exposed to mortgage credit risk with respect to the single-family and multifamily loans that we hold on our consolidated balance sheets. We are also exposed to mortgage credit risk with respect to securities and guarantee arrangements that are not reflected as assets on our consolidated balance sheets. These relate primarily to: (a) Freddie Mac mortgage-related securities backed by multifamily loans; (b) certain single-family Other Guarantee Transactions; and (c) other guarantee commitments, including long-term standby commitments.
 
Factors that affect the level of our mortgage credit risk include the credit profile of the borrower, home prices, the features of the mortgage loan, the type of property securing the mortgage, and local and regional economic conditions, including unemployment rates. We continue to face significant mortgage credit risk, and our credit losses will likely increase in the near term and remain significantly above historical levels for the foreseeable future due to the substantial number of mortgage loans in our single-family credit guarantee portfolio on which borrowers owe more than their home is currently worth, as well as the substantial backlog of seriously delinquent loans.
 
While mortgage interest rates remained low in 2010, many borrowers may not have been able to refinance into lower interest mortgages due to substantial declines in home values, market uncertainty and continued high unemployment rates. Therefore, there can be no assurance that continued low mortgage interest rates or efforts to modify and refinance mortgages pursuant to the MHA Program will reduce our overall mortgage credit risk.
 
We also continue to have significant amounts of mortgage loans in our single-family credit guarantee portfolio with certain characteristics, such as Alt-A, interest-only, option ARMs, loans with original LTV ratios greater than 90%, and loans where borrowers had FICO scores less than 620 at the time of origination, that expose us to greater credit risk than do other types of mortgage loans. See “Table 44 — Certain Higher — Risk Categories in the Single-Family Credit Guarantee Portfolio” for more information.
 
Beginning in 2008, the conforming loan limits were significantly increased for mortgages originated in certain “high cost” areas (the initial increases applied to loans originated after July 1, 2007). Due to our relative lack of experience with these larger loans, purchases pursuant to the high cost conforming loan limits may also expose us to greater credit risks.
 
We also face the risk that multifamily borrowers will default if they are unable to refinance their loans at an affordable rate. This risk is particularly important with respect to multifamily loans because such loans generally have a balloon payment and typically have a shorter contractual term than single-family mortgages. Borrowers may be less able to refinance their obligations during periods of rising interest rates, which could lead to default if the borrower is unable to find affordable refinancing. This risk is significant given the state of the economy, lower levels of liquidity, property cash flows, and property market values. Of the $108.7 billion in UPB of loans in our multifamily mortgage portfolio as of December 31, 2010, approximately 2% and 4% will reach their maturity during 2011 and 2012, respectively.
 
            44 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

We are exposed to significant credit risk related to the subprime, Alt-A and option ARM loans that back the non-agency mortgage-related securities we hold.
 
Our investments in non-agency mortgage-related securities have included securities that are backed by subprime, Alt-A and option ARM loans. Since 2007, mortgage loan delinquencies and credit losses in the U.S. mortgage market have substantially increased, particularly in the subprime, Alt-A and option ARM sectors of the residential mortgage market. In addition, home prices declined significantly, after extended periods during which home prices appreciated. As a result, the fair value of these investments has declined significantly since 2007 and we have incurred substantial losses through other-than-temporary impairments. In addition, many of these investments do not trade in a liquid secondary market and the size of our holdings relative to normal market activity is such that, if we were to attempt to sell a significant quantity of these securities, the pricing in such markets could be significantly disrupted and the price we ultimately realize may be materially lower than the value at which we carry these investments on our consolidated balance sheets.
 
We could experience additional GAAP losses due to other-than-temporary impairments on our investments in these non-agency mortgage-related securities if, among other things: (a) interest rates change; (b) delinquency and loss rates on subprime, Alt-A and option ARM loans increase; or (c) there is a further decline in actual or forecasted home prices. In addition, the fair value of these investments may decline further due to additional ratings downgrades or market events. Any credit enhancements covering these securities, including subordination, may not prevent us from incurring losses. During 2010, we continued to experience the depletion of credit enhancements on selected securities backed by subprime first lien, option ARM and Alt-A loans due to poor performance in the underlying collateral. See “MD&A — CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS ANALYSIS — Investments in Securities” for information about the credit ratings for these securities and the extent to which these securities have been downgraded.
 
Certain strategies to mitigate our losses as an investor in non-agency mortgage-related securities may adversely affect our relationships with some of our largest seller/servicers.
 
On July 12, 2010, FHFA, as Conservator of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, announced that it had issued subpoenas to various entities seeking loan files and other transaction documents related to non-agency mortgage-related securities in which the two enterprises invested. FHFA stated that the documents will enable it to determine whether issuers of these securities and others are liable to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae for certain losses they have suffered on the securities. We are assisting FHFA in this effort.
 
We also have joined an investor group that has delivered a notice of non-performance to Bank of New York Mellon, as Trustee, and Countrywide Home Loans Servicing LP (now known as BAC Home Loans Servicing, LP). The notice related to the possibility that certain mortgage pools backing certain mortgage-related securities issued by Countrywide Financial and related entities include mortgages that may have been ineligible for inclusion in the pools due to breaches of representations or warranties.
 
These and other loss mitigation efforts may lead to disputes with some of our largest seller/servicers and counterparties that may result in litigation. The effectiveness of these loss mitigation efforts is highly uncertain and any potential recoveries may take significant time to realize.
 
The credit losses we experience in future periods as a result of the housing and economic crisis are likely to be larger, perhaps substantially larger, than our current loan loss reserves.
 
Our loan loss reserves, as reflected on our consolidated balance sheets, do not reflect our estimate of the total of all future credit losses inherent in our single-family and multifamily mortgage loans, including those underlying our financial guarantees. Rather, pursuant to GAAP, our reserves only reflect probable losses we believe we have already incurred as of the balance sheet date. Accordingly, although we believe that our credit losses may exceed the amounts we have already reserved for loans currently identified as impaired, and that additional credit losses will be incurred in the future due to the housing and economic crisis, we are not permitted under GAAP to reflect the potential impact of these future trends in our loan loss reserves. As a result of the depth and extent of the housing and economic crisis, there is significant uncertainty regarding the full extent of future credit losses. Therefore, such credit losses are likely to be larger, perhaps substantially larger, than our current loan loss reserves. These additional credit losses we incur in future periods will adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and net worth.
 
Further declines in U.S. home prices or other adverse changes in the U.S. housing market could negatively impact our business and increase our losses.
 
Throughout 2010, the U.S. housing market continued to experience adverse trends, including continued price depreciation, and continued high serious delinquency and default rates. Home sales declined significantly following the expiration of the federal homebuyer tax credit program in April 2010, which increased the supply of unsold homes and placed further downward pressure on home prices. These conditions, coupled with high continued unemployment, led to
 
            45 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

increases in credit losses and continued high loan delinquencies and provisioning for loan losses, all of which have adversely affected our financial condition and results of operations. We expect that national home prices in 2011 will likely be lower than in 2010, which could result in a continued high rate of serious delinquencies or defaults and a level of credit-related losses higher than our expectations when our guarantees were issued. It is possible that home price declines could be significantly greater than we anticipate, or that a sustained recovery in home prices would not begin until much later than we anticipate, which could result in higher losses due to other-than-temporary impairments on our investments in non-agency mortgage-related securities than would otherwise be recognized in earnings. Government programs designed to strengthen the U.S. housing market, such as the MHA Program, may fail to achieve expected results, and new programs could be instituted that cause our credit losses to increase. For more information, see “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk.”
 
Our business volumes are closely tied to the rate of growth in total outstanding U.S. residential mortgage debt and the size of the U.S. residential mortgage market. Total residential mortgage debt declined approximately 2.3% in the first nine months of 2010 compared to a decline of 1.9% in 2009. If total outstanding U.S. residential mortgage debt were to continue to decline, there could be fewer mortgage loans available for us to purchase, and we could face more competition to purchase a smaller number of loans.
 
While major national multifamily market fundamentals (i.e., vacancy rates and effective rents) improved during 2010, there can be no assurance that this trend will continue. Additionally, certain local markets continue to exhibit weak fundamentals. We expect that our multifamily non-performing assets may increase due to the continuation of the challenging economic conditions particularly in certain geographical areas. Improvements in loan performance have historically lagged improvements in broader economic and market trends during market recoveries. As a result, we may continue to experience elevated credit losses related to multifamily activities in the first half of 2011, even if market conditions continue to improve. In addition, given the significant weakness currently being experienced in the U.S. economy, it is also possible that apartment fundamentals could deteriorate during 2011, which could cause delinquencies and credit losses relating to our multifamily activities to increase beyond our current expectations.
 
Our refinance volumes could decline if interest rates rise, which could cause our overall new issuance volumes to decline.
 
We continued to experience a high composition of refinance mortgages in our purchase volume during 2010, due to continued low interest rates and the impact of our relief refinance mortgages. Interest rates have been at historically low levels for an extended period of time, but have recently begun to increase. Overall originations of refinance mortgages, and our purchases of them, will likely decrease if interest rates continue to rise. Originations of refinance mortgages will also likely decline after the Home Affordable Refinance Program expires in June 2011. It is possible that our overall issuance volumes could decline if our volumes of purchase money mortgages do not increase to offset any such decrease in refinance mortgages. This could adversely affect the amount of revenue we receive from our guarantee activities.
 
We depend on our institutional counterparties to provide services that are critical to our business, and our results of operations or financial condition may be adversely affected if one or more of our institutional counterparties do not meet their obligations to us.
 
We face the risk that one or more of the institutional counterparties that has entered into a business contract or arrangement with us may fail to meet its obligations. We face similar risks with respect to contracts or arrangements we benefit from indirectly or that we enter into on behalf of our securitization trusts. Our primary exposures to institutional counterparty risk are with:
 
  •  mortgage seller/servicers;
 
  •  mortgage insurers;
 
  •  issuers, guarantors or third-party providers of other credit enhancements (including bond insurers);
 
  •  counterparties to short-term lending and other investment-related agreements and cash equivalent transactions, including such agreements and transactions we manage for our PC trusts;
 
  •  derivative counterparties;
 
  •  hazard and title insurers;
 
  •  mortgage investors and originators; and
 
  •  document custodians and funds custodians.
 
Many of our counterparties provide several types of services to us. In some cases, our business with institutional counterparties is concentrated. A significant failure by a major institutional counterparty could harm our business and financial results in a variety of ways and have a material adverse effect on our investments in mortgage loans, investments in securities, our derivative portfolio or our credit guarantee activities. See “NOTE 19: CONCENTRATION OF CREDIT AND OTHER RISKS” for additional information.
 
            46 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Some of our counterparties may become subject to serious liquidity problems affecting, either temporarily or permanently, their businesses, which may adversely affect their ability to meet their obligations to us. Challenging market conditions have adversely affected and are expected to continue to adversely affect the liquidity and financial condition of a number of our counterparties, including some seller/servicers, mortgage insurers and bond insurers. In the past few years, some of our largest seller/servicers have experienced ratings downgrades and liquidity constraints, and certain large lenders have failed. These challenging market conditions could also increase the likelihood that we will have disputes with our counterparties concerning their obligations to us, especially with respect to counterparties that have experienced financial strain and/or have large exposures to us. A default by a counterparty with significant obligations to us could adversely affect our ability to conduct our operations efficiently and at cost-effective rates, which in turn could adversely affect our results of operations or our financial condition. See “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Institutional Credit Risk” for additional information regarding our credit risks to our counterparties and how we seek to manage them.
 
Our financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected if mortgage seller/servicers fail to repurchase loans sold to us in breach of representations and warranties or fail to honor any related indemnification or any recourse obligations. We also face the risk that seller/servicers may fail to perform their obligations to service loans in our single-family and multifamily mortgage portfolios or that their servicing performance could decline.
 
We require seller/servicers to make certain representations and warranties regarding the loans they sell to us. If loans are sold to us in breach of those representations and warranties, we have the contractual right to require the seller/servicer to repurchase those loans from us. In lieu of repurchase, we may agree to allow a seller/servicer to indemnify us against losses on such mortgages or otherwise compensate us for the risk of continuing to hold the mortgages. Sometimes a seller/servicer sells us mortgages with recourse, meaning that the seller/servicer agrees to repurchase any mortgage that is delinquent for more than a specified period (usually 120 days), regardless of whether there has been a breach of representations and warranties.
 
Some of our seller/servicers have failed to fully perform their repurchase obligations due to lack of financial capacity, while others, including many of our larger seller/servicers, have not fully performed their repurchase obligations in a timely manner. As of December 31, 2010 and December 31, 2009, the UPB of loans subject to repurchase requests issued to our single-family seller/servicers was approximately $3.8 billion and $4.2 billion, respectively. Our contracts require that a seller/servicer repurchase a mortgage within 30 days after we issue a repurchase request, unless the seller/servicer avails itself of an appeal process provided for in our contracts, in which case the deadline for repurchase is extended until we decide the appeal. As of December 31, 2010, approximately 34% of these repurchase requests were outstanding more than four months since issuance of our repurchase request. The actual amount we collect on these requests and others we may make in the future could be significantly less than their UPB amounts because we expect many of these requests will be satisfied by reimbursement of our realized losses by seller/servicers, instead of repurchase of loans at their UPB, or may be rescinded in the course of the contractual appeals process. Based on our historical loss experience and the fact that many of these loans are covered by credit enhancement, we expect the actual credit losses experienced by us should we fail to collect on these repurchase requests would also be less than the UPB of the loans. We may also enter into agreements with seller/servicers to resolve claims for repurchases. The amounts we receive under any such agreements may be less than the losses we ultimately incur. Our credit losses may increase to the extent our seller/servicers do not fully perform their repurchase obligations. Enforcing repurchase obligations of seller/servicers who have the financial capacity to perform those obligations could also negatively impact our relationships with such customers and ability to retain market share.
 
We also have exposure to seller/servicers with respect to mortgage insurance. When a mortgage insurer rescinds coverage, the seller/servicer generally is in breach of representations and warranties made to us when we purchased the affected mortgage. Consequently, we may require the seller/servicer to repurchase the mortgage or to indemnify us for additional loss. The volume of rescissions of claims under mortgage insurance remains high.
 
If a servicer is unable to fulfill its repurchase or other responsibilities, we may seek to recover the amounts that such servicer owes us, such as by attempting to sell the applicable mortgage servicing rights to a different servicer and applying the proceeds to such owed amounts, or by contracting the servicing responsibilities to a different servicer and retaining the net servicing fee. The ongoing weakness in the housing market has negatively affected the market for mortgage servicing rights, which increases the risk that we may be unable to sell such rights or may not receive a sufficient price for them. Increased industry consolidation, bankruptcies of mortgage bankers or bank failures may also make it more difficult for us to sell such rights, because there may not be sufficient capacity in the market, particularly in the event of multiple failures. This option may be difficult to accomplish with respect to our larger seller/servicers, as it may be difficult to transfer a large servicing portfolio. The financial stress on servicers and increased costs of servicing may lead to strategic defaults (i.e., defaults done deliberately as a financial strategy, and not involuntarily) by servicers, which would also require us to seek a successor servicer.
 
            47 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Our seller/servicers have a significant role in servicing loans in our single-family credit guarantee portfolio, which includes an active role in our loss mitigation efforts. Therefore, a decline in their performance could impact the overall quality of our credit performance, which could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations and have significant impacts on our ability to mitigate credit losses. The risk of such a decline in performance remains high as servicers continue to face challenges in building capacity to process the large volumes of problem loans and as weak economic conditions continue to affect the liquidity and financial condition of many of our seller/servicers, including some of our largest seller/servicers. Any efforts we take to attempt to improve our servicers’ performance could adversely affect our relationships with such servicers, many of which also sell loans to us.
 
The inability to realize the anticipated benefits of our loss mitigation plans, a lower realized rate of seller/servicer repurchases or default rates and severity that exceed our current projections could cause our losses to be significantly higher than those currently estimated.
 
Our seller/servicers also have a significant role in servicing loans in our multifamily mortgage portfolio. We are exposed to the risk that multifamily seller/servicers could come under financial pressure due to the current stressful economic environment, which could potentially cause degradation in the quality of servicing they provide or, in certain cases, reduce the likelihood that we could recover losses through lender repurchases or through recourse agreements or other credit enhancements, where applicable.
 
See “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Institutional Credit Risk — Mortgage Seller/Servicers” for additional information on our institutional credit risk related to our mortgage seller/servicers.
 
Our financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected by the financial distress of our counterparties to derivatives, funding and other transactions.
 
We use derivatives for several purposes, including to rebalance our funding mix in order to more closely match changes in the interest rate characteristics of our mortgage-related assets and to hedge forecasted issuances of debt. The relative concentration of our derivative exposure among our primary derivative counterparties remains high. This concentration increased in the last several years due to industry consolidation and the failure of certain counterparties, and could further increase. One of our derivative counterparties accounted for greater than 10% of our net uncollateralized exposure, excluding commitments, at December 31, 2010. For a further discussion of our derivative counterparty exposure, see “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Institutional Credit Risk — Derivative Counterparties” and “NOTE 19: CONCENTRATION OF CREDIT AND OTHER RISKS.”
 
Some of our derivative and other capital markets counterparties have experienced various degrees of financial distress in the past few years, including liquidity constraints, credit downgrades and bankruptcy. Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by the financial distress of these derivative and other capital markets counterparties to the extent that they fail to meet their obligations to us. For example, we may incur losses if collateral held by us cannot be liquidated at prices that are sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us.
 
In addition, our ability to engage in routine derivatives, funding and other transactions could be adversely affected by the actions of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. As a result, defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, could lead to market-wide disruptions in which it may be difficult for us to find acceptable counterparties for such transactions.
 
We also use derivatives to synthetically create the substantive economic equivalent of various debt funding structures. Thus, if our access to the derivative markets were disrupted, it may become more difficult or expensive to fund our business activities and achieve the funding mix we desire, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
Our credit and other losses could increase if our mortgage or bond insurers become insolvent or fail to perform their obligations to us.
 
We are exposed to risk relating to the potential insolvency or non-performance of mortgage insurers that insure single-family mortgages we purchase or guarantee and bond insurers that insure bonds we hold as investment securities on our consolidated balance sheets. The weakened financial condition and liquidity position of these counterparties increases the risk that these entities will fail to reimburse us for claims under insurance policies. This risk could increase if home prices deteriorate further or if the economy worsens.
 
As a guarantor, we remain responsible for the payment of principal and interest if a mortgage insurer fails to meet its obligations to reimburse us for claims. Thus, if any of our mortgage insurers that provide credit enhancement fails to fulfill its obligation, we could experience increased credit losses. In addition, if a regulator determined that a mortgage insurer lacked sufficient capital to pay all claims when due, the regulator could take action that might impact the timing and amount of claim payments made to us. We independently assess the financial condition, including the claims-paying resources, of
 
            48 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

each of our mortgage insurers. Based on our analysis of the financial condition of a mortgage insurer and pursuant to our eligibility requirements for mortgage insurers, we could take action against a mortgage insurer intended to protect our interests that may impact the timing and amount of claims payments received from that insurer.
 
In the event one or more of our bond insurers were to become insolvent, it is likely that we would not collect all of our claims from the affected insurer, and it would impact our ability to recover certain unrealized losses on our investments in non-agency mortgage-related securities. We expect to receive substantially less than full payment of our claims from Financial Guaranty Insurance Company, or FGIC, and Ambac Assurance Corporation, or Ambac, due to adverse developments concerning these companies. We believe that, in addition to FGIC and Ambac, some of our other bond insurers lack sufficient ability to fully meet all of their expected lifetime claims-paying obligations to us as such claims emerge. For more information on the developments concerning FGIC and Ambac, see “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Institutional Credit Risk — Bond Insurers.
 
If mortgage insurers were to further tighten their standards or fall out of compliance with regulatory capital requirements, the volume of high LTV ratio mortgages available for us to purchase could be reduced, which could negatively affect our business and make it more difficult for us to meet our affordable housing goals. Mortgage insurance standards could constrain our ability to increase our purchases of high LTV loans in the future, should we want to do so.
 
Our charter requires that single-family mortgages with LTV ratios above 80% at the time of purchase be covered by specified credit enhancements or participation interests. Our purchases of mortgages with LTV ratios above 80% (other than relief refinance mortgages) have declined in recent years, in part because mortgage insurers tightened their eligibility requirements with respect to the issuance of insurance on new mortgages with higher LTV ratios. Recently, mortgage insurers have loosened some of these requirements. However, if mortgage insurers further restrict their eligibility requirements for high LTV ratio loans, or if we are no longer willing or able to obtain mortgage insurance from these counterparties, and we are not able to avail ourselves of suitable alternative methods of obtaining credit enhancement for these loans, we may be further restricted in our ability to purchase or securitize loans with LTV ratios over 80% at the time of purchase.
 
If a mortgage insurance company were to fall out of compliance with regulatory capital requirements and not obtain appropriate waivers, it could become subject to regulatory actions that restrict its ability to write new business in certain, or in some cases all, states. At least one of our mortgage insurers has fallen out of compliance with regulatory capital requirements, and others may do so in the future.
 
A mortgage insurer may attempt a corporate restructuring designed to enable it to continue to write new business through a new entity in the event the insurer falls out of compliance with regulatory capital requirements. Several insurers have completed such a restructuring. However, there can be no assurance that an insurer would be able to effect such a restructuring in the future, as the restructured entity would be required to satisfy regulatory requirements as well as our own conditions. These restructuring plans generally involve contributing capital to a subsidiary or affiliate. This could result in less liquidity available to the mortgage insurer to pay claims on its existing book of business, and an increased risk that the mortgage insurer would not pay its claims in full in the future.
 
Where mortgage insurance or another charter-acceptable credit enhancement is not available, it may be more difficult for us to purchase high LTV ratio (above 80%) loans that refinance mortgages into more affordable loans. The unavailability of suitable credit enhancement could also negatively impact our ability to pursue new business opportunities relating to high LTV ratio and other higher risk loans, should we seek, or be directed, to pursue such business opportunities. This could also impact our ability to meet our affordable housing goals, as purchases of loans with high LTV ratios can contribute to our performance under those goals.
 
The loss of business volume from key lenders could result in a decline in our market share and revenues.
 
Our business depends on our ability to acquire a steady flow of mortgage loans. We purchase a significant percentage of our single-family mortgages from several large mortgage originators. During 2010 and 2009, approximately 78% and 74%, respectively, of our guaranteed mortgage securities issuances originated from purchase volume associated with our ten largest customers. During 2010, three mortgage lenders (Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., Bank of America, N.A. and Chase Home Finance LLC) each accounted for more than 10% of our single-family mortgage purchase volume and collectively accounted for approximately 50% of our single-family mortgage purchase volume. Similarly, we acquire a significant portion of our multifamily mortgage loans from several large lenders. We enter into mortgage purchase volume commitments with many of our single-family customers that provide for the customers to deliver to us a specified dollar amount of mortgages during a specified period of time. Some commitments may also provide for the lender to deliver to us a minimum percentage of their total sales of conforming loans. There is a risk that we will not be able to enter into a new commitment with a key customer that will maintain mortgage purchase volume following the expiration of the existing commitment. Since 2007, the mortgage industry has consolidated significantly and a smaller number of large lenders originate most single-family mortgages. The
 
            49 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

loss of business from any one of our major lenders could adversely affect our market share and our revenues. Many of our seller/servicers also have tightened their lending criteria in recent years, which has reduced their loan volume, thus reducing the volume of loans available for us to purchase.
 
Ongoing weak business and economic conditions in the U.S. and abroad may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
Our business and results of operations are significantly affected by general business and economic conditions, including conditions in the international markets for our investments or our mortgage-related and debt securities. These conditions include employment rates, fluctuations in both debt and equity capital markets, the value of the U.S. dollar as compared to foreign currencies, the strength of the U.S. financial markets and national economy and the local economies in which we conduct business, and the economies of other countries that purchase our mortgage-related and debt securities. There is significant uncertainty regarding the strength of the U.S. economic recovery. While the financial markets appear to have stabilized, there can be no assurance that this will continue. If the U.S. economy remains weak, we could experience continued high serious delinquencies and credit losses, which will adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
 
The mortgage credit markets have experienced very difficult conditions and volatility since 2007. This has resulted in a decrease in availability of corporate credit and liquidity within the mortgage industry, causing disruptions to normal operations of major mortgage originators, including some of our largest customers, and contributed to the insolvency, closure or acquisition of a number of major financial institutions. These conditions also resulted in significant volatility, wide credit spreads and a lack of price transparency and could contribute to further consolidation within the financial services industry. We continue to be subject to adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations due to our activities involving securities, mortgages, derivatives and other mortgage commitments with our customers.
 
Competition from banking and non-banking companies may harm our business.
 
Competition in the secondary mortgage market combined with a decline in the amount of residential mortgage debt outstanding may make it more difficult for us to purchase mortgages. Furthermore, competitive pricing pressures may make our products less attractive in the market and negatively impact our financial results. Increased competition from Fannie Mae and Ginnie Mae may alter our product mix, lower volumes and reduce revenues on new business. FHFA is also Conservator of Fannie Mae, our primary competitor, and FHFA’s actions as Conservator of both companies could affect competition between us and Fannie Mae. Efforts we may make to increase the profitability of new single-family guarantee business, such as by tightening credit standards or raising guarantee fees, could cause our market share to decrease and the volume of our single-family guarantee business to decline. Historically, we also competed with other financial institutions that retain or securitize mortgages, such as commercial and investment banks, dealers, thrift institutions, and insurance companies. While many of these institutions have ceased or substantially reduced their activities in the secondary market since 2008, it is possible that these institutions will reenter the secondary market.
 
Our business may be adversely affected by limited availability of financing and increased funding costs.
 
The amount, type and cost of our funding, including financing from other financial institutions and the capital markets, directly impacts our interest expense and results of operations. A number of factors could make such financing more difficult to obtain, more expensive or unavailable on any terms, both domestically and internationally, including:
 
  •  termination of, or future restrictions or other adverse changes with respect to, government support programs that may benefit us;
 
  •  reduced demand for our debt securities; and
 
  •  competition for debt funding from other debt issuers.
 
Our ability to obtain funding in the public debt markets or by pledging mortgage-related securities as collateral to other financial institutions could cease or change rapidly, and the cost of available funding could increase significantly due to changes in market confidence and other factors. For example, in the fall of 2008, we experienced significant deterioration in our access to the unsecured medium- and long-term debt markets, and were forced to rely on short-term debt to fund our purchases of mortgage assets and refinance maturing debt and to rely on derivatives to synthetically create the substantive economic equivalent of various debt funding structures.
 
We follow certain liquidity management practices and procedures. However, in the event we were unable to obtain funding from the public debt markets, there can be no assurance that such practices and procedures would provide us with sufficient liquidity to meet ongoing cash obligations for an extended period.
 
Since 2008, the ratings on the non-agency mortgage-related securities we hold backed by Alt-A, subprime and option ARM loans have decreased, limiting their availability as a significant source of liquidity for us through sales or use as
 
            50 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

collateral in secured lending transactions. In addition, adverse market conditions have negatively impacted our ability to enter into secured lending transactions using agency securities as collateral. These trends are likely to continue in the future.
 
Government Support
 
Changes or perceived changes in the government’s support of us could have a severe negative effect on our access to the debt markets and our debt funding costs. Under the Purchase Agreement, the $200 billion cap on Treasury’s funding commitment will increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in our net worth during 2010, 2011 and 2012. While we believe that the support provided by Treasury pursuant to the Purchase Agreement currently enables us to maintain our access to the debt markets and to have adequate liquidity to conduct our normal business activities, the costs of our debt funding could vary due to the uncertainty about the future of the GSEs and potential investor concerns about the adequacy of funding available to us under the Purchase Agreement after 2012. The cost of our debt funding could increase if debt investors believe that the risk that we could be placed into receivership is increasing. In addition, under the Purchase Agreement, without the prior consent of Treasury, we may not increase our total indebtedness above a specified limit or become liable for any subordinated indebtedness.
 
We do not currently have a liquidity backstop available to us (other than draws from Treasury under the Purchase Agreement and Treasury’s ability to purchase up to $2.25 billion of our obligations under its permanent statutory authority) if we are unable to obtain funding from issuances of debt or other conventional sources. At present, we are not able to predict the likelihood that a liquidity backstop will be needed, or to identify the alternative sources of liquidity that might be available to us if needed, other than from Treasury as referenced above.
 
Demand for Debt Funding
 
The willingness of domestic and foreign investors to purchase and hold our debt securities can be influenced by many factors, including changes in the world economy, changes in foreign-currency exchange rates, regulatory and political factors, as well as the availability of and preferences for other investments. If investors were to divest their holdings or reduce their purchases of our debt securities, our funding costs could increase. The willingness of investors to purchase or hold our debt securities, and any changes to such willingness, may materially affect our liquidity, our business and results of operations.
 
Competition for Debt Funding
 
We compete for low-cost debt funding with Fannie Mae, the FHLBs and other institutions. Competition for debt funding from these entities can vary with changes in economic, financial market and regulatory environments. Increased competition for low-cost debt funding may result in a higher cost to finance our business, which could negatively affect our financial results. An inability to issue debt securities at attractive rates in amounts sufficient to fund our business activities and meet our obligations could have an adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations. See “MD&A — LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES — Liquidity — Other Debt Securities” for a description of our debt issuance programs.
 
Our funding costs may also be affected by changes in the amount of, and demand for, debt issued by Treasury.
 
Line of Credit
 
We maintain a secured intraday line of credit to provide additional intraday liquidity to fund our activities through the Fedwire system. This line of credit requires us to post collateral to a third party. In certain circumstances, this secured counterparty may be able to repledge the collateral underlying our financing without our consent. In addition, because the secured intraday line of credit is uncommitted, we may not be able to continue to draw on it if and when needed.
 
Any decline in the price performance of or demand for our PCs could have an adverse effect on the volume and profitability of our new single-family guarantee business.
 
Our PCs are an integral part of our mortgage purchase program. We purchase many mortgages by issuing PCs in exchange for them in guarantor swap transactions. We also issue PCs backed by mortgage loans that we purchased for cash. Our competitiveness in purchasing single-family mortgages from our seller/servicers, and thus the volume and profitability of new single-family business, can be directly affected by the relative price performance of our PCs and comparable Fannie Mae securities. Increasing demand for our PCs helps support the price performance of our PCs, which in turn helps us compete with Fannie Mae and others in purchasing mortgages.
 
Our PCs typically trade at a discount to comparable Fannie Mae securities, which creates an incentive for customers to conduct a disproportionate share of their guarantor business with Fannie Mae. Various factors, including market conditions and the relative rates at which the underlying mortgages prepay, affect the price performance of our PCs. While we employ a variety of strategies to support the price performance of our PCs, any such strategies may fail or adversely affect our business. For example, we may attempt to compensate customers for the difference in price between our PCs and comparable
 
            51 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Fannie Mae securities by reducing guarantee fees. However, this could adversely affect the profitability of our single-family guarantee business.
 
We may be unable to maintain a liquid and deep market for our PCs, which could also adversely affect the price performance of PCs. A significant reduction in the volume of mortgage loans that we securitize could reduce the liquidity of our PCs.
 
A reduction in the credit ratings for our debt could adversely affect our liquidity.
 
Nationally recognized statistical rating organizations play an important role in determining, by means of the ratings they assign to issuers and their debt, the availability and cost of debt funding. We currently receive ratings from three nationally recognized statistical rating organizations for our unsecured borrowings. Our credit ratings are important to our liquidity. Actions by governmental entities or others, including changes in government support for us, additional GAAP losses, additional draws under the Purchase Agreement, a reduction in the credit ratings of or outlook on the U.S. Government, and other factors could adversely affect the credit ratings on our debt. A reduction in our credit ratings could adversely affect our liquidity, competitive position, or the supply or cost of debt financing available to us. A reduction in our credit ratings could also trigger additional collateral requirements under our derivatives contracts. A significant increase in our borrowing costs could cause us to sustain additional GAAP losses or impair our liquidity by requiring us to seek other sources of financing, which may be difficult to obtain.
 
Mortgage fraud could result in significant financial losses and harm to our reputation.
 
We rely on representations and warranties by seller/servicers about the characteristics of the single-family mortgage loans we purchase and securitize, and we do not independently verify most of the information that is provided to us before we purchase the loan. This exposes us to the risk that one or more of the parties involved in a transaction (such as the borrower, seller, broker, appraiser, title agent, loan officer, lender or servicer) will engage in fraud by misrepresenting facts about a mortgage loan or a borrower. While we subsequently review a sample of these loans to determine if such loans are in compliance with our contractual standards, there can be no assurance that this would detect or deter mortgage fraud, or otherwise reduce our exposure to the risk of fraud. We are also exposed to fraud by third parties in the mortgage servicing function, particularly with respect to sales of REO properties and other dispositions of non-performing assets. We may experience significant financial losses and reputational damage as a result of such fraud.
 
The value of mortgage-related securities guaranteed by us and held as investments may decline if we were unable to perform under our guarantee or if investor confidence in our ability to perform under our guarantee were to diminish.
 
A portion of our investments in mortgage-related securities are securities guaranteed by us. Our valuation of these securities is consistent with GAAP and the legal structure of the guarantee transaction, which includes the Freddie Mac assets transferred to the securitization trusts that serve as collateral for the mortgage-related securities issued by the trusts (i.e.: (a) multifamily PCs; (b) REMICs and Other Structured Securities; and (c) certain Other Guarantee Transactions). The valuation of our guaranteed mortgage securities necessarily reflects investor confidence in our ability to perform under our guarantee and the liquidity that our guarantee provides. If we were unable to perform under our guarantee or if investor confidence in our ability to perform under our guarantee were to diminish, the value of our guaranteed securities may decline, thereby reducing the value of the securities reported on our consolidated balance sheets, which could have an adverse affect on our financial condition and results of operations. This could also adversely affect our ability to sell or otherwise use these securities for liquidity purposes.
 
Changes in interest rates could negatively impact our results of operations, stockholders’ equity (deficit) and fair value of net assets.
 
Our investment activities and credit guarantee activities expose us to interest rate and other market risks. Changes in interest rates, up or down, could adversely affect our net interest yield. Although the yield we earn on our assets and our funding costs tend to move in the same direction in response to changes in interest rates, either can rise or fall faster than the other, causing our net interest yield to expand or compress. For example, due to the timing of maturities or rate reset dates on variable-rate instruments, when interest rates rise, our funding costs may rise faster than the yield we earn on our assets. This rate change could cause our net interest yield to compress until the effect of the increase is fully reflected in asset yields. Changes in the slope of the yield curve could also reduce our net interest yield.
 
Our GAAP results can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, and adverse changes in interest rates could increase our GAAP net loss or deficit in total equity (deficit) materially. For example, changes in interest rates affect the fair value of our derivatives portfolio. Since we generally record changes in fair values of our derivatives in current income, such changes could significantly impact our GAAP results. While derivatives are an important aspect of our management of interest-rate risk, they generally increase the volatility of reported net income (loss), because, while fair value changes in derivatives affect net income, fair value changes in several of the types of assets and liabilities being hedged do not affect net
 
            52 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

income. Additionally, increases in interest rates could increase other-than-temporary impairments on our investments in non-agency mortgage-related securities.
 
Changes in interest rates may also affect prepayment assumptions, thus potentially impacting the fair value of our assets, including our investments in mortgage-related assets. When interest rates fall, borrowers are more likely to prepay their mortgage loans by refinancing them at a lower rate. An increased likelihood of prepayment on the mortgages underlying our mortgage-related securities may adversely impact the value of these securities.
 
Interest rates can fluctuate for a number of reasons, including changes in the fiscal and monetary policies of the federal government and its agencies, such as the Federal Reserve. Federal Reserve policies directly and indirectly influence the yield on our interest-earning assets and the cost of our interest-bearing liabilities. The availability of derivative financial instruments (such as options and interest rate and foreign currency swaps) from acceptable counterparties of the types and in the quantities needed could also affect our ability to effectively manage the risks related to our investment funding. Our strategies and efforts to manage our exposures to these risks may not be effective. In particular, various factors, including uncertainty concerning trends in home prices, have made it more difficult for us to estimate future prepayments. This could make it more difficult for us to manage prepayment risk, and could cause our hedging-related losses to increase. See “QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK” for a description of the types of market risks to which we are exposed and how we seek to manage those risks.
 
Changes in OAS could materially impact our fair value of net assets and affect future results of operations and stockholders’ equity (deficit).
 
OAS is an estimate of the yield spread between a given security and an agency debt yield curve. This includes consideration of potential variability in the security’s cash flows resulting from any options embedded in the security, such as prepayment options. The OAS between the mortgage and agency debt sectors can significantly affect the fair value of our net assets. The fair value impact of changes in OAS for a given period represents an estimate of the net unrealized increase or decrease in the fair value of net assets arising from net fluctuations in OAS during that period. We do not attempt to hedge or actively manage the impact of changes in mortgage-to-debt OAS.
 
Changes in market conditions, including changes in interest rates, may cause fluctuations in OAS. A widening of the OAS on a given asset, which typically causes a decline in the current fair value of that asset, may cause significant mark-to-fair value losses, and may adversely affect our financial results and stockholders’ equity (deficit), but may increase the number of attractive investment opportunities in mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities. Conversely, a narrowing or tightening of the OAS typically causes an increase in the current fair value of that asset, but may reduce the number of attractive investment opportunities in mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities. Consequently, a tightening of the OAS may adversely affect our future financial results and stockholders’ equity (deficit). See “MD&A — FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS — Discussion of Fair Value Results” for a more detailed description of the impacts of changes in mortgage-to-debt OAS.
 
While wider spreads might create favorable investment opportunities, we are limited in our ability to take advantage of any such opportunities because, under the Purchase Agreement and FHFA regulation, the UPB of our mortgage-related investments portfolio is subject to a cap that declines by 10% per year beginning in 2010 until it reaches $250 billion. FHFA has stated its expectation in the Acting Director’s February 2, 2010 letter that any net additions to our mortgage-related investments portfolio would be related to purchasing delinquent mortgages out of PC pools.
 
We could experience significant reputational harm, which could affect the future of our company, if our efforts under the MHA Program, and other initiatives to support the U.S. residential mortgage market do not succeed.
 
We are focused on the MHA Program and other initiatives to support the U.S. residential mortgage market. If these initiatives do not achieve their desired results, or are otherwise perceived to have failed to achieve their objectives, we may experience damage to our reputation, which may impact the extent of future government support for our business and government decisions with respect to the future status and role of Freddie Mac.
 
Negative publicity causing damage to our reputation could adversely affect our business prospects, financial results or net worth.
 
Reputation risk, or the risk to our financial results and net worth from negative public opinion, is inherent in our business. Negative public opinion could adversely affect our ability to keep and attract customers or otherwise impair our customer relationships, adversely affect our ability to obtain financing, impede our ability to hire and retain qualified personnel, hinder our business prospects or adversely impact the trading price of our securities. Perceptions regarding the practices of our competitors, our seller/servicers or the financial services and mortgage industries as a whole, particularly as they relate to the current economic downturn, may also adversely impact our reputation. Adverse reputation impacts on third parties with whom we have important relationships may impair market confidence or investor confidence in our business
 
            53 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

operations as well. In addition, negative publicity could expose us to adverse legal and regulatory consequences, including greater regulatory scrutiny or adverse regulatory or legislative changes, and could affect what changes may occur to our business structure during or following conservatorship, including whether we will continue to exist. These adverse consequences could result from perceptions concerning our activities and role in addressing the mortgage market crisis, the concerns about deficiencies in foreclosure documentation practices or our actual or alleged action or failure to act in any number of areas, including corporate governance, regulatory compliance, financial reporting and disclosure, purchases of products perceived to be predatory, safeguarding or using nonpublic personal information, or from actions taken by government regulators in response to our actual or alleged conduct.
 
The MHA Program and other efforts to reduce foreclosures, modify loan terms and refinance mortgages may fail to mitigate our credit losses and may adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
 
The MHA Program and other loss mitigation activities are a key component of our strategy for managing and resolving troubled assets and lowering credit losses. However, there can be no assurance that any of our loss mitigation strategies will be successful and that credit losses will not continue to escalate. To the extent that borrowers participate in HAMP in large numbers, it is likely that the costs we incur related to loan modifications and other activities under HAMP will be substantial because we will bear the full cost of the monthly payment reductions related to modifications of loans we own or guarantee, and all servicer and borrower incentive fees. We will not be reimbursed for these costs by Treasury.
 
FHFA has directed us to implement HAMP for troubled mortgages we own or guarantee. It is possible that Treasury could make changes to HAMP that, to the extent we were required to or elected to implement them, could make the program more costly to us, both in terms of credit expenses and the cost of implementing and operating the program. We could also be required or elect to make changes to our implementation of our other loss mitigation activities that could make these activities more costly to us. For example, we could be required to, or elect to, use principal reduction to achieve reduced payments for borrowers. This could further increase our losses, as we could bear the full costs of such reductions.
 
In June 2010, Treasury announced an initiative under which servicers will be required to consider an alternative modification approach that includes a possible reduction of principal for loans with LTV ratios over 115%. Mortgage investors will receive incentives based on the amount of reduced principal. In October 2010, Treasury provided guidance with respect to applying this alternative for borrowers who have already received permanent modifications or are in trial plans. Holders of mortgages and mortgage-related securities are not required to agree to a reduction of principal, but servicers must have a process for considering the approach. We do not currently have plans to apply these changes to mortgages that we own or guarantee. However, it is possible that FHFA might direct us to implement some or all of these changes. Our credit losses could increase to the extent we apply these changes.
 
A significant number of loans are in the trial period of HAMP. Although the ultimate completion rate remains uncertain, a large number of loans have failed to complete the trial period or qualify for any of our other loan modification and loss mitigation programs. It is possible that, in the future, additional loans will fail to complete the trial period or qualify for these other programs. For these loans, HAMP will have effectively delayed the foreclosure process and could increase our losses, to the extent the prices we ultimately receive for the foreclosed properties are less than the prices we could have received had we foreclosed upon the properties earlier, due to continued home price declines. These delays in foreclosure could also cause our REO operations expense to increase, perhaps substantially.
 
Our seller/servicers have a key role in the success of our loss mitigation activities. The continued increases in seriously delinquent loan volume, the ongoing weak conditions of the mortgage market during 2009 and 2010, and the number and variety of additions and changes to HAMP have placed a strain on the loss mitigation resources of many of our seller/servicers. This has also increased the operational complexity of the servicing function, as well as the risk that errors will occur. A decline in the performance of seller/servicers in mitigation efforts could result in missed opportunities for successful loan modifications, an increase in our credit losses and damage to our reputation.
 
Mortgage modifications on the scale of HAMP, particularly any new focus on principal reductions, have the potential to change borrower behavior and mortgage underwriting. This, coupled with the phenomenon of widespread underwater mortgages, could significantly affect borrower attitudes towards homeownership, the commitment of borrowers to making their mortgage payments, the way the market values residential mortgage assets, the way in which we conduct business and, ultimately, our financial results.
 
Depending on the type of loss mitigation activities we pursue, those activities could result in accelerating or slowing prepayments on our PCs and REMICs and Other Structured Securities, either of which could negatively affect the pricing of such securities.
 
We are devoting significant internal resources to the implementation of the various initiatives under the MHA Program, which has, and will continue to, increase our expenses. The size and scope of our effort under the MHA Program may also limit our ability to pursue other business opportunities or corporate initiatives.
 
            54 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Our relationships with our customers could be harmed by our actions as the compliance agent under HAMP, which could negatively affect our ability to purchase loans from them in the future.
 
We are the compliance agent for certain foreclosure avoidance activities under HAMP by mortgage holders other than Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. In this role, we conduct examinations and review servicer compliance with the published requirements for the program. It is unclear how servicers will perceive our actions as compliance agent. It is possible that this could impair our relationships with our seller/servicers, which could negatively affect our ability to purchase loans from them in the future.
 
We may experience further write-downs and losses relating to our assets, including our investment securities, net deferred tax assets, REO properties or mortgage loans, that could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and net worth.
 
We experienced significant losses and write-downs relating to certain of our assets during 2008, 2009, and 2010, including significant declines in market value, impairments of our investment securities, market-based write-downs of REO properties, losses on non-performing loans purchased out of PC pools, and impairments on other assets. The fair value of our assets may be further adversely affected by continued weakness in the economy, further deterioration in the housing and financial markets, additional ratings downgrades or other events.
 
We increased our valuation allowance for our net deferred tax assets by $8.3 billion during 2010. The future status and role of Freddie Mac could be affected by actions of the Conservator, and legislative and regulatory action that alters the ownership, structure and mission of the company. The uncertainty of these developments could materially affect our operations, which could in turn affect our ability or intent to hold investments until the recovery of any temporary unrealized losses. If future events significantly alter our current outlook, a valuation allowance may need to be established for the remaining deferred tax asset.
 
Due to the ongoing weaknesses in the economy and in the housing and financial markets, we may experience additional write-downs and losses relating to our assets, including those that are currently AAA-rated, and the fair values of our assets may continue to decline. This could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and net worth.
 
We could also incur losses related to our REO properties due to the occurrence of a major natural or other disaster, such as hurricanes in Florida or earthquakes in California.
 
There may not be an active, liquid trading market for our equity securities.
 
Our common stock and classes of preferred stock that previously were listed and traded on the NYSE were delisted from the NYSE effective July 8, 2010, and now trade on the OTC market. The market price of our common stock declined significantly between June 16, 2010, the date we announced our intention to delist these securities, and July 8, 2010, the first day the common stock traded exclusively on the OTC market, and may decline further. Trading volumes on the OTC market have been, and will likely continue to be, less than those on the NYSE, which would make it more difficult for investors to execute transactions in our securities and could make the prices of our securities decline or be more volatile.
 
Operational Risks
 
We have incurred and will continue to incur expenses and we may otherwise be adversely affected by deficiencies in foreclosure practices, as well as related delays in the foreclosure process.
 
In the fall of 2010, several large seller/servicers announced issues relating to the improper preparation and execution of certain documents used in foreclosure proceedings, including affidavits. These announcements have raised various concerns relating to foreclosure practices. The integrity of the foreclosure process is critical to our business, and our financial results could be adversely affected by deficiencies in the conduct of that process.
 
A number of our seller/servicers, including several of our largest ones, temporarily suspended foreclosure proceedings in certain states in which they do business while they evaluated and addressed these issues. A number of these companies continue to address these issues, and certain of these suspensions remain in effect. In addition, a group consisting of state attorneys general and state bank and mortgage regulators in all 50 states and the District of Columbia is reviewing foreclosure practices. Some seller/servicers have announced issues relating to the improper execution of the documents used in foreclosure proceedings. In November 2010, we terminated the eligibility of one law firm to serve as counsel in foreclosures of Freddie Mac mortgages, due to issues with respect to the firm’s foreclosure practices. That firm had been responsible for handling a significant number of foreclosures for our servicers in Florida. It is possible that additional deficiencies in foreclosure practices will be identified, including relating to the foregoing.
 
These issues and the related foreclosure suspensions could prolong the foreclosure process regionally or nationwide and could delay sales of our REO properties. The deficiencies in the conduct of the foreclosure process potentially affect the validity of a number of actions that have already been taken, including foreclosure transfers through which we acquired some of our REO properties and sales of some of our REO properties. It will take time for seller/servicers to complete their
 
            55 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

evaluations of these issues and implement remedial actions. It is possible that different procedures will need to be developed and implemented for individual states because of differences in applicable state laws. In addition, a number of parties involved in residential real estate transactions as well as various federal, state and local regulatory authorities, may need to agree to any remedial actions, which could further complicate and delay the process of resolving these issues. These parties potentially include seller/servicers, Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, FHFA, state or local authorities, mortgage insurers and title insurance companies. In many cases, the remedial actions will require court approval. It is possible that courts in different states, as well as individual courts within the same state, may come to different conclusions with respect to what remedial actions are acceptable.
 
Any delays in the foreclosure process could cause properties awaiting foreclosure to deteriorate until we acquire ownership of them through foreclosure. Such deterioration would increase our expenses to repair and maintain the properties when we do acquire them. Delays in selling REO properties could cause our REO operations expense for current REO properties to increase because those properties will stay in REO status for a longer period of time, which would increase the ongoing costs we incur to maintain or protect them. In addition, our disposition losses, which are a component of REO operations expense, could increase to the extent home prices decline during this period of delay and the prices we ultimately receive for the REO properties are less than the prices we could have received had we acquired and sold them earlier.
 
Concerns about the impact of deficient foreclosure practices on title to REO properties may create additional uncertainty among mortgage investors and potential home buyers about future trends in home prices. Over the long term, concerns about foreclosure practices may adversely affect trends in home prices regionally or nationally, which could also adversely affect our financial results. These concerns could increase both the uncertainty about the results of our models and the risk of errors in the implementation, operation or use of our models, in part because greater management judgment will need to be applied.
 
Any delays in the foreclosure process could also create fluctuations in our single-family credit statistics, including our credit loss statistics and reported serious delinquency rates. Our realization of credit losses, which consists of REO operations income (expense) plus charge-offs, net, could be delayed because we record charge-offs at the time we take ownership of a property through foreclosure. Delays in the foreclosure process could reduce the rate at which delinquent loans proceed to foreclosure, which could cause a temporary decline in our REO acquisitions and the rate of growth of our REO inventory. This could also temporarily increase the number of seriously delinquent loans that remain in our single-family mortgage portfolio, which could result in higher reported serious delinquency rates and a larger number of non-performing loans than would otherwise have been the case.
 
It also is possible that mortgage insurance claims could be denied if delays caused by servicers’ deficient foreclosure practices prevent servicers from completing foreclosures within required timelines defined by mortgage insurers.
 
We have incurred, and will continue to incur, expenses related to deficiencies in foreclosure documentation practices and the costs of remediating them, which may be significant. These costs will include expenses to remediate issues relating to practices of certain legal counsel that will increase our expenses in future periods. We may also incur costs if we become involved in litigation or investigations relating to these issues. While we believe that our seller/servicers would be in violation of their servicing contracts with us to the extent that they improperly executed documents in foreclosure or bankruptcy proceedings, as such contracts require that foreclosure proceedings be conducted in accordance with applicable law, it may be difficult, expensive, and time consuming for us to enforce our contractual rights. Our efforts to enforce our contractual rights may negatively impact our relationships with these seller/servicers, some of which are among our largest sources of mortgage loans.
 
We expect that remedying the document execution issues affecting the foreclosure process and related developments will likely place further strain on the resources of our seller/servicers, possibly including seller/servicers where such issues have not been identified to date. This could negatively affect their ability to service loans in our single-family mortgage portfolio or the quality of service they provide to us. Since our seller/servicers have an active role in our loss mitigation efforts, this could impact the overall quality of our credit performance and our ability to mitigate credit losses.
 
Delays in the foreclosure process may also adversely affect the values of, and our losses on, the non-agency mortgage-related securities we hold. Foreclosure delays may increase the administrative expenses of the securitization trusts for the non-agency mortgage-related securities, thereby reducing the amount of funds available for distribution to investors. In addition, the subordinate classes of securities issued by the securitization trusts will continue to receive interest payments while the defaulted loans remain in the trusts, rather than absorbing the default losses. This may reduce the amount of funds available for the senior tranches we own. The prospect of losses due to these impacts could adversely affect the market value of non-agency mortgage-related securities we own.
 
It has been difficult for us to determine the potential scope of these issues, in part because we must rely on our seller/servicers for much of the pertinent information and these companies have not yet completed their assessments of these
 
            56 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

issues. Our evaluation of these issues, as well as the evaluations made by the seller/servicers, is complicated by the fact that state law governs the foreclosure process and, thus, the laws and regulations of a large number of different states must be examined.
 
Issues related to mortgages recorded through MERS could delay or disrupt foreclosure activities and have an adverse effect on our business.
 
The Mortgage Electronic Registration System, or the MERS® System, is an electronic registry that is widely used by seller/servicers, Freddie Mac, and other participants in the mortgage finance industry, to maintain records of beneficial ownership of mortgages. The MERS System is maintained by MERSCORP, Inc., a privately held company, the shareholders of which include a number of organizations in the mortgage industry, including Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, and certain seller/servicers, mortgage insurance companies and title insurance companies.
 
Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems, Inc., or MERS, a wholly-owned subsidiary of MERSCORP, Inc., has the ability to serve as a nominee for the owner of a mortgage loan and in that role become the mortgagee of record for the loan in local land records. Freddie Mac seller/servicers may choose to use MERS as a nominee, and to initiate foreclosures in MERS’ name. Approximately 39% of the loans Freddie Mac owns or guarantees are registered in MERS’ name; the beneficial ownership and the ownership of the servicing rights related to those loans are tracked in the MERS System.
 
MERS has been the subject of numerous lawsuits challenging foreclosures on mortgages for which MERS is mortgagee of record as nominee for the beneficial owner. It is possible that adverse judicial decisions, regulatory proceedings or action, or legislative action related to MERS, could delay or disrupt foreclosure of mortgages that are registered on the MERS System. Publicity concerning regulatory or judicial decisions, even if such decisions were not adverse, or MERS-related concerns about the integrity of the assignment process, could adversely affect the mortgage industry and negatively impact public confidence in the foreclosure process, which could lead to legislative or regulatory action. Because MERS often executes legal documents in connection with foreclosure proceedings, it is possible that investigations by governmental authorities and others into deficiencies in foreclosure practices may negatively impact MERS and the MERS System.
 
Federal or state legislation or regulatory action also could prevent us from using the MERS System for mortgages that we currently own, guarantee, and securitize and for mortgages acquired in the future, or could create additional requirements for the transfer of mortgages that could affect the process for and costs of acquiring, transferring, servicing, and foreclosing mortgages. Such legislation or regulatory action could increase our costs or otherwise adversely affect our business. For example, we could be required to transfer mortgages out of the MERS System. There is also uncertainty regarding the extent to which seller/servicers will choose to use the MERS System in the future.
 
Failures by MERS to apply prudent and effective process controls and to comply with legal and other requirements in the foreclosure process could pose legal, operational and reputational risks for us.
 
We cannot predict the impact that such events or actions may have on our business.
 
Weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting and in disclosure controls could result in errors and inadequate disclosures, affect operating results and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported results.
 
We face continuing challenges because of deficiencies in our controls. Control deficiencies could result in errors, and lead to inadequate or untimely disclosures, affect operating results and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial results. For information about our ineffective disclosure controls and remaining material weakness in internal control over financial reporting, see “CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.”
 
There are a number of factors that may impede our efforts to establish and maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, including: the nature of the conservatorship and our relationship with FHFA; the complexity of, and significant changes in, our business activities and related GAAP requirements; significant management changes and internal reorganizations in 2010; uncertainty regarding the sustainability of newly established controls; data quality or servicing-related issues; and the uncertain impacts of the ongoing housing and credit market volatility on the results of our models, which are used for financial accounting and reporting purposes. We cannot be certain that our efforts to improve and maintain our internal control over financial reporting will ultimately be successful.
 
Effectively designed and operated internal control over financial reporting provides only reasonable assurance that material errors in our financial statements will be prevented or detected on a timely basis. A failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting increases the risk of a material error in our reported financial results and delay in our financial reporting timeline. Depending on the nature of a control failure and any required remediation, ineffective controls could have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
Ineffective controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which may have an adverse effect on the trading price of our securities.
 
            57 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

We face risks and uncertainties associated with the internal models that we use for financial accounting and reporting purposes, to make business decisions and to manage risks. Market conditions have raised these risks and uncertainties.
 
We make significant use of business and financial models for financial accounting and reporting purposes and to manage risk. We face risk associated with our use of models. First, there is inherently some uncertainty associated with model results. Second, we could fail to properly implement, operate or use our models. Either of these situations could adversely affect our financial statements and our ability to manage risks.
 
We use market-based information as inputs to our models. However, it can take time for data providers to prepare information, and thus the most recent market information may not be available for the preparation of our financial statements. When market conditions change quickly and in unforeseen ways, there is an increased risk that the inputs reflected in our models are not representative of current market conditions.
 
The severe deterioration of the housing and credit markets beginning several years ago and, more recently, the extended period of economic weakness and uncertainty has increased the risks associated with our use of models. Our models may not perform as well in situations for which there are few or no recent historical precedents. We have adjusted our models in response to recent events, but there remains some uncertainty about model results.
 
Models are inherently imperfect predictors of actual results. Our models rely on various assumptions that may be incorrect, including that historical experience can be used to predict future results. It has been more difficult to predict the behaviors of the housing and credit capital markets and market participants over the past several years, due to, among other factors: (a) the uncertainty concerning trends in home prices; (b) the lack of historical evidence about the behavior of deeply underwater borrowers, the effect of an extended period of extremely low interest rates on prepayments, and the impact of widespread loan modification programs, including the potential for the extensive use of principal reductions; and (c) the impact of the concerns about deficiencies in foreclosure documentation practices and related delays in the foreclosure process.
 
We face the risk that we could fail to implement, operate or use our models properly. For example, the assumptions underlying a model could be invalid, or we could apply a model to events or products outside the model’s intended use. We may fail to code a model correctly, or we could use incorrect data. The complexity and interconnectivity of our models create additional risk regarding the accuracy of model output. While we have processes and controls in place designed to mitigate these risks, there can be no assurances that such processes and controls will be successful.
 
Management often needs to exercise judgment to interpret or adjust modeled results to take into account new information or changes in conditions. The dramatic changes in the housing and credit capital markets in recent years have required frequent adjustments to our models and the application of greater management judgment in the interpretation and adjustment of the results produced by our models. This further increases both the uncertainty about model results and the risk of errors in the implementation, operation or use of the models.
 
We face the risk that the valuations, risk metrics, amortization results, loan loss reserve estimations and security impairment charges produced by our internal models may be different from actual results, which could adversely affect our business results, cash flows, fair value of net assets, business prospects and future financial results. Changes in, or replacements of, any of our models or in any of the assumptions, judgments or estimates used in the models may cause the results generated by the model to be materially different from those generated by the prior model. The different results could cause a revision of previously reported financial condition or results of operations, depending on when the change to the model, assumption, judgment or estimate is implemented. Any such changes may also cause difficulties in comparisons of the financial condition or results of operations of prior or future periods.
 
Due to increased uncertainty about model results, we also face increased risk that we could make poor business decisions in areas where model results are an important factor, including loan purchases, management and guarantee fee pricing and asset and liability management. Furthermore, any strategies we employ to attempt to manage the risks associated with our use of models may not be effective. See “MD&A — CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES” and “QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK — Interest-Rate Risk and Other Market Risks” for more information on our use of models.
 
Changes in our accounting policies, as well as estimates we make, could materially affect how we report our financial condition or results of operations.
 
Our accounting policies are fundamental to understanding our financial condition and results of operations. Certain of our accounting policies, as well as estimates we make, are “critical,” as they are both important to the presentation of our financial condition and results of operations and they require management to make particularly difficult, complex or subjective judgments and estimates, often regarding matters that are inherently uncertain. Actual results could differ from our estimates and the use of different judgments and assumptions related to these policies and estimates could have a material
 
            58 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

impact on our consolidated financial statements. For a description of our critical accounting policies, see “MD&A — CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES.”
 
From time to time, the FASB and the SEC change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. These changes are beyond our control, can be difficult to predict and could materially impact how we report our financial condition and results of operations. We could be required to apply a new or revised standard retrospectively, which may result in the revision of prior period financial statements by material amounts. The implementation of new or revised accounting standards could result in material adverse effects to our stockholders’ equity (deficit) and result in or contribute to the need for additional draws under the Purchase Agreement.
 
See “NOTE 1: SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES” and “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES” for more information.
 
A failure in our operational systems or infrastructure, or those of third parties, could impair our liquidity, disrupt our business, damage our reputation and cause losses.
 
Shortcomings or failures in our internal processes, people or systems could lead to impairment of our liquidity, financial loss, errors in our financial statements, disruption of our business, liability to customers, further legislative or regulatory intervention or reputational damage. We experienced a number of operational problems in 2010 related to inadequately designed or improperly executed systems. Servicing and loss mitigation processes are currently under considerable stress, which increases the risk that we may experience further operational problems in the future. Corporate reorganizations, inability to retain key staff members, and our efforts to reduce administrative expenses may increase the stress on existing processes.
 
Our business is highly dependent on our ability to process a large number of transactions on a daily basis and manage and analyze significant amounts of information, much of which is provided by third parties. The transactions we process are complex and are subject to various legal, accounting and regulatory standards. The types of transactions we process and the standards relating to those transactions can change rapidly in response to external events, such as the implementation of government-mandated programs and changes in market conditions. Our financial, accounting, data processing or other operating systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled, adversely affecting our ability to process these transactions. The information provided by third parties may be incorrect, or we may fail to properly manage or analyze it. Our core systems and technical architecture include many legacy systems and applications that lack scalability and flexibility, which increases the risk of system failure. The inability of our systems to accommodate an increasing volume of transactions or new types of transactions or products could constrain our ability to pursue new business initiatives. We are investing considerable resources in a long-term project to improve our existing systems infrastructure. There can be no assurance that we will be able to complete this project successfully, or that it will reduce our operational risk. In the past, we have had difficulty in conducting similar large-scale infrastructure improvement projects.
 
Our employees could act improperly for their own gain and cause unexpected losses or reputational damage. While we have processes and systems in place to prevent and detect fraud, there can be no assurance that such processes and systems will be successful.
 
We also face the risk of operational failure or termination of any of the clearing agents, exchanges, clearinghouses or other financial intermediaries we use to facilitate our securities and derivatives transactions. Any such failure or termination could adversely affect our ability to effect transactions, service our customers and manage our exposure to risk.
 
Most of our key business activities are conducted in our principal offices located in McLean, Virginia. Despite the contingency plans and facilities we have in place, our ability to conduct business may be adversely impacted by a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our business and the communities in which we are located. Potential disruptions may include those involving electrical, communications, transportation or other services we use or that are provided to us. If a disruption occurs and our employees are unable to occupy our offices or communicate with or travel to other locations, our ability to service and interact with our customers or counterparties may suffer and we may not be able to successfully implement contingency plans that depend on communication or travel.
 
We are exposed to the risk that a catastrophic event, such as a terrorist event or natural disaster, could result in a significant business disruption and an inability to process transactions through normal business processes. Any measures we take to mitigate this risk may not be sufficient to respond to the full range of catastrophic events that may occur.
 
We may not be able to protect the confidentiality of our information.
 
Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks. Our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses or other malicious code and other events that could have a security impact. If one or more of such events occur, this potentially could jeopardize confidential and other information, including nonpublic personal information and
 
            59 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

sensitive business data, processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations or the operations of our customers or counterparties, which could result in significant losses or reputational damage. We may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures, and we may be subject to litigation and financial losses that are not fully insured.
 
We rely on third parties for certain important functions, including some that are critical to financial reporting, our mortgage-related investment activity and mortgage loan underwriting. Any failures by those vendors could disrupt our business operations.
 
We outsource certain key functions to external parties, including: (a) processing functions for trade capture, market risk management analytics, and financial instrument valuation; (b) custody and recordkeeping for our mortgage-related investments; (c) processing functions for mortgage loan underwriting and servicing; and (d) certain services we provide to Treasury in our role as program compliance agent under HAMP. We may enter into other key outsourcing relationships in the future. If one or more of these key external parties were not able to perform their functions for a period of time, at an acceptable service level, or for increased volumes, our business operations could be constrained, disrupted or otherwise negatively impacted. Our use of vendors also exposes us to the risk of a loss of intellectual property or of confidential information or other harm. We may also be exposed to reputational harm, to the extent vendors do not conduct their activities under appropriate ethical standards. Financial or operational difficulties of an outside vendor could also hurt our operations if those difficulties interfere with the vendor’s ability to provide services to us.
 
Our risk management efforts may not effectively mitigate the risks we seek to manage.
 
We could incur substantial losses and our business operations could be disrupted if we are unable to effectively identify, manage, monitor and mitigate operational risks, interest rate and other market risks and credit risks related to our business. Our risk management policies, procedures and techniques may not be sufficient to mitigate the risks we have identified or to appropriately identify additional risks to which we are subject. See “QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK” and “MD&A — RISK MANAGEMENT” for a discussion of our approach to managing the risks we face.
 
Legal and Regulatory Risks
 
The Dodd-Frank Act and related regulation may adversely affect our business activities and financial results.
 
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which was signed into law on July 21, 2010, significantly changed the regulation of the financial services industry and could affect us in substantial and unforeseeable ways and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and net worth. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act and related future regulatory changes could impact the value of assets that we hold, require us to change certain of our business practices, impose significant additional costs on us, limit the products we offer, require us to increase our regulatory capital, or make it more difficult for us to retain and recruit management and other valuable employees. We will also face a more complicated regulatory environment due to the Dodd-Frank Act and related future regulatory changes, which will increase compliance costs and could divert management attention or other resources. The Dodd-Frank Act and related future regulatory changes will also significantly affect many aspects of the financial services industry and potentially change the business practices of our customers and counterparties; it is possible that any such changes could adversely affect our business and financial results.
 
Implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act is being accomplished through numerous rulemakings, many of which are expected to be finalized in 2011. The final effects of the legislation will not be known with certainty until these rulemakings are complete. The Dodd-Frank Act also mandates the preparation of studies of a wide range of issues, which could lead to additional legislative or regulatory changes. It could be difficult for us to comply with any future regulatory changes in a timely manner, due to the potential scope and number of such changes, which could limit our operations and expose us to liability.
 
The long-term impact of the Dodd-Frank Act and related future regulatory changes on our business and the financial services industry will depend on a number of factors that are difficult to predict, including our ability to successfully implement any changes to our business, changes in consumer behavior and our competitors’ and customers’ responses to the Dodd-Frank Act and related future regulatory changes.
 
Examples of aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act that may significantly affect us include the following:
 
  •  The new Financial Stability Oversight Council could designate Freddie Mac as a non-bank financial company to be subject to supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve. If this occurs, the Federal Reserve will have authority to examine Freddie Mac and we may be required to meet more stringent prudential standards than those applicable to
 
            60 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

  other non-bank financial companies. New prudential standards potentially could include capital requirements that are based on standards applicable to insured depository institutions.
 
  •  The Dodd-Frank Act will have a significant impact on the derivatives market, including by subjecting large derivatives users, which may include Freddie Mac, to extensive new oversight and regulation. These new regulatory standards could impose significant additional costs on us relating to derivatives transactions and it may become more difficult for us to enter into desired hedging transactions with acceptable counterparties on favorable terms.
 
  •  The Dodd-Frank Act will create new standards and requirements related to asset-backed securities, including requiring securitizers and potentially originators to retain a portion of the underlying loans’ credit risk. Any such new standards and requirements could weaken or remove incentives for financial institutions to sell mortgage loans to us.
 
  •  The Dodd-Frank Act and related future regulatory changes could negatively impact the volume of mortgage originations, and thus adversely affect the number of mortgages available for us to purchase.
 
  •  Under the Dodd-Frank Act, new minimum mortgage underwriting standards will be required for residential mortgages, including a requirement that lenders make a reasonable and good faith determination based on “verified and documented information” that the consumer has a “reasonable ability to repay” the mortgage. The Act requires regulators to establish a class of qualified loans that will receive certain protections from legal liability, such as the borrower’s right to rescind the loan and seek damages. Mortgage originators and assignees, including Freddie Mac, may be subject to increased legal risk for loans that do not meet these requirements.
 
  •  Under the Dodd-Frank Act, federal regulators, including FHFA, are directed to promulgate regulations, to be applicable to financial institutions, including Freddie Mac, that will prohibit incentive-based compensation structures that the regulators determine encourage inappropriate risks by providing excessive compensation or benefits or that could lead to material financial loss. It is possible that any such regulations will have an adverse effect on our ability to retain and recruit management and other valuable employees, as we may be at a competitive disadvantage as compared to other potential employers not subject to these or similar regulations.
 
For more information on the Dodd-Frank Act, see “BUSINESS — Regulation and Supervision —  Legislative and Regulatory Developments.”
 
Legislative or regulatory actions could adversely affect our business activities and financial results.
 
In addition to possible GSE reform legislation and the Dodd-Frank Act discussed above, our business initiatives may be directly adversely affected by other legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state and local levels. We could be negatively affected by legislation or regulatory action that changes the foreclosure process of any individual state. For example, various states and local jurisdictions have implemented mediation programs designed to bring servicers and borrowers together to negotiate workout options. These actions could delay the foreclosure process and increase our expenses, including by potentially delaying the final resolution of delinquent mortgage loans and the disposition of non-performing assets. We could also be affected by any legislative or regulatory changes to existing bankruptcy laws or proceedings or foreclosure processes, including any changes that would allow bankruptcy judges to unilaterally change the terms of mortgage loans or otherwise require principal reductions. Our business could also be adversely affected by any modification, reduction or repeal of the federal income tax deductibility of mortgage interest payments.
 
Legislation or regulatory actions could indirectly adversely affect us to the extent such legislation or actions affect the activities of banks, savings institutions, insurance companies, securities dealers and other regulated entities that constitute a significant part of our customer base or counterparties, or could indirectly affect us to the extent that they modify industry practices. Legislative or regulatory provisions that create or remove incentives for these entities to sell mortgage loans to us, purchase our securities or enter into derivatives or other transactions with us could have a material adverse effect on our business results and financial condition.
 
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision is in the process of substantially revising capital guidelines for financial institutions and has recently finalized portions of the so-called “Basel III” guidelines, which would set new capital and liquidity requirements for banks. Phase-in of Basel III is expected to take several years and there is significant uncertainty about how regulators might implement these guidelines or how the resulting regulations might impact us. For example, it is possible that any new regulations on the capital treatment of mortgage servicing rights, risk-based capital requirements for credit risk, and liquidity treatment of our debt and guarantee obligations could adversely affect our business results and financial condition.
 
We may make certain changes to our business in an attempt to meet the housing goals and subgoals set for us by FHFA that may increase our losses.
 
We may make adjustments to our mortgage loan sourcing and purchase strategies in an effort to meet our housing goals and subgoals, including changes to our underwriting guidelines and the expanded use of targeted initiatives to reach
 
            61 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

underserved populations. For example, we may purchase loans that offer lower expected returns on our investment and increase our exposure to credit losses. Doing so could cause us to forgo other purchase opportunities that we would expect to be more profitable. If our current efforts to meet the goals and subgoals prove to be insufficient, we may need to take additional steps that could further increase our losses. FHFA has not yet published a final rule with respect to our duty to serve underserved markets. However, it is possible that we could also make changes to our business in the future in response to this duty. If we do not meet our housing goals or duty to serve requirements, and FHFA finds that the goals or requirements were feasible, we may become subject to a housing plan that could require us to take additional steps that could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
 
We are involved in legal proceedings, governmental investigations and IRS examinations that could result in the payment of substantial damages or otherwise harm our business.
 
We are a party to various legal actions, including litigation in the U.S. Tax Court as result of a dispute of certain tax matters with the IRS related to our 1998 through 2005 federal income tax returns. We are also subject to investigations by the SEC and the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Virginia. In addition, certain of our current and former directors, officers and employees are involved in legal proceedings for which they may be entitled to reimbursement by us for costs and expenses of the proceedings. The defense of these or any future claims or proceedings could divert management’s attention and resources from the needs of the business. We may be required to establish reserves and to make substantial payments in the event of adverse judgments or settlements of any such claims, investigations, proceedings or examinations. Any legal proceeding, governmental investigation or examination issue, even if resolved in our favor, could result in negative publicity or cause us to incur significant legal and other expenses. Furthermore, developments in, outcomes of, impacts of, and costs, expenses, settlements and judgments related to these legal proceedings and governmental investigations and examinations may differ from our expectations and exceed any amounts for which we have reserved or require adjustments to such reserves. We are also cooperating with other investigations, such as the review being conducted by state attorneys general and state bank and mortgage regulators into foreclosure practices. These proceedings could divert management’s attention or other resources. See “LEGAL PROCEEDINGS” for information about our pending legal proceedings and “NOTE 14: INCOME TAXES” for information about our litigation with the IRS relating to potential additional income taxes and penalties for the 1998 to 2005 tax years and other tax-related matters.
 
 
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
 
 
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
 
Our principal offices consist of five office buildings in McLean, Virginia. We own four of the office buildings, comprising approximately 1.3 million square feet. We occupy the fifth building, comprising approximately 200,000 square feet, under a lease from a third party.
 
 
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
We are involved as a party to a variety of legal proceedings arising from time to time in the ordinary course of business. See “NOTE 21: LEGAL CONTINGENCIES” for more information regarding our involvement as a party to various legal proceedings.
 
 
ITEM 4. RESERVED
 
            62 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

 
PART II
 
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED
STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Market Information
 
Our common stock, par value $0.00 per share, trades in the OTC market and is quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board under the ticker symbol “FMCC.” As of February 11, 2011, there were 649,182,461 shares of our common stock outstanding.
 
On July 8, 2010, our common stock and 20 previously-listed classes of preferred securities were delisted from the NYSE. We delisted such securities pursuant to a directive by the Conservator. The classes of preferred stock that were previously listed on the NYSE also now trade in the OTC market.
 
Table 7 sets forth the high and low prices of our common stock on the NYSE and the high and low bid information for our common stock on the OTC Bulletin Board for the indicated periods. The OTC Bulletin Board quotations reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down, or commission and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.
 
Table 7 — Quarterly Common Stock Information
 
                 
    High   Low
 
2010 Quarter Ended
               
December 31(1)
  $ 0.50     $ 0.29  
September 30(2)
    0.44       0.24  
June 30(3)
    1.68       0.40  
March 31(3)
    1.52       1.12  
2009 Quarter Ended(3)
               
December 31
  $ 1.86     $ 1.02  
September 30
    2.50       0.54  
June 30
    1.05       0.53  
March 31
    1.50       0.35  
(1)  Based on bid information for our common stock on the OTC Bulletin Board.
(2)  Based on the prices of our common stock on the NYSE prior to July 8, 2010 and bid information for our common stock on the OTC Bulletin Board on and after July 8, 2010.
(3)  Based on the prices of our common stock on the NYSE.
 
Holders
 
As of February 11, 2011, we had 2,153 common stockholders of record.
 
Dividends and Dividend Restrictions
 
We did not pay any cash dividends on our common stock during 2010 or 2009.
 
Our payment of dividends is subject to the following restrictions:
 
Restrictions Relating to the Conservatorship
 
As Conservator, FHFA announced on September 7, 2008 that we would not pay any dividends on Freddie Mac’s common stock or on any series of Freddie Mac’s preferred stock (other than the senior preferred stock). FHFA has instructed our Board of Directors that it should consult with and obtain the approval of FHFA before taking actions involving dividends.
 
Restrictions Under the Purchase Agreement
 
The Purchase Agreement prohibits us and any of our subsidiaries from declaring or paying any dividends on Freddie Mac equity securities (other than the senior preferred stock) without the prior written consent of Treasury.
 
Restrictions Under the GSE Act
 
Under the GSE Act, FHFA has authority to prohibit capital distributions, including payment of dividends, if we fail to meet applicable capital requirements. Under the GSE Act, we are not permitted to make a capital distribution if, after making the distribution, we would be undercapitalized, except the Director of FHFA may permit us to repurchase shares if the repurchase is made in connection with the issuance of additional shares or obligations in at least an equivalent amount and will reduce our financial obligations or otherwise improve our financial condition. If FHFA classifies us as undercapitalized, we are not permitted to make a capital distribution that would result in our being reclassified as significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. If FHFA classifies us as significantly undercapitalized, approval of the Director of FHFA is required for any dividend payment; the Director may approve a capital distribution only if the Director determines that the distribution will enhance the ability of the company to meet required capital levels promptly, will contribute to the long-term financial safety-and-soundness of the company or is otherwise in the public interest. Our capital requirements have been suspended during conservatorship.
 
            63 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Restrictions Under our Charter
 
Without regard to our capital classification, we must obtain prior written approval of FHFA to make any capital distribution that would decrease total capital to an amount less than the risk-based capital level or that would decrease core capital to an amount less than the minimum capital level. As noted above, our capital requirements have been suspended during conservatorship.
 
Restrictions Relating to Subordinated Debt
 
During any period in which we defer payment of interest on qualifying subordinated debt, we may not declare or pay dividends on, or redeem, purchase or acquire, our common stock or preferred stock. Our qualifying subordinated debt provides for the deferral of the payment of interest for up to five years if either: (a) our core capital is below 125% of our critical capital requirement; or (b) our core capital is below our statutory minimum capital requirement, and the Secretary of the Treasury, acting on our request, exercises his or her discretionary authority pursuant to Section 306(c) of our charter to purchase our debt obligations. FHFA has directed us to make interest and principal payments on our subordinated debt, even if we fail to maintain required capital levels. As a result, the terms of any of our subordinated debt that provide for us to defer payments of interest under certain circumstances, including our failure to maintain specified capital levels, are no longer applicable. As noted above, our capital requirements have been suspended during conservatorship.
 
Restrictions Relating to Preferred Stock
 
Payment of dividends on our common stock is also subject to the prior payment of dividends on our 24 series of preferred stock and one series of senior preferred stock, representing an aggregate of 464,170,000 shares and 1,000,000 shares, respectively, outstanding as of December 31, 2010. Payment of dividends on all outstanding preferred stock, other than the senior preferred stock, is subject to the prior payment of dividends on the senior preferred stock. On December 31, 2010, we paid dividends of $1.6 billion in cash on the senior preferred stock at the direction of the Conservator. We did not declare or pay dividends on any other series of preferred stock outstanding in 2010.
 
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
 
The securities we issue are “exempted securities” under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. As a result, we do not file registration statements with the SEC with respect to offerings of our securities.
 
Following our entry into conservatorship, we suspended the operation of, and ceased making grants under, equity compensation plans. Under the Purchase Agreement, we cannot issue any new options, rights to purchase, participations, or other equity interests without Treasury’s prior approval. However, grants outstanding as of the date of the Purchase Agreement remain in effect in accordance with their terms.
 
No stock options were exercised during the three months ended December 31, 2010. However, restrictions lapsed on 23,137 restricted stock units.
 
See “NOTE 13: FREDDIE MAC STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)” for more information.
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
We did not repurchase any of our common or preferred stock during the three months ended December 31, 2010. Additionally, we do not currently have any outstanding authorizations to repurchase common or preferred stock. Under the Purchase Agreement, we cannot repurchase our common or preferred stock without Treasury’s prior consent, and we may only purchase or redeem the senior preferred stock in certain limited circumstances set forth in the Certificate of Creation, Designation, Powers, Preferences, Rights, Privileges, Qualifications, Limitations, Restrictions, Terms and Conditions of Variable Liquidation Preference Senior Preferred Stock.
 
Transfer Agent and Registrar
 
Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
P.O. Box 43078
Providence, RI 02940-3078
Telephone: 781-575-2879
http://www.computershare.com/investors
 
            64 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

 
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA(1)
 
The selected financial data presented below should be reviewed in conjunction with MD&A and our consolidated financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
                                         
    At or for the Year Ended December 31,
    2010   2009   2008   2007   2006
    (dollars in millions, except share-related amounts)
 
Statements of Operations Data
                                       
Net interest income
  $ 16,856     $ 17,073     $ 6,796     $ 3,099     $ 3,412  
Provision for credit losses
    (17,218 )     (29,530 )     (16,432 )     (2,854 )     (296 )
Non-interest income (loss)
    (11,588 )     (2,732 )     (29,175 )     (275 )     1,679  
Non-interest expense
    (2,932 )     (7,195 )     (5,753 )     (5,959 )     (2,513 )
Net income (loss) attributable to Freddie Mac
    (14,025 )     (21,553 )     (50,119 )     (3,094 )     2,327  
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders
    (19,774 )     (25,658 )     (50,795 )     (3,503 )     2,051  
Earnings (loss) per common share:
                                       
Basic
    (6.09 )     (7.89 )     (34.60 )     (5.37 )     3.01  
Diluted
    (6.09 )     (7.89 )     (34.60 )     (5.37 )     3.00  
Cash dividends per common share
                0.50       1.75       1.91  
Weighted average common shares outstanding (in thousands)(2):
                                       
Basic
    3,249,369       3,253,836       1,468,062       651,881       680,856  
Diluted
    3,249,369       3,253,836       1,468,062       651,881       682,664  
Balance Sheets Data
                                       
Mortgage loans held-for-investment, at amortized cost by consolidated trusts (net of allowance for loan losses)
  $ 1,646,172     $     $     $     $  
Total assets
    2,261,780       841,784       850,963       794,368       804,910  
Debt securities of consolidated trusts held by third parties
    1,528,648                          
Other debt
    713,940       780,604       843,021       738,557       744,341  
All other liabilities
    19,593       56,808       38,576       28,906       33,139  
Total Freddie Mac stockholders’ equity (deficit)
    (401 )     4,278       (30,731 )     26,724       26,914  
Portfolio Balances(3)
                                       
Mortgage-related investments portfolio
  $ 696,874     $ 755,272     $ 804,762     $ 720,813     $ 703,959  
Total Freddie Mac Mortgage-Related Securities(4)
    1,712,918       1,854,813       1,807,553       1,701,207       1,470,481  
Total mortgage portfolio(5)
    2,164,859       2,250,539       2,207,476       2,102,676       1,826,720  
Non-performing assets(6)
    125,405       104,984       46,620       16,119       7,761  
Ratios
                                       
Return on average assets(7), (12)
    (0.6 )%     (2.5 )%     (6.1 )%     (0.4 )%     0.3 %
Non-performing assets ratio(8)
    6.4       5.2       2.4       0.9       0.5  
Return on common equity(9), (12)
    N/A       N/A       N/A       (21.0 )     9.8  
Dividend payout ratio on common stock(10)
    N/A       N/A       N/A       N/A       63.9  
Equity to assets ratio(11), (12)
    (0.2 )     (1.6 )     (0.2 )     3.4       3.3  
 (1)  See “NOTE 1: SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES” and “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES” for more information regarding our accounting policies and adjustments made to previously reported results due to changes in accounting principles.
 (2)  Includes the weighted average number of shares during 2008, 2009 and 2010 that are associated with the warrant for our common stock issued to Treasury as part of the Purchase Agreement. This warrant is included in basic earnings per share, because it is unconditionally exercisable by the holder at a cost of $0.00001 per share.
 (3)  Represents the UPB and excludes mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities traded, but not yet settled. Effective in December 2007, we established trusts for the administration of cash remittances received related to the underlying assets of our PCs and REMICs and Other Structured Securities issued. As a result, after 2006, we report the balance of our mortgage portfolios to reflect the publicly-available security balances of Freddie Mac mortgage-related securities. For 2006, we report these balances based on the UPB of the underlying mortgage loans. We reflected this change as an increase in the UPB of our mortgage-related investments portfolio by $2.8 billion at December 31, 2007.
 (4)  See “Table 34 — Freddie Mac Mortgage-Related Securities” for the composition of this line item.
 (5)  See “Table 16 — Segment Mortgage Portfolio Composition” for the composition of our total mortgage portfolio.
 (6)  See “Table 54 — Non-Performing Assets” for a description of our non-performing assets.
 (7)  Ratio computed as net income (loss) attributable to Freddie Mac divided by the simple average of the beginning and ending balances of total assets.
 (8)  Ratio computed as non-performing assets divided by the ending UPB of our total mortgage portfolio, excluding non-Freddie Mac mortgage-related securities.
 (9)  Ratio computed as net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders divided by the simple average of the beginning and ending balances of total Freddie Mac stockholders’ equity (deficit), net of preferred stock (at redemption value). Ratio is not presented for periods in which the simple average of the beginning and ending balances of total Freddie Mac stockholders’ equity (deficit) is less than zero.
(10)  Ratio computed as common stock dividends declared divided by net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders. Ratio is not presented for periods in which net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders was a loss.
(11)  Ratio computed as the simple average of the beginning and ending balances of total Freddie Mac stockholders’ equity (deficit) divided by the simple average of the beginning and ending balances of total assets.
(12)  To calculate the simple averages for 2010, the beginning balances of total assets, total Freddie Mac stockholders’ equity, net of preferred stock (at redemption value), and total Freddie Mac stockholders’ equity are based on the January 1, 2010 balances included in “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES — Table 2.1 — Impact of the Change in Accounting for Transfers of Financial Assets and Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities on Our Consolidated Balance Sheet” so that both the beginning and ending balances reflect changes in accounting principles.
 
            65 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

 
ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
You should read this MD&A in conjunction with “BUSINESS — Executive Summary” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes for the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
MORTGAGE MARKET AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS, AND OUTLOOK
 
Mortgage Market and Economic Conditions
 
Overview
 
Mortgage and credit market conditions remained weak in 2010 due primarily to a continued weak labor market. The pace of economic recovery increased slightly in the fourth quarter of 2010, with the U.S. gross domestic product rising by 3.2% on an annualized basis during the period, compared to 2.6% during the third quarter of 2010, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis advance estimate. Unemployment was 9.4% in December 2010, down slightly compared to 9.9% at December 2009, based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
 
Table 8 provides important indicators for the U.S. residential mortgage market.
 
Table 8 — Mortgage Market Indicators
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,
    2010   2009   2008
 
Home sale units (in thousands)(1)
    5,229       5,531       5,398  
Home price depreciation(2)
    (4.1 )%     (2.4 )%     (11.9 )%
Single-family originations (in billions)(3)
  $ 1,570     $ 1,815     $ 1,500  
Adjustable-rate mortgage share(4)
    10 %     7 %     13 %
Refinance share(5)
    73 %     68 %     50 %
U.S. single-family mortgage debt outstanding (in billions)(6)
  $ 10,612     $ 10,861     $ 11,072  
U.S. multifamily mortgage debt outstanding (in billions)(6)
  $ 847     $ 851     $ 841  
(1)  Includes sales of new and existing homes in the U.S. Source: National Association of Realtors news release dated January 20, 2011 (sales of existing homes) and U.S. Census Bureau news release dated January 26, 2011 (sales of new homes).
(2)  Calculated internally using estimates of changes in single-family home prices by state, which are weighted using the property values underlying our single-family credit guarantee portfolio to obtain a national index. The depreciation rate for each year presented incorporates property value information on loans purchased by both Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae through December 31, 2010 and the percentage change will be subject to revision based on more recent purchase information. Other indices of home prices may have different results, as they are determined using different pools of mortgage loans and calculated under different conventions than our own.
(3)  Source: Inside Mortgage Finance estimates of originations of single-family first-and second liens dated January 28, 2011.
(4)  Adjustable-rate mortgage share of the dollar amount of total mortgage applications. Source: Mortgage Bankers Association’s Mortgage Applications Survey. Data reflect annual average of weekly figures.
(5)  Refinance share of the number of conventional mortgage applications. Source: Mortgage Bankers Association’s Mortgage Applications Survey. Data reflect annual average of weekly figures.
(6)  Source: Federal Reserve Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States dated December 9, 2010. The outstanding amounts for 2010 presented above reflect balances as of September 30, 2010, which is the latest information available.
 
Single-Family Housing Market
 
We believe the level of home sales in the U.S. is a significant driver of the direction of home prices. Within the industry, existing home sales are important for assessing the rate at which the mortgage market might absorb the inventory of listed, but unsold, homes in the U.S. (including listed REO properties), while we believe new home sales can be an indicator of other economic trends, such as the potential for growth in total U.S. mortgage debt outstanding. We believe that the end of the federal homebuyer tax credit program in April 2010 contributed to a decline in home sales mid-year, and the market slowly improved in the fourth quarter. New home sales fell 31.9% in May 2010 to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 282,000, reflecting the fourth lowest level since the U.S. Census Bureau’s series began in 1963. New home sales recovered modestly in the second half of 2010, but ended the year at an annual rate of 329,000 in December. Because existing home sales are reported at closing, typically a month or more after the contract is signed, the full effect of the expiration of the federal homebuyer tax credit program was not felt until July 2010, when existing home sales decreased by 27.0%, as compared to June 2010 sales. Sales of existing homes rose 37.5% over the remainder of 2010, to an annual rate of 5.3 million in December.
 
We estimate that home prices decreased 4.1% nationwide during 2010, as a slight increase in home prices during the first half of 2010 was more than offset by a decrease in home prices during the second half of 2010, including a 1.4% decrease in the fourth quarter of 2010. These estimates are based on our own index of our single-family credit guarantee portfolio. Other indices of home prices may have different results, as they are determined using different pools of mortgage loans and calculated under different conventions than our own. We believe home prices in the first half of the year were positively impacted by the availability of the federal homebuyer tax credit, as well as strong home sales in the spring and summer months of 2010, which is consistent with historical trends.
 
            66 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Serious delinquency rates on single-family loans declined during 2010, but remain at historically high levels for all major product types. The MBA reported in its National Delinquency Survey that delinquency rates on all single-family loans in their survey dipped to 8.6% as of December 31, 2010, down from the record 9.7% at year-end 2009. Residential loan performance was generally better in areas with lower unemployment rates and where property prices have fallen slightly or not declined at all in the last two years. In its survey, the MBA presents delinquency rates both for mortgages it classifies as subprime and for mortgages it classifies as prime conventional. The delinquency rates of subprime mortgages are markedly higher than those of prime conventional loan products in the MBA survey; however, the delinquency experience in prime conventional mortgage loans during the last two years has been significantly worse than in any year since the 1930s.
 
Based on data from the Federal Reserve’s Flow of Funds Accounts, there was a sustained and significant increase in single-family mortgage debt outstanding from 2001 to 2006. This increase in mortgage debt was driven by increasing sales of new and existing single-family homes during this same period. As reported by FHFA in its Conservator’s Report on the Enterprises’ Financial Condition, dated August 26, 2010, the market share of mortgage-backed securities issued by the GSEs and Ginnie Mae declined significantly from 2001 to 2006 while the market share of non-GSE securities peaked. Non-traditional mortgage types, such as interest-only, Alt-A, and option ARMs, also increased in market share during these years, which we believe introduced greater risk into the market. We believe these shifts in market activity, in part, help explain the significant differentiation in delinquency performance of securitized non-GSE and GSE mortgage loans as discussed below.
 
We estimate that we owned or guaranteed approximately one-fourth of the outstanding single-family mortgages in the U.S. at December 31, 2010. At December 31, 2010, we held or guaranteed approximately 462,000 seriously delinquent single-family loans, representing approximately one-tenth of the seriously delinquent single-family mortgages in the market as of December 31, 2010. We estimate that loans backing non-GSE securities comprised approximately one-tenth of the single-family mortgages in the U.S. and represented approximately one-fourth of the seriously delinquent single-family mortgages at December 31, 2010. As of December 31, 2010, we held non-GSE securities with a UPB of $158.4 billion as investments.
 
Concerns Regarding Deficiencies in Foreclosure Documentation Practices
 
In the fall of 2010, several large seller/servicers announced issues relating to the improper preparation and execution of certain documents used in foreclosure proceedings, including affidavits. These announcements raised various concerns relating to foreclosure practices. A number of our seller/servicers, including several of our largest ones, temporarily suspended foreclosure proceedings in certain states in which they do business while they evaluated and addressed these issues. A number of these companies continue to address these issues, and certain of these suspensions remain in effect. We temporarily suspended certain foreclosure proceedings, and certain REO sales and eviction proceedings for REO properties for certain servicers during the fourth quarter of 2010 while we evaluated the impact of these issues. We resumed REO sales in November 2010.
 
In November 2010, we terminated the eligibility of one law firm to serve as counsel in foreclosures of Freddie Mac mortgages, due to issues with respect to the firm’s foreclosure practices. That firm had been responsible for handling a significant number of foreclosures for our servicers in Florida.
 
We expect that these issues and the related foreclosure suspensions could prolong the foreclosure process in many states and may delay sales of our REO properties.
 
On October 13, 2010, FHFA made public a four-point policy framework detailing FHFA’s plan to address these issues, including guidance for consistent remediation of identified foreclosure process deficiencies, and directed Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae to implement this plan.
 
We have incurred, and will continue to incur, expenses related to these deficiencies in foreclosure documentation practices and the costs of remediating them, which may be significant. For more information regarding how these deficiencies in foreclosure documentation practices could impact our business, see “RISK FACTORS — Operational Risks — Our expenses could increase and we may otherwise be adversely affected by deficiencies in foreclosure practices, as well as related delays in the foreclosure process” and “RISK MANAGEMENT — Credit Risk — Institutional Credit Risk — Mortgage Seller/Servicers.” Throughout this Form 10-K, we generally refer to these matters as the concerns about foreclosure documentation practices.
 
Issues have also been raised with respect to the MERS System. For more information, see “RISK FACTORS — Operational Risks — Issues related to mortgages recorded through MERS could delay or disrupt foreclosure activities and have an adverse effect on our business.”
 
Multifamily Housing Market
 
Major national multifamily market fundamentals improved during 2010 with several consecutive quarters’ apartment statistics reflecting positive trends. Vacancy rates, which had climbed to record levels in early 2010, improved, and effective
 
            67 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

rents, the principal source of income for property owners, stabilized and began to increase on a national basis. Vacancy rates and effective rents are important to loan performance because multifamily loans are generally repaid from the cash flows generated by the underlying property. These improving fundamentals helped to stabilize property values in a number of markets. However, the multifamily market continues to be negatively impacted by high unemployment and ongoing weakness in the economy. Since 2008, most of our competitors, other than Fannie Mae and FHA, ceased their activities in the multifamily mortgage business or severely curtailed these activities relative to their previous levels. However, some market participants began to re-enter the market on a limited basis in 2010.
 
Outlook
 
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. These statements are not historical facts, but rather represent our expectations based on current information, plans, judgments, assumptions, estimates, and projections. Actual results may differ significantly from those described in or implied by such forward-looking statements due to various factors and uncertainties. For example, a number of factors could cause the actual performance of the housing and mortgage markets and the U.S. economy during 2011 to be significantly worse than we expect, including adverse changes in consumer confidence, national or international economic conditions and changes in the federal government’s fiscal policies. See “BUSINESS — Forward-Looking Statements” for additional information.
 
Overview
 
As in the past, we expect key macroeconomic drivers of the economy — such as income growth, unemployment rate, and inflation — will affect the performance of the housing and mortgage markets in 2011. With the federal government’s fiscal policy supporting aggregate demand for goods and services and a monetary policy that provides low interest rates and ample liquidity to capital markets, we believe the economic recovery will continue and gradually accelerate during 2011, with the second half of 2011 exhibiting stronger fundamentals than the early part of the year.
 
Single-Family Market
 
Below are four features that we believe will influence the 2011 housing and mortgage markets. The likelihood that any or all of these features will occur depends on a variety of factors, including the pace of the economic recovery.
 
  •  Mortgage rates — By November 2010, fixed-rate mortgage rates had declined to their lowest level since the early 1950s. This allowed for the continuation of the refinance boom that began in 2009. If the federal funds rate remains under 0.5% for most of 2011, relatively low mortgage rates should be a feature of the 2011 mortgage market.
 
  •  Home prices — We believe those local markets that have relatively large inventories of for-sale homes and REO dispositions will continue to see home price declines in 2011. We also believe that while certain markets may experience modest home price increases in 2011, home prices for the U.S. as a whole are likely to be lower than in 2010.
 
  •  Homebuyer affordability — The three primary factors that affect buyer affordability are: (a) mortgage rates; (b) home prices; and (c) income. We believe buyer affordability is higher than the past several years. We believe that many first-time buyers will be attracted to the housing market in 2011, which should translate into more home sales in 2011 than in 2010 and a slight increase in mortgage debt outstanding.
 
  •  Lower mortgage origination volume — More home sales in 2011 would generally result in increased purchase-money originations, and that is expected to be a feature of 2011’s mortgage market. However, refinance activity is expected to decline during 2011 as a result of at least three factors: (a) many borrowers have refinanced over the past year or are currently in the midst of refinancing, and hence will have little need to do so again in 2011; (b) MHA’s Home Affordable Refinance Program is scheduled to expire on June 30, 2011, which is expected to further dampen refinance volume during the second half of 2011; and (c) we expect interest rates will move up during 2011, reducing the financial incentive to refinance for those borrowers who have not done so already. As a result, we believe the anticipated decline in refinance originations should offset the potential increase in purchase-money originations, which should lead to lower total mortgage lending volume in 2011.
 
Multifamily Market
 
While major multifamily market fundamentals improved on a national basis during 2010, certain local markets continue to exhibit weak fundamentals. We expect that our multifamily non-performing assets may increase due to the continuation of challenging economic conditions, particularly in certain geographical areas. Improvements in loan performance have historically lagged improvements in broader economic and market trends during market recoveries. As a result, we may continue to experience elevated credit losses in the first half of 2011, even if market conditions continue to improve.
 
            68 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

 
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
The following discussion of our consolidated results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, including the accompanying notes. Also see “CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES” for more information concerning our more significant accounting policies and estimates applied in determining our reported results of operations.
 
Change in Accounting Principles
 
As discussed in “BUSINESS — Executive Summary,” our adoption of two new accounting standards that amended the guidance applicable to the accounting for transfers of financial assets and the consolidation of VIEs had a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements and other financial disclosures beginning in the first quarter of 2010.
 
The cumulative effect of these changes in accounting principles was a net decrease of $11.7 billion to total equity (deficit) as of January 1, 2010, which included changes to the opening balances of retained earnings (accumulated deficit) and AOCI. See “NOTE 1: SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES — Consolidation and Equity Method of Accounting,” “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES,” “NOTE 4: VARIABLE INTEREST ENTITIES,” and “NOTE 23: SELECTED FINANCIAL STATEMENT LINE ITEMS” for additional information regarding these changes.
 
As these changes in accounting principles were applied prospectively, our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2010 (on both a GAAP and Segment Earnings basis), which reflect the consolidation of trusts that issue our single-family PCs and certain Other Guarantee Transactions, are not directly comparable with the results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, which reflect the accounting policies in effect during that time (i.e., when the majority of the securitization entities were accounted for off-balance sheet).
 
Table 9 — Summary Consolidated Statements of Operations — GAAP Results(1)
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
    (in millions)  
 
Net interest income
  $ 16,856     $ 17,073     $ 6,796  
Provision for credit losses
    (17,218 )     (29,530 )     (16,432 )
                         
Net interest income (loss) after provision for credit losses
    (362 )     (12,457 )     (9,636 )
                         
Non-interest income (loss):
                       
Gains (losses) on extinguishment of debt securities of consolidated trusts
    (164 )            
Gains (losses) on retirement of other debt
    (219 )     (568 )     209  
Gains (losses) on debt recorded at fair value
    580       (404 )     406  
Derivative gains (losses)
    (8,085 )     (1,900 )     (14,954 )
Impairment of available-for-sale securities:(2)
                       
Total other-than-temporary impairment of available-for-sale securities
    (1,778 )     (23,125 )     (17,682 )
Portion of other-than-temporary impairment recognized in AOCI
    (2,530 )     11,928        
                         
Net impairment of available-for-sale securities recognized in earnings
    (4,308 )     (11,197 )     (17,682 )
Other gains (losses) on investment securities recognized in earnings
    (1,252 )     5,965       1,501  
Other income
    1,860       5,372       1,345  
                         
Total non-interest income (loss)
    (11,588 )     (2,732 )     (29,175 )
                         
Non-interest expense:
                       
Administrative expenses
    (1,546 )     (1,651 )     (1,505 )
REO operations expense
    (673 )     (307 )     (1,097 )
Other expenses
    (713 )     (5,237 )     (3,151 )
                         
Total non-interest expense
    (2,932 )     (7,195 )     (5,753 )
                         
Loss before income tax benefit (expense)
    (14,882 )     (22,384 )     (44,564 )
Income tax benefit (expense)
    856       830       (5,552 )
                         
Net loss
    (14,026 )     (21,554 )     (50,116 )
Less: Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interest
    1       1       (3 )
                         
Net loss attributable to Freddie Mac
  $ (14,025 )   $ (21,553 )   $ (50,119 )
                         
(1)  See “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES” for information regarding accounting changes impacting the current period.
(2)  We adopted an amendment to the accounting standards for investments in debt and equity securities effective April 1, 2009. See “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES — Other Changes in Accounting Principles” for additional information regarding the impact of this amendment.
 
Net Interest Income
 
Table 10 summarizes our net interest income and net interest yield and provides an attribution of changes in annual results to changes in interest rates or changes in volumes of our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. Average balance sheet information is presented because we believe end-of-period balances are not representative of activity throughout the periods presented. For most components of the average balances, a daily weighted average balance was calculated for the period. When daily weighted average balance information was not available, a simple monthly average balance was calculated.
 
            69 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Table 10 — Average Balance, Net Interest Income and Rate/Volume Analysis
 
                                                                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
          Interest
                Interest
                Interest
       
    Average
    Income
    Average
    Average
    Income
    Average
    Average
    Income
    Average
 
    Balance(1)(2)     (Expense)(1)     Rate     Balance(1)(2)     (Expense)(1)     Rate     Balance(1)(2)     (Expense)(1)     Rate  
    (dollars in millions)  
 
Interest-earning assets:
                                                                       
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 48,803     $ 77       0.16 %   $ 55,764     $ 193       0.35 %   $ 29,311     $ 618       2.11 %
Federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell
    46,739       79       0.17       28,524       48       0.17       23,018       423       1.84  
                                                                         
Mortgage-related securities:
                                                                       
Mortgage-related securities(3)
    526,748       25,366       4.82       675,167       32,563       4.82       661,756       34,263       5.18  
Extinguishment of PCs held by Freddie Mac
    (213,411 )     (11,182 )     (5.24 )                                    
                                                                         
Total mortgage-related securities, net
    313,337       14,184       4.53       675,167       32,563       4.82       661,756       34,263       5.18  
                                                                         
Non-mortgage-related securities(3)
    27,995       191       0.68       16,471       727       4.42       19,757       804       4.07  
Mortgage loans held by consolidated trusts(4)(5)
    1,722,387       86,698       5.03                                      
Unsecuritized mortgage loans(4)(6)
    206,116       8,727       4.23       127,429       6,815       5.35       93,649       5,369       5.73  
                                                                         
Total interest-earning assets
  $ 2,365,377     $ 109,956       4.65     $ 903,355     $ 40,346       4.47     $ 827,491     $ 41,477       5.01  
                                                                         
                                                                         
Interest-bearing liabilities:
                                                                       
Debt securities of consolidated trusts including PCs held by Freddie Mac
  $ 1,738,330     $ (86,398 )     (4.97 )   $     $           $     $        
Extinguishment of PCs held by Freddie Mac
    (213,411 )     11,182       5.24                                      
                                                                         
Total debt securities of consolidated trusts held by third parties
    1,524,919       (75,216 )     (4.93 )                                    
                                                                         
Other debt:
                                                                       
Short-term debt
    219,654       (552 )     (0.25 )     287,259       (2,234 )     (0.78 )     244,569       (6,800 )     (2.78 )
Long-term debt(7)
    543,306       (16,363 )     (3.01 )     557,184       (19,916 )     (3.57 )     561,261       (26,532 )     (4.73 )
                                                                         
Total other debt
    762,960       (16,915 )     (2.22 )     844,443       (22,150 )     (2.62 )     805,830       (33,332 )     (4.14 )
                                                                         
Total interest-bearing liabilities
    2,287,879       (92,131 )     (4.03 )     844,443       (22,150 )     (2.62 )     805,830       (33,332 )     (4.14 )
Income (expense) related to derivatives(8)
          (969 )     (0.04 )           (1,123 )     (0.13 )           (1,349 )     (0.17 )
Impact of net non-interest-bearing funding
    77,498             0.13       58,912             0.17       21,661             0.12  
                                                                         
Total funding of interest-earning assets
  $ 2,365,377     $ (93,100 )     (3.94 )   $ 903,355     $ (23,273 )     (2.58 )   $ 827,491     $ (34,681 )     (4.19 )
                                                                         
Net interest income/yield
          $ 16,856       0.71             $ 17,073       1.89             $ 6,796       0.82  
                                                                         
 
                                                 
    2010 vs. 2009 Variance Due to     2009 vs. 2008 Variance Due to  
                Total
                Total
 
    Rate(9)     Volume(9)     Change     Rate(9)     Volume(9)     Change  
                (in millions)              
 
Interest-earning assets:
                                               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ (83 )   $ (33 )   $ (116 )   $ (740 )   $ 315     $ (425 )
Federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell
    (1 )     32       31       (457 )     82       (375 )
Mortgage-related securities:
                                               
Mortgage-related securities(3)
    (50 )     (7,147 )     (7,197 )     (2,384 )     684       (1,700 )
Extinguishment of PCs held by Freddie Mac
          (11,182 )     (11,182 )                  
                                                 
Total mortgage-related securities, net
    (50 )     (18,329 )     (18,379 )     (2,384 )     684       (1,700 )
                                                 
Non-mortgage-related securities(3)
    (850 )     314       (536 )     65       (142 )     (77 )
Mortgage loans held by consolidated trusts(4)(5)
          86,698       86,698                    
Unsecuritized mortgage loans(4)(6)
    (1,641 )     3,553       1,912       (381 )     1,827       1,446  
                                                 
Total interest-earning assets
  $ (2,625 )   $ 72,235     $ 69,610     $ (3,897 )   $ 2,766     $ (1,131 )
                                                 
                                                 
Interest-bearing liabilities:
                                               
Debt securities of consolidated trusts including PCs held by Freddie Mac
  $     $ (86,398 )   $ (86,398 )   $     $     $  
Extinguishment of PCs held by Freddie Mac
          11,182       11,182                    
                                                 
Total debt securities of consolidated trusts held by third parties
          (75,216 )     (75,216 )                  
                                                 
                                                 
Other debt:
                                               
Short-term debt
    1,248       434       1,682       5,587       (1,021 )     4,566  
Long-term debt(7)
    3,068       485       3,553       6,424       192       6,616  
                                                 
Total other debt
    4,316       919       5,235       12,011       (829 )     11,182  
                                                 
Total interest-bearing liabilities
    4,316       (74,297 )     (69,981 )     12,011       (829 )     11,182  
Income (expense) related to derivatives(8)
    154             154       226             226  
                                                 
Total funding of interest-earning assets
  $ 4,470     $ (74,297 )   $ (69,827 )   $ 12,237     $ (829 )   $ 11,408  
                                                 
Net interest income
  $ 1,845     $ (2,062 )   $ (217 )   $ 8,340     $ 1,937     $ 10,277  
                                                 
(1)  Excludes mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities traded, but not yet settled.
(2)  We calculate average balances based on their amortized cost.
(3)  Interest income (expense) includes accretion of the portion of impairment charges recognized in earnings expected to be recovered.
(4)  Non-performing loans, where interest income is generally recognized when collected, are included in average balances.
(5)  Loan fees, primarily consisting of delivery fees, included in interest income for mortgage loans held by consolidated trusts were $127 million, $0 million, and $0 million for 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
(6)  Loan fees, primarily consisting of delivery fees and multifamily prepayment fees, included in unsecuritized mortgage loan interest income were $130 million, $78 million, and $102 million for 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
(7)  Includes current portion of long-term debt.
(8)  Represents changes in fair value of derivatives in cash flow hedge relationships that were previously deferred in AOCI and have been reclassified to earnings as the associated hedged forecasted issuance of debt affects earnings. 2008 also includes the accrual of periodic cash settlements of all derivatives in qualifying hedge accounting relationships.
(9)  Rate and volume changes are calculated on the individual financial statement line item level. Combined rate/volume changes were allocated to the individual rate and volume change based on their relative size.
 
            70 Freddie Mac


Table of Contents

Table 11 summarizes components of our net interest income.
 
Table 11 — Net Interest Income(1)
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     2008  
    (in millions)  
 
Contractual amounts of net interest income(2)
  $ 17,684     $ 18,907     $ 9,001  
Amortization income (expense), net:(3)
                       
Accretion of impairments on available-for-sale securities(4)
    392       1,180       551  
Asset-related amortization expense, net:
                       
Mortgage loans held by consolidated trusts
    (712 )            
Unsecured mortgage loans
    311       233       52  
Mortgage-related securities
    (272 )     (1,345 )     (311 )
Other assets
    36       30        
                         
Asset-related amortization expense, net
    (637 )     (1,082 )     (259 )
Debt-related amortization expense, net:
                       
Debt securities of consolidated trusts
    1,152              
Other long-term debt securities
    (766 )     (809 )     (1,148 )
                         
Debt-related amortization expense, net
    386       (809 )     (1,148 )
                         
Total amortization income (expense), net
    141       (711 )     (856 )
Expense related to derivatives(5)
    (969 )     (1,123 )     (1,349 )
                         
Net interest income
    16,856       17,073       6,796  
Provision for credit losses
    (17,218 )     (29,530 )     (16,432 )
                         
Net interest income (loss) after provision for credit losses
  $ (362 )   $ (12,457 )   $ (9,636 )
                         
(1)  Our prospective adoption of the changes in accounting standards related to transfers of financial assets and consolidation of VIEs significantly impacted the presentation of our financial results. Consequently, our financial results for 2010 are not directly comparable to our financial results for 2009 and 2008. For more information, see “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES.”
(2)  Includes the reversal of interest income accrued, net of interest received on a cash basis related to mortgage loans that are on non-accrual status.
(3)  Represents amortization related to premiums, discounts, deferred fees and other adjustments to the carrying value of our financial instruments, and the reclassification of previously deferred balances from AOCI for certain derivatives in cash flow hedge relationships related to individual debt issuances and mortgage purchase transactions.
(4)  The portion of the impairment charges recognized in earnings expected to be recovered is recognized as net interest income. Upon our adoption of an amendment to the accounting standards for investments in debt and equity securities on April 1, 2009, previously recognized non-credit-related other-than-temporary impairments are no longer accreted into net interest income.
(5)  Represents changes in fair value of derivatives in cash flow hedge relationships that were previously deferred in AOCI and have been reclassified to earnings as the associated hedged forecasted issuance of debt affects earnings. 2008 also includes the accrual of periodic cash settlements of all derivatives in qualifying hedge accounting relationships.
 
Our adoption of the change to the accounting standards for transfers of financial assets and consolidation of VIEs, as discussed above, had the following impact on net interest income and net interest yield for the year ended December 31, 2010, and will have similar effects on those items in future periods:
 
  •  we now include in net interest income both: (a) the interest income earned on the assets held in our consolidated single-family trusts, comprised primarily of mortgage loans, restricted cash and cash equivalents and investments in securities purchased under agreements to resell (the average balance of such assets was $1.7 trillion for the year ended December 31, 2010); and (b) the interest expense related to the debt in the form of PCs and Other Guarantee Transactions issued by consolidated trusts that are held by third parties (the average balance of such debt was $1.5 trillion for the year ended December 31, 2010). Prior to January 1, 2010, we reflected the earnings impact of these securitization activities as management and guarantee income, recorded within non-interest income on our consolidated statements of operations, and as interest income on single-family PCs and on certain Other Guarantee Transactions held for investment; and
 
  •  we reverse accrued but uncollected interest income recognized in prior periods on non-performing loans, where the collection of principal and interest is not reasonably assured, and do not recognize any further interest income associated with these loans upon their placement on non-accrual status except when cash payments are received. Interest income that we did not recognize, which we refer to as forgone interest income, and reversals of previously recognized interest income, net of cash received, related to non-performing loans was $4.7 billion during 2010, compared to $349 million during 2009 on loans held at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The increase in forgone interest income and the reversal of interest income reduced our net interest yield for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively. Prior to consolidation of these trusts, we did not reverse interest income on non-performing loans for loans held by the trusts, and the forgone interest income on non-performing loans of the trusts did not reduce net interest income or net interest yield, since it was accounted for through a charge to provision for credit losses.
 
See “NOTE 2: CHANGE IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES” for additional information.